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Full text of "Journal and proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Volume 32"

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Journal and proceedings of 4j 

the Royal Society of New South Wales ^^ 



New $ 



Roy 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOttLOQY. 



Idali 




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JOURNAL 

AND 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THS 

ROYAL SOCIETY 

OP 

NEW SOUTH WALES 

FOR 

1898. 

(INCOEPOKA.TBD 1881.) 



"VOXj. xxixii. 



BDITED BT 

THE HONORARY SECRETARIES. 



TKB AUTHORS OF PAPBBS ABB ALONB RBSPONSIBLE FOB THB 8TATBMBNT8 
MADE AMD THR OPINIONS BXPBESSED THEBEIN. 



PUBLISHED BT THB SOCIETY, 5 ELIZABETH 8 TEE ST NORTH. SYDJJEY. 

LONDON AGENTS : 

OEOBOE BOBEBTSON ft Co., 

17 Wabwick Squabb, Patbbbobtsb Bow, Lovdob, E.C. 



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)J 



r 



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NOTICE. 



Thb Botal Sooibtt of New South Wales originated in 1821 as 
the "Philosophical Society of Australasia"; after an inter ml of 
inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated by Act of the Pariiament of New South 
Wales in 1881. 



NOTICE TO AX7TH0RS. 

The Honorary Secretaries request that authors of papers requir- 
ing illustrations by zinco-type or photo-lithographic process, will, 
before preparing drawings, make application to the Assistant 
Secretary for patterns of the standard sizes of diagrams etc to 
suit the Society's Journal. 



NOTICE. 

The Society's Journal for 1898, VoL xxxii., has been forwarded 
to the same Societies and Institutions as enumerated on the printed 
list in Vol. XXX. (viz. 400), with the addition of the Field 
Columbian Museum, Chicago; Royal Society of Sciences and 
Belles Lettres, Gothenburg, and The Editor of Science AhstracU^ 
London. 

It is requested that the volume may be acknowledged by 
returning the Form of Receipt (to be found stitched in the com- 
mencement of the volume) signed and dated in order that any 
delay or mis delivery may be brought to notice. 



EBBATA. 
On page 206 " On the Pinenes of the oils of the genus Eacalyptas," 
lines 14 and 16 from top, for " terpene," read " iwj^ "i line 16 from top 
for "terpenes," read "tarpiiu." 
Page 78, footnote 1, for •* xiii." read " xviii./' 
„ 78, Uae 7. for •• list," read " Ki^a." 

82, line 6, for " pronoonoiation/' read " prwnMnciaiwA.** 



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PUBLICATIONS. 



Tnmsaotionsof the Philosophical Society, X.S.W., 1862^, pp. 374, oat of print. 

VoL I. TnuiBaotions of the Royal Society, N.S. W., 1S67, pp. 88, „ 

, „ 1868, „ 120, „ 

, „ 1869, „ 173, t» 

1870, .,106, „ 

„ 1871,,, 72. „ 

„ 1872, ,,123, „ 

„ 1873, ,,182, „ 

„ 1874, „ 116, „ 

,. 1876. ,,236, „ 

, „ 1876, „ 333, „ 

„ 1877, ,,305, „ 

, „ 1878, ,,324, price 108.6d. 

„ 1879, ,,256, „ 108. 6d. 

1880, „ 391, „ 108. 6d. 

1881, „ 440. .. 108. 6d. 
„ 1882, ,,327, ,. 10s. 6d. 

, „ 1883, „ 324, „ 10b. 6d. 

„ 1884, „ 224, „ 10b. 6d. 

1886, „ 240, „ lOs. 6d. 
, „ 1886, „ 396, „ 108. 6d. 

1887, ,,296. ., 108. 6d. 

1888, „ 390. „ 10b. 6d. 

1889, .,634, „ 10b. 6d. 
„ 1890, „ 290, „ 10b. 6d. 

, „ 1891, „ 348, „ 108. 6d. 

, „ 1892. „ 426, „ 10b. 6d. 

„ 1893, „ 630, „ 10b. 6d. 

1894, „ 368, „ 10b. 6d. 

, „ 1896, „ 600, „ 10b. 6d. 

1896, „ 608, „ lOfc 6d* 

1897, ,,626, „ 10b. 6d. 
„ 1898, ,,476, „ 10b. 6d. 



II. 


>» 


9» 


ft 


III. 


«t 


99 


ff 


IV. 


»f 


99 


ff 


V. 


>l 


ft 


ft 


VI. 


» 


ff 


ff 


VII. 


»> 


ft 


ft 


VIII. 


f» 


ff 


ff 


IX. 


>f 


f» 


•f 


X. Journal and Proceedings 


XI. 


l> 


99 


ff 


XII. 


t* 


9» 


t» 


XIII. 


91 


99 


»» 


XIV. 


>» 


99 


tf 


XV. 


•9 


ff 


f« 


XVI. 


ft 


99 


ft 


XVII. 


91 


99 


ff 


XVIII. 


99 


99 


ff 


XIX. 


»9 


99 


ff 


XX. 


»9 


99 


99 


XXI. 


99 


99 


99 


XXII. 


9» 


99 


99 


XXIII. 


99 


99 


99 


XXIV. 


» 


99 


9* 


XXV. 


»t 


99 


9* 


XXVI. 


99 


99 


99 


XXVII. 


99 


99 


99 


,XXVIII. 


f» 


99 


99 


XXIX. 


«9 


ff 


ff 


XXX. 


99 


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, XXXI. 


99 


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99 


, XXXII. 


99 


99 


99 



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CONTENTS. 



VOLTIME XXXII. 



Paos. 

OincxBS FOB 1888-09 (vii.) 

List of Msxbsbs, &c (ix.) 

Abt. I. — Pbbsidsnt's Addbsss. By Henry Deane, M Jl., V. Inst. C.E. 1 

Abt. n. — "Aeronautics." By L. Hargprave 55 

Abt. III.— Australian Divisional Systems. By B. H. Mathews, l.8. 66 

Abt. IV.— Artesian Water in New South Wales. By J. W. Boultbee 88 

Abt. v.— On the " Stringybark " Trees of N. S. Wales, especially 

in regard to their Essential Oils. By B. T. Baker, f.l.8.. 

Curator, and H. G. Smith, f.cs.. Technological Museum, 

Sydney 104 

Abt. YI. — Current Observations on the Canadian-Australian 
Boute. By Capt. M. W. Campbell Hepworth, r. a. Met soe.. 
F.B.A.8., B.M.8. Aorangi, (Communicated by Mr. H. C 

BuSSell, B.A.,0.X.O.,F.U.8.) 120 

Abt. yn.— Water-spouts on the Coast of New South Wales. By 

H. C. Bussell, B.A., ax.o., f.b.8. {Plates ii. - ix.) 182 

Abt. VIII.— Some Physical Properties of Nickel SteeL By W. H. 
Warren, wh. se.. m. UHt. o.b.. m. Am. soe. as.. Challis Professor of 
Eng^eering, and S. H. Barradough. M.M.B.. amm. m. inai c.b. 

Lecturer in Engineering, University of Sydney 150 

Abt. IX. — Key to the Tribes and Genera of MelanospermeiB, 
(Olive-Green Seaweeds). By Bichard A. Bastow, Fiteroy, 
Victoria. (Communicated by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s.) {Plate L) 109 
Abt. X.— Etude sur les Dialectes de la Nouvelle-Cal^donie. Par 

Julien Bemier. (Communicated by C. Hedley, f.l.8.) ... 178 
Abt. XI.— On the Pinenes of the Oils of the Genus Eucalyptus, 
Part L By Henry G. Smith, f.o.s. , Technological Museum, 

Sydney 196 

Abt. Xn. — Soaring Machines. By L. Hargrave 209 

Abt. XIIL — Native Vocabulary of Miscellaneous New South 
Wales Objects. By Mr. Surveyor Larmer. (Communicated 
by Professor T. P. Anderson Stuart» x.d., by permission of 

the Honourable the Secretary for Lands 228 

Abt. XIV.— Current Papers, No. 8. By H. C. Bussell, b.a., o.ica. 

F.B.8. (Platee X., xi.) 280 

Abt. XV. — The Group Divisions and Initiation Ceremonies of the 

Barkunjee Tribes. By B. H. Mathews, l.s. {PlaUxii.).,, 241 



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(H) 

A»r. XVL— The Blue Pigment of Corals. By Proleseor LiTer- 

fidge, U.A», LL.D., F.R.8. 256 

Abt. Xyn.— Annual Address to the Engineering Section. By 

T. H. Houghton, ^^Moe. M. IbR. OA. M. iMk. ILK I. 

Abt. XVni.— The Narrow Gauge as applied to Branch Bailways 

in N.S. Wales. By 0. 0. Burge, M. imtwOil. xxii. 

Abt. XIX. — ^Engineering Construction in connection with Bainfall. 

By J. I. Haycroft, M. inM. OS. L, amoo. il.im.Soo.CB. ... xxxni. 

Abt. XX. — Some Notes on a Wharf recently built in deep water 
at Dawes* Point* Sydney, N. S. Wales. By Norman Selfe, 
iLiiwt.cB.4o. Lxnr. 

Abt. XXI. — ^Notes on Hydraulic Boring Apparatus. By G. H. 

Halligan, c.b lxxii. 

Abt. XXn.— Lighthouses in N. S. Wales. By H. B. Carleton, 

M.Intt.C.B. LZXXII. 

Abt. XXIII. — A Testing Machine for equal alternating stresses. 

By Prof essor Warren, wh. Be.. M. iBrt. as CYin. 

Abstbaot OF Pboobbdivos i. 

Pbocbbdinob OF thb Enoikbbbino Sbotiok Ix. 

Pboobbdikos of thb Mbdical Sbctiok IxiT. 

Indbx to YoLnin XXXII (xxvii.) 



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S^0pl S^odttj^ at S^tia S^atdY W^hs. 



OB^B^IOEIiS ^a'R 1898-99. 



Honorary President: 

HIS EXCELLENCY THE EiaHT HON. HENKT EOBEET 

VISCOUNT HAMPDEN. 



President: 
G. H. KNIBB8, t.b.a.8. 



PiiOF. ANDERSON STUAET, m .d 
Fbot. THBBLFALL, X.A. 



Vice-Presidents : 

Pbof. T. W. E. DAVID, b.a., y.o.e. 



HENBT DEANE, x.a.,H. Inst. C.B. 



Hon, Treasurer: 
H. G, A. WEIGHT, if.B.c.8. Eng„ l.8.a. Lend. 



Hon. Secretaries: 
J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.fl. I W. M. HAMLET, f.c.s., f.i.c. 



Members of Council : 



C. O. BUBGE»H.liiBt.C.E. 

E. B. DOCEEB, X.A., d.cj. 

J. W. GBTM8HAW, H.Ii»t.C.E. 

H. A. LENEHAN, f.b.a.8. 

Fkof . LIVEBSIDGE,x. A.,LL.D.,F.B.8. 



CHABLES MOOBE, f.l.8. 

E. F. PITTMAN, Abmms. B.aM. 

F. H. QUAIFE, X.A., x.d. 

H. C. BUSSELL, b.a., c.x.o.. f.b.8. 
Pbof. WABBEN, M. Inst. C.E., Wh.So. 



Assistant Secretary t 
W. H. WEBB. 



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FORM OF BEQUEST. 

3E bequeath the sum of £ to the Rotal Society of 

New South Wales, Incorporated by Act of the Parliament of 
New South Wales in 1881, and I declare that the receipt of the 
Treasurer for the time being of the said Corporation shall be an 
effectual discharge for the said Bequest, which I direct to be paid 
within calendar months after vaj decease, without 

any reduction whatsoever, whether on account of Legacy Duty 
thereon or otherwise, out of such part of my estate as may be 
lawfully applied for that purpose. 

[Those persona ivho/eel disposed to benefit the Royal Society of 
New South Wales by Legacies are recommefided to instruct their 
Solicitors to adopt the abore Form of Bequest] 



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LIST OF THE MEMBERS 



|Rogal ^ocietg oi |i(tir <Sout§ M^lts. 



P Members who have contributed papers which have been published in the Society's 
Tnnnotione or Journal ; papers published in the Transactions of the Philosophical 
Society are also included. The numerals indicate the number of such contributions. 

t Life Members. 

Slactad. 

1877 Abbott, The Hon. Sir Joseph Palmer, Knt., K.c.M.a., m.la.. 

Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Castlereagh-street. 
1877 P5 Abbott, W. E.. 'Abbotsford/ Wingen. 
1864 Adams, P. P., ' Oasula,' Liverpool. 

1895 Adams, J. H. M., Athenseam Club, p.r. Bronghton Cottage, 
St. James' Boad, Waverley. 

1^0 P2 Allan, Percy, auoc m. inat. cb., auoc m. Am. soe. c. k.. Engineer-In- 
Charge of Bridge Design, Public Works Depart., Sydney. 
1885 , Allworth, Joseph Witter, District Surveyor, East Maitland. 

1898 ■ Alexander, Frank Lee, Cement Works, Druitt-street. 

1877 Anderson. H. C. L., M.A., 161 Macquarie-street. 

1896 Archer, Samuel, b.b. Boy. Univ. Irel., Resident Engineer, 
Boads and Bridges Office, Mudgee. 



1878 1 

1894 
1894 
1895 

1896 
1895 



1876 
1894 



1898, 
1877 
1875 
1876 



P4 
P3 

P5 



P2 



1895 
1888 

1893! 



Backhouse, Alfred P., m.a.. District Court Judge, ' Melita,' 

Elizabeth Bay. 
Baker, Bichard Thomas, f.l.s.. Curator, Technological Museum. 
{Balsille, George, Sandymount, Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Bancroft, T. L., m.b. Edin., Deception Bay, vi4 Burpengary, 

Brisbane, Queensland. 
Barff, H. E., m.a., Begistrar, Sydney University. 
Barraclougb, S. H., b.e., m.m.e., Aj»oa m. iD.t. cb., Lecturer in 

Engineering, Sydney University; p.r. ' Lansdown,' 80 

Bays water Boad, Darlinghurst. 
Bassett, W. P., m.b.c.s. Eng., George-street, Bathurst. 
Baxter, William Howe, Chief Surveyor Existing Lines Office, 

Bailway Department; p.r. • Hawerby,' Carrington Avenue, 

Stratbfield. 
Beale, Charles Griffin 109 Pitt-street and Warrigal Club. 
Belfield, Algernon H., ' Eversleigh,' Dumaresq. 
Belisario, John, m.d., Lyons* Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Benbow, Clem^t A.. 263 Elizabeth-street. 
Bensusan, S L., 14 O'Connell -street. Box 411 G.P.O. 
Bensusan. A. J., a.b.s.m., f.c.s.. Laboratory, 12 O'Connell-st. 
{Blaxland, Walter, f.b.c.b. Eng., l.b.c.p. £ond., Mount Barker, 

South Australia. 
Blomfield, Charles E., b c.e. Jlfe26., Water Conservation Branch, 

Public Works Department, Sydney. 



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(xii.) 



llacted 

1879 

1897 

1895 



PI 



1891 
1893 

1898 

1876 

1891 

1878 

1896 
1876 
1891 
1898 
1891 



1890 
1880 



1876 
1897 

1894 
1879 

1876 
1897 
1894 
1891 

1879 
1878 

1885 
1888 
1896 

1876 

1898 

1886 

1878 



P8 



PI 
PI 



tBond, Albert, 181 Bell's Chambers, Pitt^reet. 
Boucher, Arthur Sackville, m. iiut. c. e.. Mining Engineer^ 

Equitable Buildings. 
Boultbee, James W., Superintendent of Public Watering 

Places and Artesian Boring, Department of Mines a^ 

Agriculture. 
Bowman, Archer S. c.e., ' Turuwul/ Bedmyre Boad, Burwood. 
Bowman, John, o.b.. Tramway Construction Branch, Public 

Works Department. 
Bowman, Beginald, m.b. et ch. m. Edin., 261 Elizabeth-street and 

George-street, Parramatta. 
Brady, Andrew John, uc k. a q. coil rbju Irel, ue. r. coiu snr. Irel,, 

8 Lyons* Terrace. Hyde Park. 
Brennand, Henry J. W., b.a.. Bank of New South Wales, 

Haymarket Branch, City. 
{Brooks, Joseph, f.b.o.s.. r.K.A.B., ' Hope Bank/ Nelson-street^ 

Woollahra. 
Brown, Alexander, Newcastle. 
Brown, Henry Joseph, Solicitor, Newcastle. 
Bruce, John Leek, Technical College, Sydney. 
Burfitt, W. Fitzmaurice, b.a., b. sc.. 1 Hereford-st., Glebe Point. 
Burge, Charles Ormsby, M.in0t.c.E.. Principal Assistant En- 
gineer, Bailway Construction, ' Fitz Johns,' Alfred-street 

N., North Sydney. 
Bume, Dr. Alfred, Dentist, 1 Lyons' Terrace, Liverpool-st. 
Bush, Thomas James, Engineer's Office, Australian Gas-Light 

Company, 163 Kent-street. 



Cadell, Alfred, Dalmorton. 

Callender. James Ormiston, Consulting Electrical Engineer, 

Equitable Buildings, George-street. 
Cameron, Alex. Mackenzie, Walgett. 
Campbell, Bev. Joseph, m.a., r.o.s., f.c.s., Te Aroha, Auckland, 

New Zealand. 
Cape, Alfred J., m.a. 8yd., ' Karoola,' Edgecliife Boad. 
Cardew, John Haydon, amoc. m. iiut. c.b.. l.8.. 75 Pitt-street. 
Carleton, Henry R., m. imt-c e.. 'Tarcoola,' Nelson-st. Woollahra. 
Carment, David, f.i.a. Ot. Brit, Sc Irel., f.f.a. Bcot.^ Australian 

Mutual Provident Society, 87 Pitt-street. 
{Chard, J. S., Licensed Surveyor, Armidale. 
Chisholm, Edwin, m.k.c.s. Eng., l.b.a. Land., 82 Darlinghorst 

Boad. 
Chisholm, William, m.d. Lond., 189 Macquarie-street, North. 
Clubbe, C. P. B., l.b.c.p. L(md., m.k.c.s. Eng., 195 Macquarie-st. 
Cook, W. E., M.c.s. Melb. TJniv., m. inst ce.. District Engineer, 

Water and Sewerage Department, North Sydney. 
Codrington, John Frederick, m.b.c.s. Eng,, L.R.ca». Lond^t 

L.B.C.P. Edin., ' Helmsdale,' Chatswood. 
Cohen, Algernon A., m.b., m.d. Ahtrd., m.b.c.s. Eng., 71a Dar« 

linghurst Boad. 
CoUingpvood, David, m.d. Lond., f.b.cs. Eng., 'Airedale/ 

Summer Hill. 
Colquhoun, George, Crown Solicitor, 'Bossdhu/ Belmore 

Boad, Hurstvme. 



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(xiii.) 



1876 
1866 
1882 
1891 

1892 

1880 

1886 

1869 

1870 
1891 



1875 

1890 
1876 
1877 
1886 



1878 
1885 



1877 

1894 

1880 

1875 

1879 
1876 

1873 



1894 
1896 

1874 
1896 



PI 



P5 



PI 



P12 



PI 



Colyer, J. U. C, Aastraliaii Gas-Light Co., 163 Kent-street. 
Comrie, James, ' Northfield/ Eurrajong Heights, vi& Richmond. 
Cornwell, Samnel, Australian Brewery, fiourke-st., Waterloo. 
Ooutie, W. H., M.B.. cb. b. Univ. Melb., * Warminster,' Canterbury 

Boad, Petersham. 
Cowdery, George B., Engineer for Tramways; p.r. ' Glencoe/ 

Torrington Boad, Strathfield. 
Coz, The Hon. G^eorge Henry, M.L.C., Mudgee : and Warrigal 

Club, 145 Macquarie-st. 
Crago, W. H., m.b.c.s. Eng., l.b.c.p. Land., 16 College-street^ 

Hyde Park. 
Creed, The Hon. J. Mildred, m.l.c., m.&.c.s. Eng., l.b.o.p. Edin., 

195 Elizabeth-street. 
Croudace, Thomas, Lambton. 
Curran, Be7. J. Milne, Lecturer in Geology, Technical College^ 

Sydney. 



Dangar, Fred. H., c/o Messrs. Dangar, Gedye, & Co., Mer. 
cantile Bank Chambers, Margaret-street. 

Dare, Henry Harvey, h.e., amoo. m. iiut. cb.. Boads and Bridges 
Branch, Pablic Works Department. 

Darley, Cecil West, m. iml c.e., Engineer-in-Chief, Public Works 
Department. 

Darley, The Hon. Sir Frederick, k.c.m.q., b.a.. Chief Justice> 
Supreme Court. 

David, T. W. Edgeworth, b.a., p.o.s.. Professor of Geology 
and Physical Geography, Sydney University, Glebe. Vice- 
President. 

Dean, Alexander, j.p., 42 Castlereagh-street, Box 409 G.P.O. 

Deane. Henry, m.a.. m. imt. cb., Engineer-in-Chief for Bailways, 
Bailway Construction Branch, Public Works Department, 
p.r. •Bianerne,' Wybalena Boad, Hunter's Hill. Vice- 
President. 

Deck, John Feild, m.d. Univ. St. And , l.b.c.p. Lond., m.b.c.8. 
Eng., AsLfield. 

Dick, James Adam, b.a. 8yd., m.d., cm. Edin,, 'Catfoss/ 
Bel more-road, Bandwick. 

Dixson. Thomas, m.b. Edin., Mast. Surg. £difi., 287 Elizabeth- 
street, Hyde Park. 

Dixon, W. A., f.c.s.. Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry of 
Great Britain and Ireland, 97 Pitt-street. 

Docker, Wilfred L., ' Nyrambla,' Darlinghurst Boad. 

Docker, Ernest B., m.a. 8yd., District Court Judge, 'CarhuUen/ 
Gradville. 

Du Faur, E., F.B.a.s., Exchange Buildings, Pitt-street. 



Edgell, Bobert Gordon, Boads and Bridges Office, Wollombi. 
Edwards, George Bizon, Besident Engineer, Boads and 

Bridges Branch, Coonamble. 
Eichler. Charles F., m.d. Heidelberg, m.b.c.8. Eng.,44 Bridge-st. 
ElwelU Paul B., m. luat. c.e.. m.i.e.e. *&. Australian Club. 



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(xiv.) 



Elected 
1879 P4 
1876 
1881 
1892 



1896 
1877 
1896 
1868 
1887 

1889 
1897 

1881 
1891 

1891 



1888 
1894 
1879 
1881 
1881 



1889 

1876 
1879 
1896 

1891 
1876 
1883 



P4 



1859 
1896 
1897 

1886 



Etheridge, Bobert Junr., Curator, Australian Museum. 
Evans, George, Fitz Evan Chambers, Castlereagh-street. 
Evans, Thomas, m.b.c.s. Eng., 211 Macquarie-street, North. 
Everett, W. Frank, Beads and Bridges Office, Muswellbrook. 



Fairfax, Charles Burton, 8, M, Herald Office, Hunter-street. 
^Fairfax, Edward Boss, 8. M. Herald Office, Hunter-street. 

Fairfax, Geoffrey E., 8, M, Herald Office, Hunter-street. 

Fairfax, Sir James B., Knt., 8. M, Herald Office. Hunter-st. 

FaithfuU, B. L., m.d. New York (Coll. Phys. & Surg.) l.r.c.p., 
L.s.A. Lond,, 18 Wylde-street. 

Farr, Joshua J., j.p., ' Cora Lynn,' Addison Bd., Marrickville. 

Fell, David, Public Accountant, Equitable Buildings, George- 
street. 

Fiaschi, Thos., m.d.. m. ch. Univ. Pisa, 149 Macquarie-street. 

Firth, Thomas Bhodes, m. inst cb., Engineer-in-Chief, Existing 
Lines, p.r. ' Glenevin,' Amcliffe. 

Fitzgerald, Bobert D., c.b.. Beads and Bridges Branch, 
Department of Public Works, Sydney; p.r. Alexandra-st.» 
Hunter's Hill. 

Fitzhardinge, Grantly Hyde, m.a. 8yd., District Court Judge, 
'Nunda,' Birch Grove, Balmain. 

Fitz Nead, A. Churchill, E. S. & A. Bank, Ltd., Walker-street, 

North Sydney. 
{Foreman, Joseph, m.b.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Edin., 215 Macquarie- 
street. 

Foster, The Hon. W. J., q.c., 'Thumby,' Enmore Bead, 
Newtown. 

Furber, T. F., Surveyor General's Office, * Tennyson House,' 
145 Victoria-street. 



Gale, Walter Frederick, F.R.A.a. Mem. a.&p. * b.a.a.. Saving^' Bank 
of New South WaJes, Newcastle. 

George, W. B., 318 George-street. 

Gerard, Francis, c/o Messrs. Du Faur & Gerard, Box 690 G.P.O. 

Gibson, Frederick William, District Court Judge, 'Grasmere,* 
Stanmore Boad. 

Gill, Bobert J., Public Works Department, Moruya. 

Gipps, F. B., C.E., 'Elmly,' Mordialloc, Victoria. 

Goode, W. H., m.a.. m.d.. ch. m.. Diplomate in State Medicine 
Dvb.s Surgeon Boyal Navy ; Corres. Mem. Boyal Dublin 
Society; Mem. Brit. Med. Assoc.; Lecturer on Medical 
Jurisprudence, University of Sydney, 159 Macquarie-st. 

Goodlet, John H., ' Canterbury House/ Ashfield. 

Gollin, Walter J., ♦ Winslow,' Darling Point. 

Gould, Albert John, j.p.. Exchange, Bridge-street, p.r. 69 
Boslyn Gardens. 

Graham, James, m.a., m.d., m.b., cm. Edin., m.l.a., 188 Liver- 
pool-street. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(XV.) 



1891 

1898 
1877 

1891 



1880 
1892 
1887 



1882 

1881 
1877 
1884 



1896 
1890 



1891 

1884 

1891 

1876 
1^6 
1891 

1892 
1891 
1879 
1891 

1877 
1894 

1891 



1891 
1884 



PI 



PI 



P6 

P17 

PI 
PI 

P2 

P2 
PI 

P2 



Grimshaw, James Walter, m. in*t. as., m. l MMh. b.. *&. Aostralian 

Club, Sydney. 
Gumey, Elliott Henry, ' Glenavon/ Albert-st • Petersham. 
Gorney, T. T., m.a. Cantab,, Professor of Mathematics, Sydney 

University} p.r. * Clavering/ French's Forest Road, Manly. 
Gnthrie, Frederick H., f.o.b., Department of Agricultore, 

Sydney; p.r. ' Westella/ Wonga-street, Barwo<^ 



Halligan, Gerald H., c.b., ' Biversleigh/ Hunter's Hill. 

Halloran, Henry Ferdinand, l.s., Scotf s Chambers, 94 Pitt-st. 

Hamlet, William M., f.c.s., r.i.c. Member of the Society of 
Public Analysts; Government Analyst, Health Depart- 
ment, Macquarie-street North. Hon. Secretary. 

Hankins, Georee Thomas, m.b.g.s. Eng., * St. Bonans,' Allison 

Boad, Bandwick. 
^Harris, John, ' Bulwarra,' Jones-street. Ultimo. 
^Hargrave, Lawrence, j.p., Stanwell Park, Clifton. 

Haswell, William Aitcheson, m.a.. d. se.. p.R.a. Professor of 
Zoolology and Comparative Anatomy, University, Sydney; 
p.r. St. Yigeans, Darling Point. 

Hay, Alexander, Coolangatta, N.S.W. and Australian Club. 

Haycrof t, James Isaac, m.b. Queen's XJniv, IreU, Amoe. m. inai cb., 

Amoo. M. Cim. Soc C.B.. Abioc. H. Am. Soc C.E.. M.M. * C.B., M. Inat aS. L. L.&, 

' Fontenoy,' Ocean-street, Woollahra. 

Hedley, Charles, r.L.s., Assistant in Zoology, Australian 
Museum, Sydney. 

Henson, Joshua B., o.b.. Hunter District Water Supply and 
Sewerage Board, Newcastle. 

Hickson, Bobert B. P., M.iiut.aB.. Under Secretary, Public 
Works Department, p.r. ' The Pines,' Bondi 

Hirst, George D., 377 George-street. 

Hinder, Henry Critchley,M.B., cm. Syd., Elizabeth-Bt.,Ashfield. 

Hood, Alexander JarTie, m.b.. Mast. Surg. Ola$,, 219 Mac- 
quarie-street, City. 

Hodgson, Charles George, 157 Macquarie-street. 

Houghton, Thos. Harry, m. inst. ce.. m.l Meoh. s.. 12 Spring-street. 

Houison, Andrew, b.a., m.b., cm. Edin,^ 47 Phillip-street. 

How, William F., m. iMt. ce.. m. i. Mech. b., wh. sc.. Mutual Life 
Buildings, George-street. 

Hume, J. E., ' Beulah,' Campbelltown. 

Hunt, Henry A., f. b. Met. soc. Second Meteorological Assistant, 
Sydney Observatory. 

Hutchinson, William, m. nut. o.b.. Supervising Engineer, Bail- 
way Construction Branch, Public Works Department, 
Began Gate. 



Jamieson, Sydney, b.a., m.b., m.b.c.s., l.b.c.p., 157 Liverpool- 
street, Hyde Park. 

Jenkins, Edward Johnstone, m.a., m.d. Oxon,, m.b.o.p., m.b.c.s. 
L.8.A. Lond,, 213 Macquarie-street, North. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(xvL) 



Sleeted 
1887 

1879 

1884 

1867 
1876 
1875 
1878 



1888 
1873 

1877 
1894 

1887 
1898 
1892 

1891 

1874 

189(> 
1892 

1878 

1881 



P2 



P2 



P7 



1877 
1875 

1878 



1874 
1883 
1872 



P48 



Jones, G^rge Mander, ic.b.c.8. Eng,, l.b.o.p. Land,, * Yiwa,' 

Burlington Boad« Homebosh. 
Jones, John Trevor, c.«., * Tremayne,' North Shore. 
Jones, Llewellyn Charles BnsseU, m.l.a.. Solicitor, Sydney 

Chambers, 130 Fitt-stareet. 
Jones, P. Sydney, m.d. Lond,, f.b.cs. Eng,, 16 College-street^ 

Hyde Park, p.r. ' Llandilo,' Boolevard, Strathfield. 
Jones, Bichard Theophilns, m.d. 8yd., l.b.c.p. Edin., * Caer 

Idris,' Ashfield. 
Josephson, J. Percy, amoc. m. iMt. as., « Moppity,' George-street, 

Dnlwich Hill. 
Joubert, Noma, Hunter's Hill. 



Kater, The Hon. H. E., m.l.c, ' Cheverells/ Elizabeth Bay Ed. 
Keele, Thomas William, m. inat. c.b., District Engineer, BEarbours 

and Rivers Department, Ballina, Richmond River. 
Keep, John, Broughton Hall, Leichhardt. 
Kelly, Walter MacDonnell, l.b.c.p., l.b.c.s. Edin., l.f.p.s. 

Qlas., 265 Elizabeth-street. 
Kent, Harry C, Bell's Chambers, 129 Pitt-street. 
Kerry, Charles H., 310 George-street. 
Kid(Ue, Hugh Charles, f. r. M«t. soc., Public School, Seven Oaks, 

Smithtown, Macleay River. 
King, Christopher Watkins, amoc. m. iml c.e., l.3.. Roads and 

Bridges Branch, Public Works Department, Sydney. 
King, The Hon. Philip G., m.l.c, 'Banksia,' William-street, 

Double Bay. 
King, Kelso, * Glenhurst,' Darling Point. 
Kirkcaldie, David, Commissioner, New South Wales Govern- 
ment Railways, Sydney. 
Knaggs. Samuel T., m.d. Aberdeen, f.b.c.s. Irel., 5 Lyons' 

Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Knibbe, G. H., p.b.a.s.. Lecturer in Surveying, University of 

Sydney; p.r. ' Avoca House,' Denison Road, Petersham. 

President. 
Knox, Edward W., j.p., ' Rona,' Bellevue Hill, Rose Bay. 
Knox, The Hon. Sir Edward, Knt., m.l.c, ' Fiona,' New South 

Head Road, Woollahra. 
Kyngdon, P. B., p.b.m.s. Lond., Deanery Cottage, Bowral. 



Lenehan, Henry Alfred, f.b.a.8., Sydney Observatory. 

Lingen, J. T., m.a. Cantah., 167 Phillip-street. 

Liversidge, Archibald, m.a. Cantab., ll.d., f.b.8.; Assoc. Boy. 

Sch. Mines, Lond.; f.cs., f.g.s., F.B.a.s.; Pel. Inst. Chem. 

of Gt. Brit, and Irel.; Hon. Fel. Roy. Historical Soc. Lond.; 

Mem. Phy. Soc, Lond; Mineralogical Society, Lond.; 

Edin. Geol. Soc; Mineralogical Society, France; Cor. Mem. 

Edin. Geol. Soc; Roy. Soc, Toe.; Roy. Soc, Queensland; 

Senckenberg Institute, FranJrfurt ; Society d' Aoclimat., 

MauritiiLs; Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc, Vict; N. Z. Institute; 

K. Leop. Carol. Acad., Halle ajs; Professor of Chemistry 

in the University of Sydney, The University, Glebe ; p.r. 

'The Octagon,' St. Mark's Road, Darling Point. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(xvii.) 



Elected 
18811 
1878 
1897 



1887 
1882 

1884 

1887 
1874 I 

! 
1892 

1897 
1878 
1868^ 

1877 
1891 

1893 1 

1876 

1872 
1876 
1880 P5 



1876 i 

1894 
1882 i 
1888 , P6 



1878 

1880 PI 
1877 
1879 

1869 
1897 



1875 



P7 



Lloyd, Lancelot T., ' Eurotah/ William-street, East. 

Low, Hamilton, 82 Cavendish-street, Petersham. 

Low, John S., Bnsiness Manager, The United Anstralian 

Exploration, Ltd., Equitahle Buildings, George-street, 

Box 474 G.P.O., Sydney. 



MacAllister, John F., m.b., b.b. Melb., * Ewhurst,* Stanmore 

Boad, Stanmore. 
MacCarthy, Charles W., m.d., p.b.c.s. Irel., 223 Elizabeth- 
street, Hyde Park. 
MacCormick, Alexander, m.d., cm. Edin., m.r.c.8. Ejig,, 125 

Macquarie-street. North. 
MacCnlloch, Stanhope H., m.b., cm. Edin., 24 College-street. 
M'Cutcheon, John Warner, Assayer to the Sydney Branch of 

the Royal Mint. 
McDonagh, John M., b.a., m.d., m.b.cp. Land,, f.b.cs. Ireh, 

173 Macquarie-street. North. 
MacDonald, C. A., cb., 63 Pitt-street. 
MacDonald, Ebenezer, j.p., * Eamilaroi,' Darling Point. 
MacDonnell, William J., f.b.a.s.. c/o Mr. W. C. Goddard, 

Norwich Chambers, Hunter-street. 
MacDonnell, Samuel, 12 Pitt-street. 
McDouall, Herbert Crichton, m.b.cs. Eng., l.b.cp. Lond., 

Hospital for Insane, Newcastle. 
McKay, William J. Stewart, b. sc.. m.b.. ch. m., Cambridge-street, 

Stanmore. 
Mackellar, The Hon. Charles Kinnaird, m.l.c, m b., cm. Olas., 

183 Liverpool-street, Hyde Park ; p.r. * Dunara,' Rose Bay. 
Mackenzie, John, t.o s.. Athenaeum Club, Sydney. 
Mackenzie, Bev. P. F., The Manse, Johnston-st., Annandale. 
M'Kinney, Hugh Giffin, m.b. Roy. Univ. Irel., m. in-t. ce.. Chief 

Engineer for Water Conservation, Athenaeum Club, Castle- 

reagh-street. 
MacLaurin, The Hon. Henry Norman, m.l.c, m.a., m.d. Edin., 

L.B.cs. Bdin.t LL.D. Univ. 8t. Andrews, 155 Macquarie-st. 
McMillan. William, ' St. Kilda,' Allison-st., Bandwick. 
Madsen, Hans. F., * Hesselmed House,' Queen-st., Newtown. 
Maiden, J. Henry, p.l.s., Corr. Memb. Pharm. Soc. Gt. Brit.; 

Hon. Memb. Royal Netherlands Soc. (Haarlem); of the 

Philadelphia Coll. of Pharmacy ; of the Royal Soc. of S. A.; 

of the Mueller Botanic Soc. of W.A.; Director, Botanic 

Gardens, Sydney. Hon. Secretary. 
Maitland. Duncan Mearns, District Surveyor, Armidale. 
Manfred, Edmund C, Montague-street, Goulburn. 
Mann, John P., * Kerepunu,' Neutral Bay. 
Manning, Frederic Norton, b.d. Univ. St, And., m.b.cs. Eng,, 

L.s.A. Lond., Hunter's Hill. 
Mansfield, G. Allen, Martin Chambers, Moore-street. 
Marden, John, b.a., m.a., ll.b Univ. Melb., ll.d. Univ. 8yd., 

Principal, Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydnev. 
Mathews, Robert Hamilton, l.s.. Cor. Mem. Antnrop. Inst. 

Gt. Brit, and IreL; Cor. Mem. Anthrop. Soc, Washington, 

U.S.A.; Cor. Mem. Roy. Geogr. Soc. Aust., QueensLuid, 

' Carcuron,' Hassall-street, Parramatta. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(xviii.) 



Klectod 

1888 

1896 



1887 

1873 
1882 
1889 

1892 

1856 

1879 
1876 
1877 

1882 
1877 
1879 

1888 

1887 

1898 
1876 



1898 
1890 

1891 

1873 

1893 



1878 
1888 
1896 

1875 

1883 
1891 
1893 



P3 



P3 



P7 



PI 



Meg^nson, A. M., m.b., cm. Edin,, 243 Elizabeth-street. 
Merfield, Charles J., f.b.a s., Railway Oonstmotion Branchy 

Public Works Department, p.r. ' BranviUe,' Green Bank. 

street, Marrickville. 
Miles, George £., l.b.c f. Lond., m.k.c.8. Eng., The Hospital, 

Bjdalmere, Near Parramatta. 
Milford, F., m.d., Heidelberg, m.b.o.s. Eng., 231 Elizabeth-st. 
Milson, James, ' Elamang,' North Shore. 
Mingaye, John C. H., f.c.s., m.a.i.m.b., Assayer and Analyst 

to the Department of Mines, Sydney. 
MolHson, James Smith, M.iii«t.o.E^Boads, Bridges and Sewerage 

Branch, Department of Pablic Works, Sydney. 
Moore, Charles, f.l.s., Australian Club, p.r. 4 Queen-street, 

Woollahra. 
Moore, Frederick H., Illawarra Coal Co., Qresham-street. 
Moir, James, 68 Margaret-street. 
Morris, William, Fel. Fac. Phys. and Surg. Olas., f.b.k.s. 

Lond., 5 Bligh-street. 
Moss, Sydney, • Ealoola,' Kiribilli Point, North Shore. 
tMuUens, Josiab, f.b.q.s., 'Tenilba,' Burwood. 
Mullins, John Francis Lane. m.a. 8yd„ * Eillountan,^ Challii 

Avenue, Pott's Point. 
Mullins, Qeorge Lane, m.a., m.d. Trin. Coll. Dub., m.d. 8yd., 

F.B.M.S. Lond., No. 293 Elizabeth-street. 
Munro, William John, m.b., cm. Edin., m.b.o.8. Eug., c/o Miss 

Munro, 'Chester,' Stanmore. 
Murray, Lee, m.cb. MeU>., 65 Pitt-street. 
Myles, Charles Henry, ' Dingadee,' Burwood. 



Nangle, James, Architect, Australia-street, Newtown. 

Neill, Leopold Edward Flood, m.b.. ch. m. Univ. 8yd., No. 8, 

Bayswater Houses, Double Bay. 
Noble, Ewald George, 60 Louisa Boad, Longnose Point, 

Balmain. 
Norton, The Hon. James, m.l.c, ll.d.. Solicitor, 2 O'Connell- 

street, p.r. ' Ecclesboume/ Double Bay. 
Noyes, Edward, cb., ' Waima,' Wentworth Boad, Point Piper, 

Sydney. 



Ogilvy, James L., Melbourne Club, Melbourne. 

O'Neill, G. Lamb, m.b., cm. Edin., 291 Elizabeth-street. 

Onslow, Lt. Col. James William Macarthur, Camden Park, 
Menangle. 

O'Reilly, W. W. J., m.d.. m. ch. Q. Univ. Irel, m.b.c8. Eng., 197 
Liverpool-street. 

Osborne, Ben. M., j.p., 'Hopewood,' Bowral. 

Osbom, A. F., A»oc. m. iml c.e.. Public Works Department, Cowra. 

Owen, Captain Percy Thomas, Victoria Barracks, and Aus- 
tralian Club. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(xix.) 



1883 
1878 
1877 
1877 
1876 

1879 

1881 
1890 

1879 
1887 

1891 
1896 

1882 
1897 

1893 



1876 

1865 
1868 
1888 
1881 
1870 
1893 
1885 
1897 
1892 
1884 
1895 
1895 
1882 



P4 



P6 
PI 



PI 



P8 



PI 



PI 



I Palmer, Joseph, 183 Pitt-st , p.r. Eenneth-st, WiUooghby. 
I PatersoD, Hugh, 197 Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 
Pedley, Perceval B., 227 Macqoarie-street. 
i Perkins, Henry A., ' Barangah,' Coventry Boad, Homebosh. 
I Pickbarn, Thomas, m.d., cm. Aberdeen, m.b.c.s. Eng., 22 
I CoUege-street. 
Pittman, Edward F., ajmc. r.8.m.. l.8.. Government Geologist, 

Department of Mines. 
Poate, Frederick, District Surveyor. Tam worth. 
Pockley, Francis Antill, M.B^ M. Cb. Univ. Edin., M.&.C.8. Eng., 

227 Macquarie-street. 
Pockley, Thomas F. G., Commercial Bank, Singleton. 
Pollock, James Arthur, b.b. Boy. XJniv. Ird,» asc Syd», 

Demonstrator in Physics, Sydney University. 
Poole, William Junr., AsM)c.M.in8t.c.B., 87 Pitt-street, Bedfem. 
Pope, Boland James, m.d., cm., f.k.c.s. Edin., Ophthalmic 

Surgeon, 235 Macquarie-street. 
Porter, Donald A., Tamworth. 
Portus, A. B., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Superintendent of Dredges* 

Public Works Department. 
Parser, Cecil, b.a., m.b., Ch. M. Syd., * Yaldemar,' Boulevard, 
Petersham. 



Quaife, Frederick H., m.a., m.d.. Master of Surgery Olas,, 
* Hughenden,' 19 Queen-street, Woollahra. 



{Bamsay, Edward P., ll.d. Univ. St. And., f.b-s.b., f.l.s.. 

Petersham. 
Beading, E., Mem. Odont. Soc. Lond,, Elizabeth-street, Hyde 

Park, p.r. FuUerton-street, Woollahra. 
Beading, Bichard Fairfax, m.b.c.s. Eng., l.b.c.p. Lond., l.d.8. 

Eng., 151 Macquarie-street. 
Bennie, Edward H., m.a. Syd., D. Sc. Lond., Professor of 

Chemistry, University, Adelaide. 
Benwick, The Hon. Sir Arthur, m.l.c, b.a. Syd,, m.d., f.b.c.8. 

Edin., 295 Elizabeth-street. 
Boberts, W. S. de Lisle, cb.. Sewerage Branch, Public Works 

Department, Phillip-street. 
BoUeston, John C, cb., Harbours and Bivers Branch, Public 

Works Department. 
Bonaldson, James Henry, Mining Engineer, 32 Macleay-st., 

Pott's Point. 
Bossbach, William, Assoc. M.inst. C.B., Chief Draftsman, Harbours 

and Bivers Branch, Public Works Department. 
Boss. Chisholm, m.d. Syd., m.b., cm. Edin., Hospital for the 

Insane, Kenmore, Near Gonlburn. 
Boss, Colin John, bjs^ b.b^ Assoc, m. iDst C.E., Borough Engineer, 

Town Hall, North Sydney. 
Boss, Herbert E., Consulting Mining Engineer, Equitable 

Buildings, George-street. 
Bothe, W. H., Colonial Sugar Co., O'Connell-st., and Union 

Club. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(XX.) 



Elected 
1894 



1864 
1897 
1883 



1892 
1856 
1886 

1877 

1890 
1891 



1883 

1879 
1882 

1894 

1882 

1893 
1884 

1891 

1893 
1874 
1875 

1898 

1886 

1896 

1896 
1892 

1882 

1889 
1879 
1891 



PI 
PI 



P2 
P] 

P3 



PI 

P16 
PI 



PI 



Bowney, Georg^e Henry, Aasoo. M. inet. CBL, Water and Sewerage 

Board, Pitt-street; p.r. 'Maryville/ Ben Boyd JELoad, 

Neutral Bay. 
Bossell, Henry C, b.a. Syd., c.m.o., f.b.s., f.b.a.s., F.B.Mei.SoQ. 

Hon. Memb. Boy. Soc., South Australia, Government 

Astronomer, Sydney Observatory. 
Bussell, Harry Ambrose, b.a.. Solicitor, c/o Messrs. Sly and 

Bussell, 3796 George-street ; p.r. < Mahuru,' Milton-street^ 

Ashfield. 
Bygate, Philip W., m.a., b.b. 8yd., 98 Pitt-street. 



Schofield, James Alexander, f.c.s., a.b.s.m.. University, Sydney 
tScott, Bev. William, m.a. Cantab., Eurrajong Heights. 
Scott, Walter, m.a. Oxon., Professor of Greek, University, 

Sydney. 
Selfe, Norman, M. Inst. CE., M. i. Mech. E^ Victoria Chambers, 279 

Gfeorge-street. 
Sellors, E. P., b.a. Syd., f.b.a.8., Sydney Observatory. 
Shaw, Percy William, Asfoo. M. Inst. C.E^ Besident Engineer for 

Tramway Construction ; p.r. ' Leswell,' Torrington Boad, 

Strathfield. 
Shellshear, Walter, M. Inst. C.E., Divisional Engineer, Bailway 

Department, Goulburn. 
Shepard, A. D., Box 728 G.P.O. Sydney. 
She wen, Alfred, m.d. Univ. Lond., m.b.c.s. Eng., 6 Lyons* 

Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Simpson, Benjamin Crispin, M. insuCE^ 118 Phillip-street. 
Sinclair, Eric, m.d., cm. Univ. OUm., Hospital for the Insane, 

Glades ville. 
Sinclair, Bussell, M.i. Mech^. Ac Consulting Engineer, 97 Pitt-st. 
Skirving, Bobert Scot, m.b., cm. Edin., Elizabeth-street, 

Hyde Park. 
Small, J. M., M. intt. C.E.. Chief Engineer, Metropolitan Board 

of Water Supply and Sewerage, 841 Pitt-street, 
Smith, Henry G., f.c.s.. Technological Museum, Sydney. 
tSmith, John McGarvie, Denison-street, Woollahra. 
Smith, Bobert, m.a. Syd., Marlborough Chambers, 2 O'Connell- 

street. 
Smith, S. Hague, Manager N. Z. Fire and Marine Insurance 

Co., 81 Pitt-street. 
Smith, Walter Alexander, M. inst. C.E., Beads, Bridges and 

Sewerage Branch, Public Works Department, N. Sydney. 
Smyth, Selwood, Harbours and Bivers Branch, Public Works 

Department. 
Spencer, Walter, m.d. Brux., 18 Edgeware Boad, En more. 
Statham, Edwyn Joseph, Assoa M. Inst, as., ' Fenella,' Frederick- 
street, Bockdale. 
Steel, John, l.b.c.p., l.b.C8. Edin,, Ch.M.B.S. Univ. MeHb., 3 

Lyons* Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Stephen, Arthur Winboum, l.s., 86 Pitt-street. 
{Stephen, The Hon. Septimus A., m.l.c, 12—14 O'Connell-st. 
Stilwell, A. W., Assoc if. inst. C.E., *Oakstead,' Bussell-st., Bathorst 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(xxi.) 



Kleoted 

1888 P 3 Stuart, T. P. Anderson, m.d. Uniy. Edin., Professor of Physi- 
ology, University of Sydney; p.r. 'Lincluden,' Fairfax 
Boad, Double Bay. Vice-President 

1892 Sturt, Clifton, l.b.c.p. l.b.c.s. Edin., l.f.p.s. Olas., 'Wistaria/ 

BoUi. 

1876 P 1 Suttor, The Hon. W. H., m.l.c, 3 Albert-street, Woollahra. 



1893 

1861 

1896 

1896 

1878 
1879 
1875 
1886 

1896 
1898 
1892 

1886 

1888 

1876 
1896 
1894 

1876 
1894 
1873 
1879 
1877 



1888 
1884 
1896 
1890 
1892 
1896 

1876 



P2 



P5 



PI 



{Taylor, James, B. So^ a. R. & M., Government Metallurgist, 
Adderton Koad, Dundas. 
P 19 Tebbutt, John, F.&.A.8., Private Observatory, The Peninsula, 
Windsor, New South Wales. 

Thom, James Campbell, Solicitor for Railways, p.r. 'CameloV 
Forest Boad, Bexley. 

Thom, John Stuart, Solicitor, Atheneeum Chambers, 11 Castle- 
reagh-street ; p.r. Wollongong Boad, Arncliffe. 

Thomas, F. J., Hunter Biver N.S.N. Co., Susseztstreet. 

Thomson, Dugald, m.l.a., * Wyreepi,' Milson's Point. 

Thompson, Joseph, 159 Brougham-street, WooUoomooloo. 

Thompson, John Ashburton, m.d. Brux., d.p.h. Canib., M.fi.c.s. 
Eng,, Health Department, Macquarie-street. 

Thompson, Capt. A. J. Onslow, Camden Park, Menangle. 

Thow, Sydney, 24 Bond-street. 

Thow, William, M.iMt.c.B., M.LMech.E.. Locomotive Department, 
Eveleigh. 

ThrelfaU, Bichard, m.a. Cantab., Professor of Physics, Uni- 
versity of Sydney. Viee-Pretkdent. 

Thring, Edward T., f.b.c.s. Eng., l.b.c.p. Lond., 225 Macquarie- 
street. 

Tibbits, Walter Hugh, m.b.c.8. Eng., Gunning. 

Tickle, Arthur H., 'Adderton,' Fullerton-street, Woollahra. 

Tidswell, Frank, m.b^ m. Ch, d.p.h^ ' Nugal Lodge,' Milford-st., 
Bandwick. 

Toohey, The Hon. J. T., m.l.c, ' Moira,' Burwood. 

Tooth, Arthur W., Australian Club, Bent-street. 

Trebeck, Prosper N., j.p., 2 O'Connell-street. 

Trebeck, P. C, 2 O'Connell-street. 
JTucker, G. A., Ph. D.. c/o Perpetual Trustee Co., 2 Spring-st. 



Yause, Arthur John, m.b., cm. J&ti%n.,'BayView House,' Tempe. 

Verde, Capitaine Felice, Ing. Cav„ vi& Fazio 2, Spezia, Italy. 

Yerdon, Arthur, Australian Club. 

Vicars, James, iLCB., Assoc M. insuCE., City Surveyor, Adelaide. 

Vickery, George B., 78 Pitt-street. 

Vivian, Walter Hussey, Stock and Share Broker, 100 Pitt-st., 

p.r. 'The Ch&let, Manly. 
Voss, Houlton H., j.p., c/o Perpetual Trustee Company, 2 

Spring-street. 






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(xxii.) 



Btfotod 
1898 
1879 
1891 

1896 
1895 
1891 

1898 
1877 

1883 

1876 



P9 



1876 

1869 
1897 

1866 
1892 

1867 

1881 
1878 
1879 
1892 

1877 
1874 
1888 

1898 
1878 

1883 

1876 

J 878 

1879 
1891 

1890 

1873 
1891 

1876 
1872 

1893 



PI 



Wade, Leslie A. B., c.b., Department of Public Works. 
Walker, H. O., Commercial Union Assurance Co., Pitt-street. 
Walsh, Henry Deane, b.b., t.c. Duft., M. intt c.K, Supervising 

Engineer, Harbours and Bivers Department, Newcastle. 
Walsh, C. R., Prothonotary. Supreme Court. 
Ward, Thomas Wenman, 271 Bourke-street. 
Ward. Thomas William Chapman, b.a., b.c.b. Syd,, ' Birkdale,' 

26 Mansfield-street, Qlebe Point. 
Wark, William, 9 Macquarie Place ; p.r. Karrajong Heights. 
Warren, William Edward, ra., M.D.. M. Ch., Queen's University 

Irel.. M.D. 8yd„ 263 Elizabeth-street, Sydney. 
Warren, W. H., wh sc, M. Inst, ae.. Professor of Engineering, 

University of Sydney. 
WatkinR, John Leo, b.a. Cantab., m.a. 5yd., Parliamentary 

Draftsman, Attorney General's Department, 6 Richmond 

Terrace, Domain. 
Watson, C Kussell, m.rc.s. £n^., 'Woodbine,' Erskineville 

Road, Newtown. 
Watt, Charles, Parramatta. 
Webb, Fredk. William, c.m.o., j.p., Clerk of the Legislative 

Assembly; p.r. ' Livadia,' Chandos-street, Ashfield. 
Webster, A. S., c/o Permanent Trustee Co., 16 O'Connell-st. 
Webster, James Philip. Assoc. M. Inst C.E., L.8.. New Zealand, 

Borough Engineer, Town Hall, Marrickville. 
Weigall, Albert Bythesea, b.a. Oxon,, m.a. 8yd., Head Master, 

Sydney Grammar School, College-street. 
tWesley, W. H. 

Westgarth, G. C, Bond-street ; p.r. 62 Elizabeth Bay Road. 
jWhitfeld, Lewis, m.a. Syd., * Oaklands,' Edgecliffe Road. 
White, Harold Pogson, Assistant Assayer and Analyst, Dept. 

of Mines ; p.r. ' Chester,' Station-street, Auburn. 
JWhite, Rev. W. Moore, a.m., ll.d., t.cd. 
White, Rev. James S., m.a., ll.d. Syd., * Gk)wrie,' Singleton. 
White, The Hon. Robert Hoddle Driberg, m.l.c. Union Club ; 

p.r. * Tahlee,' Port Stephens. 
Wildridge, John, M. I. Mech. E., ftr^ 97 Pitt-street. 
Wilkinson, Rev. Samuel, 'Regent House,' Regent-street, 

Petersham. 
Wilkinson, W. Camac, m.d. Lond., m.b.c.p. Lond., M.B..C.8. Eng,, 

207 Macquarie-street. 
Williams, Percy Edward, Department of Audit; p.r. ' Everley,' 

Drummoyne-street, Hunter's Hill. 
Wilshire, James Thompson, f.l.s., f.b.h.b., j.p., ' Coolooli,' off 

Ranger's Road, Shell Cove, Neutral Bay. 
Wilshire, P. R., p.m., Penrith. 
Wilson, Robert Archibald, m.d. GUls., Mast. Surg. Glas., 2 

Booth-street, Balmain. 
Wilson, James T.. m.b.. Mast. Surg. Univ. Edin,, Professor of 

Anatomy, University of Sydney. 
Wood, Harrie, j.p., 10 Bligh-st.; p.r. 54 Darlinghurst Road. 
Wood, Percy Moore, l.e.c.p. Lond., m.r.c.8. Evg., ' Redcliffe/ 

Liverpool Road, Ashfield. 
Woolrych, P. B. W., ' Vemer,' Grosvenor-street, Croydon. 
Wright, Horatio G. A , m.b.c s. Eng., l.s.a. Lond., 4 York-st., 

Wynyard Squara Hon. Treasurer. 
Wright, John, c.b., Toxteth-street, Glebe Point. 



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1879, 



1878 

1875 
1895 
1875 

1887 

1875 

1875 

1880 
1892 
1888 
1875 

1894 
1888 
1895 



1886 



1875 



1877 
1875 
1877 
1887 
1868 



M 



M 

PI 
M 

M 



PI 
M 
M 



PS 
M 



Toong^ John^ ' Eentyille/ Johnston-street, Leichhardt. 



HONOBABT MbMBBSS. 

Limited to Twenty, 
M.— Becipients of tlie Clarke MedaL 

Agnew, Sir James, K.c.M.a.» iff.D.> Hon. Secretary^ Boyal Sodetj 
of Tasmania, Hobart. 

Bemays, Lewis A., c.m.q., f.l.s., Brisbane. 

Bonsen, Professor Kobert Wilhehn, For. Mem. RS.. Heidelberg. 

EUery, Robert L. J., f.b.s., f.b.a.8.« late (Government Astrono- 
mer of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Foster, Michael, m.d., f.b.b.. Professor of Physiology, Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. 

Gregory, The Hon. Augustus Charles, c.M.a., m.l.c, F.B.a.s., 
Brisbane. 

Hector, Sir James, E.c.M.a., m.d., f.r.s.. Director of the 
Colonial Museum and Qeological Survey of New Zealand, 
Wellington, N.Z. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Daltx>n, k.c.s.i., m.d., c.b., f.b.8., ka., late 
Director of the Boyal Gardens, Kew. 

Huggins, Sir William, k.c.b., d.c.l., ll.d., f.b.s., &c., 90 Upper 
Tulse Hill, London, S.W. 

Hutton, Captain Frederick Wollaston, f.o.b.. Curator, Canter- 
bury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

M'Coy, Frederick, c.M.a., D.Sc, f.b.s., f.o.b., Hon. m.o.p.s., 
C.M.Z.8., Professor of Natural Science in the Melbourne 
University, Government Palaeontologist, and Director of 
National Museum, Melbourne. 

Spencer, W. Baldwin, m.a.. Professor of Biology, University 
of Melbourne. 

Tate, Balph, f.o.s., f.l.b.. Professor of Natural Science, 
University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Wallace, Alfred Bussel, d.c.l. Oxon,, ll.d. Dvhlin, f.b.8. 
Parkstone, Dorset. 



COBBBSPONDINa MbMBBBB. 

Limiied to Twenty-Jive. 
Marcou, Professor Jules, f.o.s., Cambridge, Mass., United 



States of America. 



Waterhouse, F. G. 



Bundock, W. C. 
De SaliB, L. F. 
Kopsch, G. A. 
Long, A. Parry 
Roberts, Sir Alfred 



Obituabt. 

1898. 

Honorary Member 

Ordinary Members, 



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(xxiv.) 

AWAEDS OF THE CLAEKE MEDAL. 

Established in memory of 

Thb latb Bbyd. W. B. CLARKE, m.a., f.b.s.. f.o.s., &c., 

Vice-President from 1866 to 1878. 

To be awarded from time to time for meritorious contributions to the 
Geology, Mineralogy, or Natural History of Australia. 

1878 Professor Sir Bichard Owen, k.c.b., f.b.8., Hampton Court. 

1879 George Bentham, c.M.a., F.&.S., The Boyal Gardens, Eew. 

1880 Professor Huxley, f.b.8.. The Boyal School of Mines, London, 

4 Marlborough Place, ^bbey Boad, N.W. 

1881 Professor F. M'Coy, f.b.s., f.o.s.. The UniTersity of Melbourne. 

1882 Professor James Dwight Dana, ll.d.. Tale College, New Haven, 

Conn., United States of America. 

1883 Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, x.c.m.o , k.d., ph.d., f.b.8., f.l.s.. 

Government Botanist, Melbourne. 

1884 Alfred B. C. Selwyn, ll.d., f.b.8., f.o.s., late Director of the Geo- 

logical Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 

1885 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, k.c.s.i., c.b., m.d., d.c.l., ll.d., &c, 

late Director of the Boyal Gardens, Eew. 

1886 Professor L. G. De Koninck, m.d.. University of Li^ge, Belgium. 

1887 Sir James Hector, k.c.m.q., m.d», f.b.8.. Director of the Geological 

Survey of New Zealand, Welling^n, N.Z. 
1838 Bev. Julian E. Tenison- Woods, f.o.s., f.l.s., Sydney. 

1889 Bobert Lewis John Ellery, f.b .s., f.b.a.s., late Government Astrono- 

mer of Victoria, Melbourne. 

1890 QeoTge Bennett, m.d. Univ. Olas., f.b.c.8. Eng., f.l.s., f.z.b., William 

Street, Sydney. 

1891 Captain Frederick Wollaston Hutton, f.b.s., f.o.s.. Curator, Can- 

terbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

1892 Sir William Turner Thiselton Dyer, k.c.m.o., c.i.b., m.a., b.so., f.b.s^ 

F.L.S., Director, Boyal Gardens, Eew. 

1893 Professor Balph Tate, f.l.s., f.o.s.. University, Adelaide, S.A. 
1895 Bobert Logan Jack, f.o.s., f.b.o.8.. Government Geologist, Brisbane, 

Queensland. 

1895 Bobert Etheridge, Jnnr., Government Palffiontologist, Curator of 

the Australian Muse am, Sydney. 

1896 Hon. Augustus Charles Gregory, c.m.o., m.l.c., f.b.o.s., Brisbane. 



AWABDS OF THE SOCIETY'S MEDAL AND MONEY PBIZE. 

The Boyal Society of New South Wales offers its Medal and Money 
Prize for the best communication (provided it be of sufficient merit) 
containing the results of original research or observation upon various 
subjects published annually. 

Money Priee of £25. 

1882 John Eraser, b.a.. West Maitland, for paper on ' The Aborigines 

of New South Wales.' 
1882 Andrew Boss, m.d., Molong, for paper on the ' Influence of the 

Australian climate and pastures upon the growth of wool.' 



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(XXV.) 

The Socieiy's BroMe MedaZ and £25. 

1884 W. E. Abbott, Wingen, for paper on ' Water supply in the Interior 
of New South Wales.' 

1886 S. H. Coz, F.Q.8.» F.C.8., Sydney, for paper on * The Tin deposits of 

New South Wales. 

1887 Jonathan Seaver, f.o.s., Sydney, for paper on ' Orif^in and mode of 

occurrence of gold-bearing veins and of the associated Minerals. 

1888 Rev. J. £. Tenison- Woods, f.g.s., f.l.b., Sydney, for paper on ' The 

Anatomy and Life-history of MoUusca peculiar to Australia.' 

1889 Thomas Whitelegge, f.k.m.s., Sydney, for ' List of the Marine and 

Fresh-water Invertebrate Fauna of Port Jackson and Neigh- 
bourhood. 
1889 Bey. John Mathew, m.a., Coburg, Victoria, for paper on 'The 
Australian Aborigines. 

1891 Bev. J. Milne Curran, f.o.s., Sydney, for paper on ' The Microscopic 

Structure of Australian Bocks.' 

1892 Alexander G. Hamilton, Public School, Mount Eembla, for paper 

on 'The effect which settlement in Australia has produced 
upon Indigenous Vegetation.' 
1894 J. V. De Ooque, for paper on the ' Timbers of New South Wales. 

1894 B. H. Mathews, l.s., for paper on < The Aboriginal Bock Carvings 

and Paintings in New South Wales. 

1895 C. J. Martin, asc, M.a L<md., for paper on ' The physiological action 

of the venom of the Austnilian black snake {Pseitdeehis 
porphyrictcus), 

1896 Bev. J. Milne Curran, Sydney, for paper on " The occurrence of 

Precious Stones in New South Wales, with a description of the 
Deposits in which they are found." 



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ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

By Henry Deans, m.a., m. inst. c.e. 



IDelivered to the Royal Society ofN, 8. Wales, May 4, 1898.'\ 



Intboduction. — A Presidential Address to a Society like ours 
falls natnrally into three divisions. The first division consists of 
a report on the Society's affairs and doings during the past twelve 
months. The second embodies a statement of important matters 
and work relating to Science done outside the Society and especi- 
ally in this Colony. After this the President, I find, generally 
delivers a thesis or review of some matter which is a topic of 
special interest to himself and the Society, and which circumstances 
or recent investigations render fitting for inclusion in the address. 

The second division is one which may be indefinitely extended. 
It is impossible to make it very short, but it may be left out alto- 
gether. I have endeavoured to adopt a middle course, and 
excluded as much as possible routine work from my account, and 
I have selected those matters only which show novelty or which 
on account of their importance call for special reference. 

With regard to the third division, I was for some time very 
much in doubt, whether, on the hitherto rare occasion of a Civil 
Engineer holding this office, it was not incumbent on me to take 
up some subject pertinent to my profession, but I thought that 
that duty could be well left to the chairman of the Engineering 
Section, who might be looked upon as the official representative 
in this Society of the engineering profession. It seems to me that 
the occasion of the meeting of the Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science in this city, gives an opportunity for 
discussing the merits of science and scientific training which 
ought not to be passed over, and I have therefore, devoted myself 
to those subjects, but at the same time I must ask the men^ibers 
not to overlook the difficulties under which I labour, and not to 

A— May. 4, 1896. 



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2 HBNRT DBANE. 

criticise too severely the form of the matter presented to them, 
when its subject has been dealt with previously, though perhaps 
from other standpoints, by some of the most able scientific writers 
in the English language. 

Parti. — History op the Society during the past year: — 

During the past year the roll of members has undergone 
considerable diminution. On the 30th April, 1897, it was four 
hundred and fourteen, the number of new members elected is 
twelve, while the loss by death (five), resignation or otherwise 
(twenty-four), has amounted to twenty-nine, leaving a not loss of 
seventeen. When it is considered that this means not only a 
diminished income from subscriptions of ^27 6s., but that the 
€k)vernment subsidy becomes reduced by exactly the same amount 
it will be seen to be no trifling matter as affecting our financial 
position. In addition to this the past year has been one of excep- 
tionally heavy expense; not only has the Society had to bear the 
first strain on its finances, due to the interest on the cost of alter- 
ations to our building, the debt on which amounts to £1800, but 
it was found desirable that on the occasion of the meeting in this 
city of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science, a conversazione should be held, involving of course a 
heavy expenditure. Had it not been for the advent of the 
Association the Council would probably have postponed the 
holding of this important reunion till the following year. It is 
evident that during the ensuing year the strictest economy will 
have to be observed. Illustration is a serious item in the cost of 
publishing the Society's journal, and in order to secure at the same 
time both efficiency and economy, it is necessary that authors 
should consult the editors before preparing their illustrations. 
This requirement of our existing editorial regulations must in 
view of the pressing necessity for economy be stringently 
enforced in future. 

It must be a matter of surprise that a Society of this kind is 
not more largely supported than is the case. It should be looked 
upon as an honour and a privilege to be able to co-operate in the 



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ANNTVBBBABT ADDRESS. 3 

vaDgoard of science, and thus help in the progress of civilization, 
which without science would be nothing. There are many resi- 
dents in our community whose position and intelligence would 
make them desirable members, and I cannot help thinking that 
if the reasons for the existence of our Society and the good that 
they might do in aiding progress were clearly before them, they 
would not hesitate to join us. It would be well if members would 
look round and endeavour to bring in those of their friends who 
would be a help to us. 

It has often been put forward as a reason for not joining a 
Society like ours, or by those already members, given as an excuse 
for resigning, that the individual was not able to attend the meet- 
ings and consequently drew no benefit from membership. Every 
one who pays his subscription receives the annual volume in due 
course, but as this is issued only some time after the completion 
of the year and perhaps twelve months or nearly so after the first 
papers have been read, it is a long time to wait for a printed 
account of what is done at the meetings, and by the time it arrives 
interest has possibly somewhat slackened in the particular subjects 
treated. 

We cannot of course expect everybody to act upon purely dis- 
interested motives and pay his subscription to the Society in order 
that the Colony may advance in scientific thought, while he him- 
self gets nothing directly out of it, so that one may consider the 
question from the selfish point of view, and admit for the moment 
that the objection mentioned above is valid. 

^* Abstract" — To meet this objection the Council has thought 
fit to issue an "Abstract" of Proceedings or report of the work 
done at each monthly meeting, as soon after as it is possible to 
compile and get the matter printed, and a copy of this is sent 
round to every member, so that he may know what has been going 
on even if he cannot attend the particular meeting. During the 
past year a concise account of the proceedings at the monthly 
meetings has been prepared and forwarded. For the excellence 
of the work done we are indebted to the ener^ and ability of our 



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4 HBNBT DEANS. 

Honorary Secretary, Mr. Elnibbs. The work so far has cost 
between J&14 and £15, a small amount when we consider the 
result gained, which I think nearly every member will agree is a 
good one. It keeps members at a distance in touch with the work 
of the Society, and it gives an opportunity to those who have 
intended to be present at a meeting and who have been hindered 
from attending of informing themselves as to how the subjects of 
the papers were treated. 

It is gratifying to note the large number of engineers on the 
roll of the Society. The Engineering Section is a very active one, 
and it has proved the rallying ground of the members of the 
engineering and surveying professions. The formation of such 
a section is a very wise and economical way of carrying forward 
the interest of their particular calling, for not only do they gain 
the advantage to be derived from membership in a larger and 
wealthier society, but the Society generally is strengthened by 
such addition and co-operation, both in a literary and financial 
manner. Among other things to the advantage of such members 
is the use of a valuable library and reading room. 

One would like to see other bodies of men bound together by a 
common interest, who have not already formed themselves into 
distinct societies, join our Society and use the opportunities 
afforded. I would suggest, among others the formation of a 
Literary Section. Reference to the objects of the Society as stated 
in the Act of Incorporation, will show that Literature is one of 
them. Art* is another. Formerly there existed an Art Section, 
but unfortunately it fell through. A Literary Section should I 
think, receive wide support, and I take the opportunity of 
recommending the matter to the consideration of Mr. Burge, Mr. 
Hamlet, and Professor David, who, I believe, have been very active 
members of the Home Reading Union, the last named having 
been President for New South Wales. 

Obituary, — The following is a list of the members who have 
died since the last Annual Meeting : — 



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ANNIYEBSABT ADDBESS. 5 

Ordinary Members: 
Elected 1896 Bridge, John 
„ 1890 Eddy, E. M. G. 
„ 1886 Hutchinson, W. A. 
„ 1874 Lloyd, Hon. G. A. 
„ 1884 Wiesener, T. F. 

Mr. John Bridge, one of Sydney's best known and respected 
commercial men, died at Stirling, in Scotland, on the 17th Oct., 
1897. By his death the wool trade of the colony has lost one 
of its most representative men. ' Mr. Bridge, who at the time of 
his death was about sixty-six years of age, was bom at Wollombi, 
near West Maitland. 

Mr. E. M. G. Eddy. — During the year under review there 
passed away a gentleman whose death can only be referred to as 
a national loss, I mean Mr. Eddy, late Chief Commissioner for 
Railways, who died at Brisbane on the 18th July, 1897, at the 
early age of forty-six. Mr. Eddy was bom in July 1851, and 
started his railway career at fourteen years of age, when he entered 
the service of the London and North Western Railway Company; 
he rose step by step, until in 1885 he reached the position of 
Assistant Superintendent. In 1887, owing to the illness of the 
chief officer of the Caledonian Railway, Mr. Eddy was made 
Assistant Manager in that company, an appointment which he 
filled so creditably that in August 1888 he was offered and 
ultimately accepted Ahe Chief Commissionership of the New 
South Wales Railways, on the express stipulation that he should 
be allowed to exercise a free hand. The difficulties which Mr. 
Eddy had to contend with, the abuse to which he was subjected, 
and the jealousy with which his every action was scrutinised and 
commented on, and the indomitable courage with which he faced 
and overcame them are so well known that it is unnecessary for 
me to dwell on them. Suffice it to say, that he brought to a 
successful issue the great work for which he was appointed, 
and placed the railways of this Colony on a footing which 
makes them the one bright example of paying railways amongst 



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6 HBNBT DEANE. 

the great systems of Australasia. The permanent way and 
rolling stock were largely renewed, and the net revenues dur- 
ing Mr. Eddy's term of office increased from £765,000 in 1888 
to £1,322,000 in 1896. Rates and fares were reduced during the 
same period, and the status and pay of the staff were materially 
improved. The Railway Institute is a lasting memorial of the 
constant thought the late Chief Commissioner gave to the welfare 
of the employ^, and when he died he may truly be said to have 
earned the affection of his subordinates, the respect of his colleagues 
and the confidence and gratitude of the people of the Colony to 
to which he ungrudgingly devoted his mature experience and his 
splendid talents. 

Mr. W. A. Hutchinson. — The death of Alderman Hutchinson 
of the Glebe, occurred June 20th, 1897, and the news was received 
with wide spread regret. Mr. Hutchinson was a well-known 
figure in municipal circles. For a number of years he occupied a 
seat in the municipal council of Balmain, and for two years was 
mayor of that borough. For nine years he has occupied the 
position of alderman in the Glebe Council, and during last year 
he filled the mayoral chair. At the time of his death Mr. 
Hutchinson was a vice-president of the Municipal Association of 
New South Wales, and no more energetic municipal worker was 
to be found. It is not surprising to find that his energy led him 
to enter political life. Indeed it would have been surprising had 
it been otherwise. Before the passing of the present Electoral 
Act the deceased gentleman was one of the representatives of 
Balmain in the Assembly, and whenever he spoke in the House 
it was generally felt that he had given deep study and careful 
consideration to his subject. Kindly and warm-hearted in dis- 
position his face was welcomed everywhere, and his many acts of 
private charity gained for him hosts of friends. As a director of 
the Deaf and Blind Institute, and by means of his influence and 
active co-operation with many philanthropic societies and institu- 
tions, he was enabled still further to give vent to that charity 
which was within him. Mr. Hutchinson was a thorough business 



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ANNIVER8ABY ADDRESS. 7 

man, and at the time of bis decease was managing director of the 
Hetton Colliery, in addition to being on the directorate of several 
other coal-mining companies. Mr. Hutchinson always took the 
deepest interest in the work and welfare of the Society. 

The Hon. G. A. Lloyd, m.l.c, is another member of our Society 
whose death during the year I regret to have to record. Mr. 
liloyd was born at Norwood, England, in 1815, and came to New 
South Wales in 1834. He engaged in commercial pursuits and 
was prominently connected with the export of gold and the min- 
ing interests generally, whilst the part he played in settling the 
great strike at Newcastle in 1889 will not soon be forgotten. Mr. 
Lloyd for many years was a notable figure in the political world, 
and served under the late Sir Henry Parkes at different periods 
as Postmaster General, Minister for Mines and Colonial Treasurer. 
In 1887 he was appointed to the Legislative Council, and remained 
a member of that body until his death on the 25th December, 
1897. 

Mr. T. F. WiESENER, another member of this Society, died of 
dilatation of the heart, on the 1st June 1897, after a short illness. 
Mr. Wiesener took a very warm interest in the affairs of the Society 
more especially in regard to the Microscc pical Section, and was 
most regular in his attendance at its meetings. His loss is very 
much regretted by those who knew him. 

Mr. Whitton. — While bringing before the members the names 
of those whose death we have to deplore, it will be a fitting 
opportunity to refer briefly to one who, though not a membei' of 
our Society, was at one time a prominent citizen, and whose career 
was intimately connected with the progress of this colony. I 
refer to Mr. John Whitton, my predecessor in the Government 
service, late Engineer-in-Chief for Railways, who died after a 
comparatively short illness on 20th February last. Had more 
time been spared to me, I should have been tempted to bring 
before the members a short account of the history of railways in 
this colony, with which he was so thoroughly identified. It would 
be interesting to show how Mr. Whitton had to fight and struggle 



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8 HBNBT DEANB. 

from the commencement with ignorance and obstruction — how he 
successfully contended for uniformity of gauge in the colony and 
only failed to persuade the Government to combine with Victoria 
for one standard gauge. At a time when money was scarce he 
still managed to get railways and not horse tramways for the 
country extensions, and adopted a location which, although it 
may not be in all details that which we should choose at the 
present day, . was certainly the wisest in those times, when the 
trafBc over the Blue Mountains was only an average of forty tons 
daily as compared with the present enormous amount. Mr. 
Whitton's steadfastness of character and fearlessness in maintain- 
ing what he considered right, were well known. At the beginning 
of June, 1889, he obtained leave of absence for twelve months 
on full pay and left for England. His health not improving he 
sought his retirement, but he some time afterwards returned to 
Sydney and enjoyed good health till shortly before his death an 
attack of jaundice seized him which eventually proved fatal. 

Papers read in 1897. — During the past year the Society held 
eight meetings, at which the average attendance of members was 
30*5, and of visitors two, the following twenty-four papers were 
read: — 

1. President's Address, by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. 

2. On the Crystalline Structure of Gold and Platinum Nuggets 

and Gold Ingots, by A. Liversidge, ll.d., f.r.s. 

3. A Contribution to the Study of Oxygen at Low Pressures, by 

R. Threlfall, m.a., and Florence Martin. 

4. Determinations of the Orbit Elements of Comet/ 1896 {Per- 
rine), by C. J. Merfield, f.r.a.s. 

5. Apparatus for Ascertaining the Minute Strains which occur 

in Materials when Stressed within the Elastic Limit, by 
W. H. Warren, wh. Sc, m. Am. Soc. c.e., m. inst. c.e. 

6. The Theory of the Reflecting Extensometer of Prof. Martens, 

by G. H. Knibbs, P.R.A.S. 

7. The Burbung, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Murrumbidgee 

Tribes, by R. H. Mathews, l.s. 



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ANNIVBB8ABY ADDBBSS. 9 

8. Totemic Divisions of Australian Tribes, by R. H. Mathews, l.s. 

9. On the Saccharine and Astringent Exudations of the " Grey 
Gum/' EucalypttM punctata^ DC, and on a Product allied to 
Aromadendrin, by Henry G. Smith, p.c.s. 

10. On the Essential Oil and the presence of a Solid Camphor or 
Stearoptene in the "Sydney Ve^^etuimt,** Eucalyptus piperita 
Sm., by R. T. Baker, p.l.s. and Henry G. Smith, p.c.s. 

11. Outburst of Springs in Time of Drought, by W. E. Abbott, 
Wingen. 

12. The Possibility of Soaring in Horizontal Wind, by Lawrence 
Hargrave. 

13. On a Oordierite-bearing Rock from Broken Hill, by J. CoUett 

Moulden, A.R.S.M., p.g.s. (Communicated by £. F. Pittmann, 

A.R.S.M.) 

14. Icebergs in the Southern Ocean, No. 2, by H. C. Russell, 

B.A., C.M.G., P.R.S. 

15. Aurora Australis, by H. C. Russell, b.a., c.h.g., f.r.s. 

16. On " Grey Gum " (Eucalyptus punctata, DC.) particularly in 
regard to its Essential Oil, by R. T. Baker, F.L.S., and Henry 
Smith, F.cs. 

17. The Effect of Temperature on the Tensile and Compressive 
Properties of Copper, by Professor Warren, m inst. c.E., M.Am. 
SocCE., wh. sc., and S. H. Barraclough, m.m.e. 

18. Notes on the Basalts of Bathurst and the Neighbouring 
Districts, by W. J. Clunies Ross, b.Sc, p.g.s. (Communicated 
by J. H. Maiden, p.l.s.) 

19. On the Steady Flow of Water in Uniform Pipes and Channels, 
by G. H. Knibbs, P.R.A.S. 

20. Experimental Investigation of the Flow of Water in Uniform 

Channels, by S. H. Barraclough, b.e., m.m.e., and T. P. 
Strickland, b.e. 

21. Notes on Myrticolorin, by H. G. Smith, p.cs. 

22. A Second Supplement to a Census of the Fauna of the Older 

Tertiary of Australia, by Professor Ralph Tate, p.g.s., Hon. 
Memb., with an appendix on Corals by John Dennant, p.g.s. 



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10 HSNBT DEANB. 

23. Note on mutilatioDS practised by Australian Aborigines, bj 
T. L. Bancroft, m.b. Edin. 

24. Note on the Occurrence of a Nickeliferous Opal near Tam- 
worth, by D. A. Porter. 

Sectional Meetings. — The Engineering Section held eight meet- 
ings, at which the average attendance of members and visitors was 
20-5 ; the following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Annual Address to the Engineering Section, by C. O. Burge, 

M. Inst. C.E. 

2. The Unification of the Methods of Testing Materials Used in 

Construction, and the Precautions Necessary in the Accurate 
Determinations of the various Coefficients of Strength and 
Elasticity, by W. H. Warren, M.in8t.c.E.,M.Am.Soc.c.B., whSc. 

3. Note on the Cubic Parabola applied as a Transition to Small 

Tramway Curves, by C. J. Merfield, p.r.a.s. 

4. Low Lift Pumping Machinery, by T. H. Houghton, a.h.i.c.e., 

M.I.M.E. 

5. Belt Power Transmission with some new form of Brake 

Absorption Dynamometer, by Herbert E. Ross. 

6. Tramway Rail Joints, by G. R. Cowdery. 

7. Light-houses in New South Wales, by Henry R. Carleton, 

M. Inst C.E. 

The Medical Section held four meetings at which the following 
papers were read : — 
L On fifteen cases of Intussusception, by Dr. C. P. B. Clubbe. 

2. On a Clinical and Pathological Criticism of Hereditary Ataxy 

and Locomotor Ataxy, by Dr. G. E. Rennie. 

3. A note on the application of the Tuberculin test to Bovine 

Animals, by Dr. J. Ashburton Thompson. 

4. Some recent work on the Cerebellum, its connections and 

functions, by Dr. George E. Rennie. 
6. Notes on an interesting Cerebral case, by Dr. J. Adam Dick. 

Reception, — A "Reception" was held at the Royal Society's 
House, No. 5j Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday, July 14th. 
1897. Mr. Henry Deane, m.a., m. inst c.e., President, presided, 



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ANNIVEB8ARY ADDRESS. 1 1 

The hall and staircase were decorated with ferns, palms, etc., 
kindly supplied by the Director of the Botanic Gardens. About 
one hundred and fifty guests wore present ; there were but few 
exhibit's, inasmuch as the principal object of the gathering was to 
bring members and their friends together for a kindly chat and 
smoke. 

Conversazione. — A Conversazione was held at the University, 
on the 14th January, 1898, in honour of the meeting of the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Upwards of seven hundred members and guests were present. 

Financial Position. — The Hon. Treasurer's Financial Statement 
shows a balance of ^42 2s. Id. carried forward, but against this 
is an outstanding account of £64 15s., which leaves the Society 
about £22 behind hand. In connection with this, however, it 
will be noticed that the cost of printing and publishing the Society's 
Journal for 1897 (Vol. xxxi.) viz., £384 7s. 6d. exceeds that of 
the previous year by upwards of £50, and is the most expensive 
volume yet issued, notwithstanding the fact that every possible 
effort has been used to keep down the cost of illustrations. 

Library. — The amount expended on the Library during the 
past year was £151 Os. lid., viz., £80 8s. 4cl. for books and 
periodicals, £58 2s. 7d. for binding, and £12 10s. for pine shelv- 
ing. Amongst other works purchased to complete series, may be 
mentioned the Transactions of the Ethnological Society, London, 
Vols. I. - VII., and the Journal of the same Society, Vols, i., ii. 

Exchanges. — Last year we exchanged our Journal with four 
hundred and one kindred Societies, receiving in return two hundred 
and forty-one volumes, one thousand four hundred and fifteen 
parts, eighty-three reports, eighty-seven pamphlets, ten hydro- 
graphic charts, a total of one thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
nine publications. The following institution has been added to 
the exchange list : — Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, U.S.A. 

Original Researches. — In response to the offer of the Society's 
medal and grant of £25 for the best original paper on the follow- 
ing subjects : — 



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12 HBMBT DEAME. 

Series XVI.— Tb be sent in not later than Ut May 1897. 
' No. 52 — On the Embryology and Development of the Echidna 
or Platypus. 
No. 53 — The Chemical Composition of the Products from the 

so-called Kerosene Shale of New South Wales. 
No. 54 — On the Mode of Occurrence, Chemical Composition, 
and Origin of Artesian Water in New South 
Wales. 
No paper was sent in on any of the subjects. 

With regard to the following, for which the Society offers its 
medal and ten guineas : — 

Series XVII.— ^o be sent in not later than 1st May, 1898. 
No. 55 — On the Iron-ore deposits of New South Wales. 
One paper has been received, but has not yet been adjudicated 
upon. 

The subject for which the Society now offers its medal and ten 
guineas is as follows : — 

Series XVIII. — To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1899. 
No. 56 — On the Life History of the Australasian Teredo, 
and of other species of Australasian wood-eating 
IVlarine Invertebrata, and on the means of pro- 
tecting timber from their attack. 

I now come to the second part of my address and submit a 
statement of some of the more important discoveries and events 
of the past year. In this account I have deemed it advisable to 
leave out medical practice entirely, and to confine myself chiefly 
to engineering, general mechanical and mining, and to natural 
science. 

Part II. — Brief note op work done outside the Society dur- 
ing THE PAST YEAR, ESPECIALLY WITH REGARD TO AUSTRALIA. 

Railway Commissioners^ Departmsnt. — The following matter is 
worthy of special note. A fresh class of new stock — corridor 
cars — was added during the year, and the first instalment of the 
Australian consolidated engines, which are the most powerful in 
Australia, has arrived. This engine embodies the best qualities 



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ANNIVBBSABT ADDBBSS. 13 

of English and American engines, the weight of engine and tender 
together is one hundred and seven tons. 

In the Permanent Way Branch attention is being paid to the 
improvement of grades and curves. A fact particularly worth 
mentioning is the completion of the renewal, in steel, of the timber 
approach to the Wagga Bridge. The process by which this was 
done was described in Mr. Shellshear's paper before Section H. of 
the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 

City Railway. — This important question has been advanced 
during the year. The question was referred by the Premier to a 
Royal Commission consisting of members of the Parliamentary 
Standing Committee on Public Works. After a lengthy inquiry 
the Commission recommended a scheme by which the terminus 
would be in the north-west corner of Hyde Park with its front to 
St. James' Road. Parliament afterwards referred the question 
to the Parliamentary Standing Committee, who after taking 
further evidence confirmed the previous recommendation. It 
may be hoped that the question is now settled, that a bill may be 
introduced to authorise the railway and that it may then become 
law. 

An important step towards improving the means of transit in 
the city of Sydney is now being carried out by the construction 
of an electric tramway on the overhead system from the Circular 
Quay to the Railway Station at Redfern, and thence along Harris 
Street to the intersection of John Street, Ultimo. The power 
house is being erected at Ultimo between William-Henry and 
McArthur Streets, and adjacent to the Darling Harbour railway 
sidings, and will serve the purpose of containing not only the 
generating plant for the above mentioned tramway,, but for the 
electrical power required for the conversion of the whole of the 
present steam system to electricity. The power plant will consist 
of four sets of horizontal cross-compound Corliss, surface-condens- 
ing engines, each of 1,200 H.P., and direct coupled to four 850 
K. W. generators mounted between the two cranks. These are 
by far the largest generators in the Southern Hemisphere* 



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14 HENBT DEAHE. 

Ground has been provided for a further extension up to 20,000 
n.P. The feeder cables are being laid in bitumen casings of the 
Callender- Webber type. The overhead wiring will be carried on 
solid drawn steel poles of the Mannesmann type, with ornamental 
wrought and cast iron brackets and mountings. These will for 
the most part stand in the centre of the roadway between the tracks. 
It is interesting to note that the Central London Electric Rail- 
way now under construction is being furnished with engines and 
generators of the same make and character as those already 
adopted here, and further that the Engineers have decided to 
use the Edison-Brown plastic bond for the rails. 

High Carbon Rails. — Considerable trouble having been experi- 
enced owing to the softness of some of the tramway rails supplied 
a few years ago, I made an endeavour in 1896 to obtain from 
England a supply of rails in which the proportion of carbon was 
similar to what had actually been used in the United States, but 
I was not successful. On the advice of Sir John Fowler, a modified 
specification was agreed upon to which the rails were ordered. 

Last year in consequence of the breaking up of the rail-pool, a 
favourable offer was received to supply American rails to a new 
specification prepared by me, and this was accepted. 

The Railway Commissioners and the Public Works Department 
ordered 2,000 tous of 80 ft)s. and 2,000 tons of 60 lbs. rails respec- 
tively. Since then English rails have been tendered for to the 
same specification. The proportion of carbon, etc. in the rails 
supplied has been as follows : — 

~ ilphur Phosphoms 
ximum. maximun. 

•08 -08 
•08 •OS 

Harbours and Rivera Branch. — Mr. C. W. Darley, Engineer- 
in-Chief for Public Works, has furnished me with the following 
information : — A wharf wall is now being constructed round 
Darling Island of large concrete blocks. Hitherto all our wharves 
in Sydney have been built of either iron or timber, but seeing 





Carbon. Silicon. 


Manfiranese. ^ 


1896 


•45 -•SS, 83fts. -10 --06 


•95- -85 


1897 


•50 --60, 80 5)s. ) ,^ ,- 
•40 --50, 60 lbs. '^^-'^^ 


•80-100 



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ANNIVEBSABT ADDBE8S. 15 

that a good sound rock bottom was obtainable round Darling 
Island, at depths of from twenty-eight to thirty feet, it was 
decided to use concrete. The first cost will be higher, but when 
maintenance and reconstruction of a timber wharf in twenty-five 
or thirty years are taken into account, a large saving will be 
ultimately effected, besides which the design will admit of the use 
of heavy travelling cranes along the frontage. The blocks are all 
moulded on the island near the water's edge, the concrete being 
mixed in the proportion of four cement, nine sand, twenty-four 
broken sandstone, besides which large pieces of sandstone up to 
five and six cwt. are embedded in the concrete. The size of the 
blocks runs from seven feet by six feet by six feet to twelve and 
a quarter feet by six feet by six feet, and they weigh from fifteen 
to twenty-eight tons. Two holes for introducing lifting bars are 
moulded in each block. A steam derrick crane placed on a punt, 
capable of lifting about forty tons, is then used for handling the 
blocks. 

At Jervis Bay a new lighthouse and full set of keeper's quarters 
are now being built at Point Perpendicular, the material used 
throughout for the walls being concrete moulded into blocks each 
to the exact shape required, and afterwards set in position. 

Eoctd Bridges. — Among the numerous contracts let during 1897 
by the Bridges Branch, under charge of Mr. Darley, the most 
important was that for the timber-truss bridge over the Macleay 
Kiver at Kempsey. This consists of four one hundred and fifty 
feet timber trussed spans on cylinder piers, with timber approaches, 
the contract cost being £18,300. The deck is twenty-two feet 
six inches wide between kerbs. This bridge is interesting for 
having the largest spsuis and being altogether by far the largest 
timber bridge in the Australian colonies. 

During the year, the strength of the tension joint now employed 
in railway and road timber truss bridges in this colony has been 
tested at Oockatoo Dock, in a machine specially designed for this 
work by Mr. 0. W. Darley, capable of exerting a pull of two 
hundred and twenty tons. The results of the tests made of full 



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16 HENBT DBANB. 

sized joints with ironbark flitches, twelve by five inches, and fooiv 
teen by seven inches, prove the highest efficiency for this joint. 

Monier System of combined concrete and steel construction. — 
It is well known that the above system has been somewhat exten- 
sively used for the construction of the sewerage aqueducts over 
Johnston's and White's Creeks. In August last year the arches 
were put to test, and it is satisfactory to find that the structures 
in both cases were entirely successful 

Purification of Sewerage, — Mr. Davis, Engineer for Sewerage 
Oonstruction has furnished me with the following particulars : — 
In sanitary engineering perhaps the most important and certainly 
the most interesting development, is in the purification of sewage. 
When cheap land was available, conveniently situated, preference 
has been given to broad irrigation. When the area was sufficient^ 
the soil suitable and the management good, excellent results were 
obtained, but where circumstances were not favourable, some 
other methods of dealing with the sewage requiring less land had 
to be looked to. Among these is the method known as precipita- 
tion and filtration. The sewage is allowed to flow into settling 
tanks, after in most cases having had lime, or some other chemical 
added to facilitate the precipitation of the suspended matter. The 
effluent passes from the settling tanks to the land, or into com- 
paratively small artificial filters, composed of sand, breeze or 
other substances having the capacity of absorbing oxygen and 
allowing large quantities of sewage to pass through it without 
becoming clogged. In both these cases a good effluent can with 
care be obtained, but the working expenses are high. 

The chief trouble and expense in the last named process has 
always been the treatment and disposal of the sludge taken from 
the precipitating tanks. In places near the sea-board it has been 
punted out to sea, but in other localities it has become necessary 
to use machinery to extract the liquid from the sludge, after 
which the latter has been either carted away for use by the sur- 
rounding farmers or disposed of in a destructor. It has been felt 



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ANinVBBSABT ADDBBB8. 17 

for some time that any means of treating sewage without the 
production of sludge, would be hailed by sanitary engineers as a 
great advance on present methods. 

Experiments have recently been made at Exeter, London and 
other places. At Exeter the Borough Engineer has constructed 
closed tanks, large enough for receiving a portion of the sewage 
from the town. The sewage flows into the tanks in an unscreened 
condition and remains there from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, 
according to the extent to which it is diluted by rain-water. 
When leaving these *' Septic Tanks" (as they are called) it is 
found that an extraordinary change has taken place in the sewage. 
All the solids are broken up into very minute particles, the bulk 
becoming soluble. Distinct chemical changes have taken place 
by the aid of anaerobic germs, which under favourable conditions 
are present in the tank. 

Running large quantities of sewage into tanks from which light 
and air are carefully excluded, would, one would think, have the 
effect of creating a great nuisance, but such is not the case. The 
gases generated in the tanks undergo chemical decomposition, so 
that when they are liberated they are not obnoxious. There is 
no sulphuretted hydrogen present, and the greater part of the 
gases which are given off are nitrogen, hydrogen and methane or 
marsh gas. The sewage when discharged from the tanks is a grey 
liquid with only a slight musty smell, and in such a condition as 
to be readily purified by filtration, either by passing it direct over 
land, or through filters of breeze or sand. The experiments 
show that typhoid germs have little chance of passing through 
the tank without being destroyed, and should they do so, they are 
in such a weak condition that they afterwards dia 

Although the tanks are large, having a capacity for at least 
twenty-four hours average dry weather flow, no settlement takes 
place in them, and after twelve months use, only a thin layer of 
mineral ash was found. Should the method prove to be as suc- 
cessful as it bids to do, the whole difficulty of the sludge is over- 
come in a very simple way. The tanks at Exeter have been 

B— lUy 4, 1888. 



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18 HEMBT DBANS. 

working with most satisfactory results for upwards of a year, and 
now the town council has applied to the Local Government Board 
for power to treat the whole of the sewage on the same principle. 

At the London outfall works very exhaustive experiments have 
been made with the effluent after it leaves the precipitating tanks. 
The liquid is allowed to remain in contact with the filtrant for a 
given period ; it is next drained off as quickly as possible, so as to 
induce oxygen to enter the body of the filter, and give the latter 
a period of rest before fresh sewage is run in. These experiments 
show that it is possible to purify sewage to a sufficient extent to 
admit of its being turned into a flowing stream, after pasing it 
through breeze filters at the rate of 1,000,000 gallons per 
twenty-four hours per acre of filter. In other words the experi- 
ments prove that one acre of properly constructed filter beds will 
treat the sewage from 20,000 persons after it has passed through 
the septic tank, against say two hundred and fifty persons per 
acre if passed over land on broad irrigation lines. 

The Minister for Public Works has approved of the Sewerage 
Branch of the Department of Public Works (on the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Davis, the Engineer for sewerage) erecting works for 
treating the sewage from the Rookwood Asylum on these improved 
methods. Should they prove to be a success it is intended to 
adopt them at two other places. The tanks and filters are arranged 
so that the whole process is practically automatic, the different 
valves being opened and closed, when required, by the aid of the 
sewage. 

Low Level Sewerage of Sydney, — The Sewerage Branch of the 
Public Works Department has also during the last twelve months 
had to decide the best method of raising the sewage from the low 
level areas, on the foreshores of the harbour extending from 
Balmain to Rose Bay, to the gravitation sewers, as the sewerage 
system could not be deemed complete until this was done. The 
ffrst area dealt with was the Double Bay valley, and it was decided 
here to use Shone's compressed air system. It was originally 
intended to drive the air compressors by steam, but seeing that 



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ANNIYEBSABY ADDBESS. 19 

the Railway Construction Branch of the Department of Public 
Works was providing an extensive electrical plant at the Rush- 
cutter's Bay Power House for the Rose Bay tramway, it was 
arranged to obtain the required power from the same source. The 
lifting plant is practically automatic, the motors being stopped 
and started as the air pressure varies. 

The question of dealing with other larger and more important 
low lying levels has also been considered and the relative merits 
of the Shone system, hydraulic power and pumps driven by 
electric motors fully investigated. The Railway Commissioners 
undertook to supply what electrical power was required from the 
Pyrmont Power Station at one penny per Board of Trade unit, 
and at this cheap rate the conclusion arrived at was that from 
every point of view electrical power would be preferable. 

From the calculations made it would appear that the relative 
cost per effective horse power hour would be as follows : — Electri- 
cally driven pumps r84d.; hydraulic system l-85d.; compressed 
air 216d. 

Sydney can claim to be the first city where electricity has been 
adopted for raising sewage. There will be nineteen stations, all 
controlled from the central station at Darling Harbour, the level 
of the water in the pump wells will be automatically signalled, so 
that the attendant at the head station will know when to stop 
and start the pumps. 

Telegraphs and Telephones, — Mr. P. B. Walker, Engineer-in- 
Chief to the Telegraph Department, informs me that the most 
important construction work carried out by the Postal and Electric 
Telegraph Department in the city during the past twelve months, 
has no doubt been the extension of the underground tunnels and 
the laying of telegraph and telephone cables in them, which has 
already been the means of relieving the streets of a great number 
of poles and overhead wires. There are four main lines of tunnels 
branching out from the General Post Office to the north, south, 
east and west The longest branch is that to the south, which 



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20 HENBT DXANB. 

extends along Pitt-street as far as the Railway Station, and is 
intended to carry the main telegraph lines clear of the city, as 
well as the telephone lines connecting the southern portion of 
the city with the Central Telephone Exchange. The northern 
branch extends from the General Post Office to the Sydney 
Exchange at the corner of Pitt and Bridge-streets, and serves this 
important business centre with telephonic communication. The 
eastern branch runs vik Moore and Castlereagh-streets to the top 
of King-street, where it will connect with an iron pipe conduit 
system, which carries it through to the Edgecliffe Post Office. 
The western branch extends from the Oeneral Post Office, Pitt- 
street side, along Martin Place, Barrack, Clarence and King- 
streets. 

The tunnels, which are built of brick, are for the most part five 
feet six inches high and four feet six inches wide and terminate 
at the General Post Office in a large vault nine feet three inches 
high and nine feet wide, extending under the footpath of the Pitt 
street frontage. This vault is used for arranging the cables so 
that they may be brought into the cable terminal room in regular 
and proper order. It is here also that the cables are opened out, 
tested and prepared for laying. The tunnels are accessible at 
diffisrent points by means of shafts and man holes, covered on the 
street level with ornamental iron covers perforated so as to act as 
ventilators. Galvanized iron racks are provided in the tunnels 
for supporting the cables. 

A considerable quantity of cable has already been laid in the 
tunnels, and the work is still going on. The cables are of the 
latest type with paper insulation and arranged for metallic cir- 
cuits, each containing forty to fifty-two conductors. These con- 
ductors, which are of copper. No. 22 S.W.G., are each wrapped in 
chemically dried paper laid on spirally, forming what is termed a 
core, and each two cores are then laid up in a loose strand and 
afterwards laid up in groups of four. The whole of the cores are 
covered with a coating of cold drawn lead, which is protected by 
means of tarred jute. 



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ANNIYEBSABT ADDBBSS. 21 

Another work that was carried out daring the past year was 
the establishing of a trunk telephone line between Sydney and 
Newcastle, a distance of about one hundred miles. A special 
line of thirty feet ironbark poles has been erected between 
McMahon's Point, North Sydney and Newcastle, for the most 
part following the railway line. Hard drawn copper four hundred 
pounds per mile has been used as a metallic circuit, with trans- 
positions or crossings of the wires on the American system at 
every quarter of a mile. This is working most satisfactorily and 
is a great public convenience. The work of connecting Sydney 
and Bathurst by telephone has been started, and a communication 
between Sydney and Goulbum is also contemplated. 

Whilst dealing with the matter of telephone lines generally it 
may be of interest to point out the fact, that a large number of 
wire fences in the country districts are being used by squatters 
and others for telephonic purposes. Thousands of miles of wire 
fences are connected chiefly for the purpose of giving communica- 
tion between homesteads and out-stations on the various runs, and 
also connecting homesteads with the local post offices. These 
communications have been found to work very well in dry weather, 
but in wet weather the working is much impaired in consequence 
of the defective insulation. 

The total number of telephones at present in use by the Postal 
and Electric Telegraph Department in New South Wales is 7,514, 
being an increase since the reduction of rates to subscribers on 
the 1st May 1896 of 4,100 telephones. The total number of 
miles of telegraph line is 12,745, and the total number of miles of 
wire erected 33,072. 

As the use of electricity is likely to form so important a feature 
in the progress of the colony, it will be interesting to know some- 
thing of the advance that has taken place throughout the world. 
Mr. Elwell has kindly pointed out to me that the following are 
the principal lines of progress in traction and lighting during the 
past year: — 



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22 HBNBT DBANE. 

1. Oentralisatioii of plants, increaaiDg size of units and reducing 
working expenses. 

2. Ck)mbination of traction with lighting in order to keep up 
the load to a good average throughout the twenty-four hours. 

3. Three-phase primary generation at high tension (5,000 volts.) 
with sub-stations where the pressure is reduced to any desired 
extent, and the current distributed locally. This effects a great 
economy in feeders, both leads and returns. It is adopted at the 
Gentral London Railway, the new stations in New York and 
Brooklyn and in Germany and Switzerland. "(I recommended 
this," Mr. El well says, "for Sydney in 1895, and we are fairly cer- 
tain to adopt it when any extensions to the station are made, but 
the low tension system is the most economical as far as it goes, 
%.e,, with the four units now on order.)" 

4. Three-phase traction on railways is fairly started on several 
small lines in Switzerland (Lugano, Gorner Grat, etc.) It offers 
the best solution for successful operation of suburban railways 
and any lines where the traffic is fairly continuous, and it is being 
watched with great interest. 

5. Accumulators and boosters for both traction and lighting 
are largely increasing especially in America, but Manchester in 
England has one of the largest batteries. 

6. Municipal ownership. — A strong tendency is now shown in 
municipalities to buy up lighting and tramways from private 
owners and converting the latter to electric traction, (vide Liver- 
pool, Manchester, Leeds, Hull, Glasgow, London, Bristol, etc ). 

7. Electric motors for auxiliary purposes in power stations are 
rapidly increasing for cranes, pumps, fans, conveyances, etc., in 
placeof small steam engines — with a saving in steam and attendance. 

Mr. Elwell adds : " I have not touched upon telegraphy or 
telephones, but, as regards the latter, the necessity of complete 
metallic systems in any large exchange has been demonstrated at 
Glasgow (there are no electric trams there yet) by the recent 
Government inquiry." 



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ANNIVEBSABY ADDttESS. 23^ 

Sttmdard Datum. — During the year an important change has 
been made in the matter of the datum to which all levels taken 
by the various Government Departments are referred. In many 
years past a considerable amount of inconvenience and loss of 
time has been caused by the want of uniformity in this matter, 
each department having adopted a datum of its own^ and in some 
cases even the different branches of the same departments had 
different values for the same bench mark. Confusion and trouble 
naturally followed this want of system, and as the evil became 
worse as time went on, a conference of the representatives of the 
various Grovemment Departments was held, and after considerable 
discussion united action decided upon. Naturally it was agreed 
that mean sea-level should be the datum to which all levels should 
be reduced, and a table has been compiled giving the corrections 
to be applied to each Department's records to comply with this 
decision. The inscription on the brass plate attached to the 
bench mark on the northern wall of the Lands Office building has 
been slightly altered to agree with the value decided upon by the 
Conference, thus placing within easy reach a standard mark for 
future reference. In addition to this, the Conference recommended 
the establishment of automatic tide gauges at the various ports 
and harbours on the coast, and it is satisfactory to note that the 
Government have acted on this suggestion, and six tide gauges 
are shortly to be constructed for this purpose. When the 
registers are carefully examined and analysed, some most valuable 
scientific data should be the result. 

Department of Agriculture. — I am indebted for the following 
to Mr. D. McLachlan, Under Secretary : — 

The Agricultural Department, through its experimental farms 
and coUege has done much to advance the producing interests of 
the colony, and the total area under crop is now just twice what 
it was when the department was formed in 1891, t.0., an increase 
under cultivation of nearly 900,000 acres. 

At the Hawkesbury Agricultural College, Richmond, one 
hundred students are educated in the science and practice of 



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24 HBNBT DXANB. 

agriculture, and from records kept it is satisfactory to note that 
a large proportion of the students who have left the college are 
settled on the land and are doing good work in their respective 
districts. At the Wagga Wagga and Bathurst Farms, where a 
thorough practical training is given to lads, there are some twenty- 
five and ten resident students respectively, while these farms and 
those at Lismore and Pera Bore are visited by large numbers of 
farmers who are all anxious to see the results of the experiments 
carried on with new implements and new crops and by means of 
improved methods of farming. 

At the Wagga Farm special attention is given to obtaining an 
improvement in seed wheat. By careful selection, wheats have 
been obtained which yield a considerable increase per acre over 
those previously produced. When it is realised that if by a 
gradual improvement in the class of seed used, the average yield 
for the colony could be raised even say one bushel per acre, and 
that this would mean an addition of £150,000 per annum to the 
wealth of the colony, the importance of this work can hardly be 
over-estimated. 

Chemical Laboratory, — In addition to routine work which con- 
sists principally of analyses of soils, fertilizers, fodders and feeding 
stuffs, milk, water for irrigation and watering stock, sugar beets, 
insecticides, etc., Mr. Guthrie says, " we have been engaged in a 
continuation of the inquiry into the milling qualities of different 
varieties of wheat, the results of which have been published in 
pamphlet form. We are now having our mills run by power and 
in the course of a month we shall be in a position to pronounce 
upon the milling qualities of any sample of wheat on which an 
opinion is required. This should be a matter of general importance 
for at present the farmer has to take just what the millers care to 
give, and he has no means of commanding a higher price for a 
better grain. At present any improvement in the nature of the 
grain is impossible, as the growing of a new variety is attended 
by the risk that it may not turn out a good milling wheat, but 
this state of things will rapidly pass away. I have continued my 



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ANNIYBBSABT ADDBB88. 25 

inyestigatioDS into the nature of glutens, and summarized the 
results obtained in a paper On the Constitution of Gluten, read 
before Section B of the Australasian Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. Mr. E. H. Gurney has made some original 
investigations into the waxes and colouring matters obtained from 
certain scale-insects, and has read two papers before the Chemical 
Section of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science on this subject'' Mr. Guthrie is also engaged in 
compiling analyses of over one hundred soils of the County Cum- 
berland, showing their chemical and physical characteristics and 
discussing their suitability for different crops and their general 
fertility. This he hopes to have ready for the May number of 
the Agricultural Gazette. A preliminary investigation into the 
action of lime on the soil has been also made ; the results will be 
published about May or Juna 

Mr. Guthrie's programme for future work is of an extensive 
ind highly important character, and includes matters which are 
every day becoming more essential to further agricultural progress. 
These are : — Investigations into the study of soil bacteria, the 
bacteriology of butter and cheese making, wine making and tobacco 
caring. In these already much has been done in Europe, but 
mach still remains to be done. Further subjects for investigation 
are, the poisonous properties of plants poisonous to stock, the 
fodder value of native grasses and the conditions under which 
they thrive, and the use of manures. 

Vine CtUtu/re. — Some interesting and valuable work has been 
done in this branch under Mr. Blunno. Steps have been taken 
•0 that the extirpation of the phylloxera may be considered to be 
well in hand as far as this colony is concerned, American 
phylloxera-proof vine cuttings have been imported, and are being 
experimented upon as to their suitability for different soils and 
their character under the various new conditions in which they 
are placed. Original investigations are being conducted as to the 
musts and wines produced in different districts of the colony, also 
as to certain wine ** sickness" and experiments have been made 
with regard to fermentation and pruning. 



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26 HENBY DBANB. 

Dairying. — Mr. O'Callaghan points out that this is an industry 
which is making great strides in this colony, and in order that 
our producers may be able to hold their own in the markets of the 
world, it is necessary that scientific methods should be applied in 
the manufacture and rating of the product. Attention has been 
given to Pasteurization, and the introduction of this method, which 
obviates the use of preservatives and the consequent exclusion of 
butter so treated from the British market, should be encouraged. 
Tuberculosis is a disease which is far too prevalent among cows, 
and Mr. O'Callaghan strongly advocates the use of the tuberculin 
test in all doubtful cases, and is about to submit this disease to 
experiments which from the nature of the case will be somewhat 
extensive. Mr. O'Callaghan further points out the necessity of 
establishing a central laboratory for bacteriological research and 
for veterinary purposes. The importation of a number of dairy 
stock of the various well known breeds, with a view to improving 
the cattle in the colony, has been resolved upon by the Minister 
for Agriculture. 

Entomology, — Mr. Froggatt, Government Entomologist, supplies 
the following: — During the year nine articles have appeared in 
the Agricultural Gazette dealing with Economic Entomology, — A 
series of papers (4). "Forest Moths that have become orchard or 
garden Pests," i. -iv.; "Entomological Notes," dealing with 
several rare or destructive insects ; "Fruit Fly Maggot (Tephriten 
TryoniJ; "White Ants, their habits and depredations"; "Insects 
on the Northern Rivers"; "San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus pernici' 
ostM"; "Coccids in Sydney Gardens." All these papers are illus- 
trated with careful drawings made from living insects by the 
artists of the department. Investigations have been carried out 
on the life histories of many of our common insects, such as the 
case moths, vine moth, fruit fly, San Jose scale, etc. 

Several consignments of humble bees have been imported from 
New Zealand, and liberated in various parts of New South Wales 
during the winter, but no reports have yet been received as to 
how they are getting on. Large additions have been made to the 



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ANNIVBB8ABT ADDBBS8. 27 

economic insect collections. The collection of scale insects, which 
lias been lately enriched by an aqaisition from the Entomological 
Division of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, is the largest 
named series in Australia. 

Pathology. — The scope of the work of the pathologist is well 
represented in the publications marked on the back of the pamphlet 
on the sheep-fluke. It may be said that each year we are learn- 
ing very much more about the exact qualities of the various 
varieties of wheat, knowledge which promises to be of much value 
to the great wheat industry of the world. The pamphlet on 
abandoned orchards has done something towards awakening 
public opinion on the subject of plant diseases and assisted in 
obtaining the new measure now in force. The experiment work 
on the relation of manures to wheat growing are now complete, 
and will prove of great value to the dry wheat growing districts 
of Australasia. Most of these articles have been reviewed or 
reprinted in toto in leading European and American Journals. 
Larger and more important works are now in press embodying 
also the work of 1897. 

Mining Notes for 1897. — Although every branch of metalliferous 
mining in New South Wales has been fairly active during the 
year, special attention has been directed to the working of, and to 
the search for payable copper lodes. The price of this metal has 
considerably increased during the year, due doubtless to the exten- 
sion in the use of electricity as a traction power, and the consequent 
increased demand for pure copper wire. The Cobar, Nyngan 
and Captain's Flat districts contain the most extensive cupriferous 
lodes yet discovered in the colony. The introduction of the Water 
Jacket Furnace in copper smelting operations has been a feature 
of the year. Large metallurgical plants have been erected at 
Ckx^kle Creek and Illawarra. The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. 
has also erected smelting works at Port Pirie, and the Govern- 
ment small, but complete metallurgical works at the Clyde, to 
which the cyanide process has recently been added. The action 
ol the GU>vemment in resisting the attempt to create a cyanide 



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25 HBNBT DEANB. 

monopoly in this colony, has resulted in the successful introduction 
of the process on many of the New South Wales gold fields. 
The output of coal during the past year from our mines was the 
largest on record, and the quantity shipped to foreign ports 
exceeded anything since the opening of the fields in 1 829, showin||^ 
that this colony has little to fear from Japanese competition, 
where very extensive deposits of coal are being cheaply worked. 
The commencement of sinking operations by the Sydney Harbour 
Collieries Company Limited, Balmain, is worthy of passing notice. 
This valuable seam is expected to be tapped about three years 
hence, at a depth of some 3,000 feet. The development of this 
seam at such a great depth, will be watched with interest by 
scientific men. 

Geological Survey of New South Wales, — During the past year 
Mr. E. F. Pittman, Government Geologist, in addition to direct- 
ing the work of the Geological Survey Staff, sat as a member of 
the Royal Commission on the Spontaneous Combustion of Coal 
Cargoes and in conjunction with Professor Threlfall issued a report 
on that subject. A considerable amount of field work was also done 
in connection with an examination of the Gunnedah coalfield, and 
together with Professor David, a geological survey was made of 
the country around Tam worth. This work was of great interest 
owing to the abundant occurrence and great thickness of radio- 
larian schists, limestones and claystones, and also of the great 
development of sill structure. With regard to radiolarian rocks 
Professor David says: — "It has been proved that a great part of 
the Dividing Range from the Jenolan Caves to Barraba is com- 
posed of radiolarian remains. The radiolarian beds are about 
9,000 feet thick and radiolaria are present throughout the series 
in the proportion of about one million to the cubic inch." Mr. 
Pittman further informs me that the district around Tamworth 
contains rocks belonging to both the Carboniferous and Devonian 
systems, and there is no doubt that the working out of the tract 
between Tamworth and Somerton will greatly simplify future 
geological work by establishing definite horizons. Mr. Pittman 



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ANNIYEBSABT ADDBBSS. 29 

also made an official examination of some of the West Australian 
goldfields, giving particular attention to the telluride-bearing ore 
bodies. 

Mr. J. K Game, Geological Surveyor, completed the examin- 
ation of the country along the New South Wales- Victorian Border, 
as far as the head of the Murray. This work though unsuccessful 
from an economic point of view, was of great interest, as it proved 
the occurrence of Lower Silurian graptolite-bearing slates and 
Devonian fresh-water sandstones in new localities. An examin- 
ation was also made of the Wolumla District, where the gold- 
bearing rocks consist of impregnated patches of crushed granite 
and sedimentary rocks. Some of the sedimentary rocks are of 
Devonian age. Mr. Came as well as reporting on other districts, 
also prepared two reports on our mineral resources, dealing with 
tungsten and chromium. 

Mr. T. B. Jaquet and Mr. J. A. Watt, Geological Surveyors, 
made a complete examination of the Captain's Flat ore deposit, 
and submitted a report dealing with it. Mr. Jaquet as well as 
performing a considerable amount of routine work, also reported on 
the Elsmore Valley deep tin lead and on the Port Macquarie Cobalt 
Deposit. Here the cobalt occurs in serpentine and in the clay 
formed by the decomposition of the serpentine. The ore ocpurs 
in nests or pockets which are irregularly distributed. 

Mr. J. A. Watt, who was appointed during the year, made in 
conjunction with Mr. Jacquet the examination of Captain's Flat 
already referred to, and also reported on the supposed diamond- 
bearing drift at Upper Tarlo. There the drift consisting of sand 
and gravel occurs under basalt, and it was from a shaft sunk to 
the bottom of the gravel that the diamond was said to have been 
found. Gold also occurs in the drift. Mr. Watt also reported 
oil a deposit of iron ore at Carlo's G«p, and on the Nanima Creek 
and Gooda gold-fields. 

Since Mr. Game's discovery of Lower Silurian rocks on the 
Victorian Border, slates of the same age (as proved by their con- 



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30 HXNBT DXANB. 

taining characteristic graptolites) have been collected at The 
Myall, between Dubbo and Peak Hill, by Mr. F. Dan vers Power, 
F.G.s. Lower Silurian Rocks had not been recognised in New 
South Wales prior to 1897, and their occurrence in two localities 
so remote as those referred to points to the probability of their 
being found to cover a considerable area of the colony. 

Artesian Bores, — Mr. J. W. Boultbee has furnished me with 
some most interesting particulars of the work done in this direc- 
tion, but they are too extensive to include in this address, and I 
have asked Mr. Boultbee to submit his account to the Society in 
the usual way at one of the monthly meetings. Mr. Boultbee 
shows how in America the presence of artesian water has been 
the cause of the growth of a large population in otherwise dry 
districts, and predicts a similar result in New South Wales. The 
work of boring, both public and private, has progressed rapidly, 
but there is still an enormous proportion of the 60,000 miles of 
country proved to be water-bearing untouched and unexplored by 
the drill. The number of Government bores completed to date 
is sixty six, the total depth driven 137,589 feet, and the approxi- 
mate output 30,674,500 gallons daily. 

Water Conservation in New South Wales, — The two events of 
greatest importance in regard to water conservation during 1897 
were the commencement of the operation of the Water Rights 
Act, and the submission of the report of Colonel F. J. Home, r.e., 
C.S.I. The Water Rights Act defines the rights of the State and 
of individuals to natural supplies of water and provides a system 
of licensing dams and other work, if no reasonable objection to 
their work can be shown. The Act also provides for the con- 
struction of work for water conservation, irrigation and drainage 
by the Government in cases where the land holders to be benefited 
are willing to pay the interest on the outlay and the cost of main- 
tenance. The Water Rights Act became law on 1st November, 
1896, and between that date and 1st February, 1897, the number 
of applications received for licenses was considerably over four 
hundred. Up to the end of 1897 more than four hundred appli- 



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ANNIYBBSABT ADDRESS. 31 

cations had been received. Formerly dams and other work for 
water conservation and supply on creeks and rivers existed on 
sufferance only, and this state of affairs had naturally a most 
injurious effect on the development of the country. Although 
the Water Rights Act has been little over a year in operation, 
its influence in encouraging the construction of a better class of 
work has already become apparent. 

The report of Colonel Home endorses the conclusion previously 
arrived at by the Department, that the only New South Wales 
rivers for which it is practicable to construct irrigation canals of 
any considerable magnitude are the Murray and the Murrum- 
bidgee. He considered that even in the cases of these rivers, 
large storage reservoirs are required to insure sufficient supplies 
of water. Colonel Home concurred in the practicability of the 
proposed canal on the south side of the Murrumbidgee, and also 
of the proposed canal from the river Murray at Bungowannah, 
six miles below Albury, and he recommended that the former 
project should be taken up first as its financial prospects appeared 
the more promising. 

The Bourke Lock and Weir, which is the only work of its kind 
in the Australian colonies, was tested under all ordinary conditions 
during the past year, and proved perfectly satisfactory throughout. 
The weir consists of a series of moveable shutters which are 
dropped flat on the river bed when the river reaches navigation level 
and are raised again when the falling river reaches this level. The 
lock gates also are opened when the shutters are dropped, and 
closed when the shutters are raised. In a flood the works are 
entirely submerged, and as the river was widened at the weir level, 
the waterway is actually slightly more than it was before the 
works were constructed so that there is no acceleration of the 
velocity. It was decided during the last Parliamentary Session, 
that the question of locking the river Darling from Bourke to 
Wilcannia should be referred to the Public Works Committee. 

Chemistry, — Mr. Hamlet, the Government Analyst, has supplied 
me with the following information : — Recent advances in chemistry 



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32 HENBT DBANE. 

include further researches as to the nature of the newly-discovered 
substances helium and argon. Olszewski has attempted the 
liquefaction of helium obtained from cleveite, and although the 
low temperature of - 220'' was attained, yet no sign of liquefaction 
appeared. Experiments by Ramsay and Travers fail to prove 
that the new gases are truly elementary bodies after all Helium 
may consist of a pair of elements like nickel and cobalt. Sir 
Norman Lockyer considers it to be a mixture on spectroscopic 
observations of certain distant stars. The chemists base their 
experiments on fractional difiusion and although the work proves 
to be both complex and difficult, further research is needed in 
order to place helium and argon in their proper niche in the 
periodic system of elements. 

The examination of a number of commonly recurring minerals 
by Hartley has led to the discovery of the fact that many of the 
rare elements, such as gallium, rubidium and thallium exist in 
iron ores and saline minerals hitherto passed unexamined. 

Some remarkable facts have been brought to light by Professor 
Liversidge, who finds small quantities of the metal gold in unsus- 
pected form of matter ; over a grain' of gold per ton was found in 
rock salt, kainite and Chilian nitre. Small quantities of gold were 
found in sea water and in certain sea-weed, kelp, etc. 

A novel use of the telephone has been suggested by Erdmann, 
who proposes to apply the instrument to the chemical analysis of 
milk, wine, beer and salts in solution. Perhaps the most remark- 
able chemical event of the year was the liquefaction of fluorine 
by Moissan and Dewar. The gas becomes liquid at - 185°, and 
in this state, strange to say, has no action on glass. 

In New South Wales the most notable work in organic chemistry 
was the separation of and discovery of eudesmol and myrticolorin 
by Messrs. Baker and Smith, of the Sydney Technological Museum 
which have been duly described in papers read before this Society. 
The labours of these gentlemen, which are now specially directed to 
the investigation of the exudations and products of the Australian 
vegetation, are of the highest value. 



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ANNIYBBSABT ADDBBSS. 33 

Botanic Oa^rdens, — The Director of the Botanic Gardens 
informs me that during the past year he has made special efforts 
to improve the herbarium. He hsis received several thousand 
species by exchange with botanical establishments throughout the 
world, and also as the result of collecting tours made by his 
assistants and himself. The phanerogams are now, in spite of recent 
large acquisitions, fairly in order, and the same may be said of 
ferns. As regards the remainder of the cryptogams, especially 
fungi, mosses, lichens and algse, the collection at present comprises 
over two thousand named species, and it is hoped that, in a very 
few years, the herbarium of cryptogams will approach in value 
that of the phanerogams. Mr. Maiden states that the present 
condition of the herbarium is largely owing to the self-denying 
labours of his assistants, Messrs. Betche, Forsyth, Oamfield and 
Grant. 

Australian Museum. — A much desired extension of the Museum 
premises took place by the building of new and commodious work- 
shops, so constructed as to form a part of one of the future wings 
of the Museum. In addition a new and separate house was 
erected for the reception of the bulk spirit collection, whereby the 
danger from fire has been very much reduced. The publication 
of the Memoir on the Atoll of Funafuti has steadily progressed. 
Six parts have appeared during the past year, leaving only two 
more parts to complete it. The collections have been enriched by 
the acquisition of a fine meteorite from near Mount Stirling, West 
Australia, weighing a little over two hundred pounds, and a 
magnificent set of polished slabs representing the commercial 
marbles of New South Wales, prepared by Mr. W. Roberts, Clerk 
of Works, Bathurst. 

Thetis Trawling Cruise. — A question which has been before 
Uie minds of those interested in our fisheries has had some 
attention bestowed upon it lately. At the instance of Mr. F. 
Famell, h.p., the Government s.s. Thetis was lent for the purpose 
of testing the existence of the deep sea fishing grounds which had 
been emphatically asserted by some and equally emphatically 

C— Maj 4, 1886. 



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34 HENBT DEANE. 

denied by others. Those of us who have read Mr. J. D. Ogilby's 
^* Notes on Australian Fishes'' in that useful little Hand-book of 
the Australasian Association will understand how important it is 
from an economical and gastronomical point of view to solve the 
question. To Mr. Famell is due the credit of thus getting the 
necessary investigation attempted. The success of the expedition 
has been established, and we shall look forward to the final report 
on the results obtained. 

Altogether during the different trips fifty-eight trials of the 
bottom were made. As might be naturally expected, many of 
them were failures, but more than half were successful, and of 
them twelve produced fish of good quality and high market value 
in large quantities. The localities tried were from the north end 
of Manning Bight on the north to Jervis Bay on the south, all 
within twelve hours steaming of Sydney. 

The Thetis is not a suitable steamer for the purpose, but under 
the command of Captain Hildebrand most of the dif&culties were 
overcome. The expedition has been a success, for it has proved 
(1) the existence of more grounds, and (2) the presence of more 
varieties of edible fish than it was supposed by many would be 
discovered, and (3) it has further proved that operations on level 
bottom with the otter trawl, with, against or across the current, 
can be smoothly carried on without risk. 

While this work was proceeding the opportunity was not lost to 
extend observation into other departments of marine zoology, and 
it will be interesting to members to hear the following note written 
for me by Mr. Waite at Mr. FamelPs request. **At this early 
stage it is not possible to say much about the extensive collections 
made, but a few general remarks may be attempted. The fishes 
total about a hundred species ; this comparatively small number 
is accounted for mainly by the large mesh of the trawl. This per- 
mitted to escape the smaller fry among which a zoologist would 
expect to reap the richest harvest. In parts the mesh was two 
inches, consequently whole basketsful of fish were lost ; indeed 
the first indications of a successful haul were the numerous dead 



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ANNIVEBSABT ADDBESS. 35 

gurnards coming to the surface and floating away astern. When 
whiting had been netted, large numbers were lost in this way. 
Many flsh also escaped over the ground line in consequence of the 
iU adapted nature of the Thetis for trawling, the most valuable fish 
lost in this way were dories, but nannegai, boar-fish, leather- 
jackets and others also escaped. 

"An iron-frame dredge fitted with a fine net^ designed to secure 
smaller specimens, was lost at the first essay and contributed so 
largely to the extensive damage sustained by the trawl (to the 
bunt-line of which it was secured) that it was not deemed advisable 
to renew attempts with the duplicate carried. Whenever rocks 
were encountered, the fishes obtained were few in number and 
species, and most of those netted escaped through the large spaces 
rent in the net. On such occasions a rich harvest of invertebrates 
usually resulted, comprising comatulas, sponges, ascidians, gor- 
gonias, crustaceans, etc. 

"In eighty fathoms off Botany, between two and three hundred 
examples of the rare echinoderm Phormoaoma hoploccmtha were 
trawled, previously obtained only by the "Challenger" in deep 
water (410 - 1375 fathoms). Mr. Whitelegge, who has only had 
time to make the most casual inspection of the invertebrates, tells 
me that there are a great many additions to the known fauna of 
the coast and doubtless a goodly number new to science, which he 
hopes he may have the opportunity of describing. With regard 
to the moUusca, being mostly small, they of course escaped through 
the large meshes, and it was only when sea- weed or rocks were 
encountered that much opportunity of collecting offered itself. 
The results however, so Mr. Hedley informs me, prove of excep- 
tional interest. Many specimens of the magnificent Valuta 
mamUla, the first recorded in so low a latitude, were obtained. 
What appears on a casual inspection to be a Brachiopod new to 
science and a sea slug obtained for the second time in half a 
century, are other noteworthy captures. Experiments were also 
made with tow nets designed to secure pelagic or surface swim- 



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36 HBNBT DEAME. 

ming organisms, and those secured at night quite illumined the 
glass vessel in which they were received." 

Funafuti Coral Boring Expedition. — It is scarcely necessary 
to give a detailed account of this work. We all know how much 
has been achieved by Professor David himself, who personally 
undertook the conduct of last year's expedition. It has been 
described by the Professor at the meeting of the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science. The total depth 
which the borer reached was six hundred and ninety-eight feet. 
The material passed through appears to fall into three zones : the 
first reaching down to two hundred feet; here the material seema 
to be true coral reef to a depth of about fifty feet, with occasional 
coral heads in aitUy and coral rubble to two hundred feet. The 
second zone reached down to three hundred and seventy feet ; 
here sandy material distinctly predominates and coral fragments 
and rubble occasionally appear, and now and then a few isolated 
corals. The mass is not reef, although obviously produced in the 
vicinity of a reef, probably chiefly a reef rubble. Below three 
hundred and seventy feet is the third or lower zone. The character 
of the material suggests that it has been formed in the immediate 
vicinity of a reef which has occasionally, if not continuously^ 
grown out laterally.^ 

Professor David's later comments are "Later examination shows 
that the supposed thin reefs are in reality bands of coral rubble 
cemented locally by chemical action by the growth of nullipores 
and other organisms, also since the examination of this portion of 
the core in Sydney (that is of the third zone) it would seem to be 
an aggregation of skeletons of deep sea organisms in coral rubble.'' 
Further he says, "The rock at the deep sea level is quite different 
from that formed by the growth of the true reef building corals 
in the shallow water. It appears to be formed of coral fragments 
cemented by various deep sea organisms, the nullipore playing an 



1 See sammary of Professor David's Preliminary Beport Boyal Soc. 
Proc., Vol. Lxii., commanicated by Professor Bonney. 



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ANNIVBB8ABT ADDRESS. S7 

important part in helping to consolidate the rubble." Professor 
David in a letter to me says ''The core is being worked out in 
London by experts under Professor Judd, and in Sydney Uni- 
versity by Messrs. Woolnough, Poole and David, and a geological 
map and part of the atoll is being prepared by Mr. G. Sweet of 
Melbourne. There is sufficient material already collected to throw 
very great light on the mode of the origin of atolls : but in order 
to try and settle the controversy definitely we are arranging for 
a third expedition to leave Sydney for Funafuti shortly to finish 
the bore on the island, and to put down a bore in the lagoon." 
For this purpose the Government Works Department are lending 
the necessary plant for boring in the lagoon, and the party will be 
conveyed to the scene of action by H.M.S. Porpoise; while the 
€k)vemment Department of Mines are lending a diamond drill 
plant to complete the six hundred and ninety-eight feet bore. 
The party will proceed to Samoa by mail steamer, whence they 
will be conveyed to Funafuti in the London Missionary Society's 
steam-yacht John Williams, 

New Colony Map. — Mr. Twynam, the Chief Surveyor of the 
Department of Lands, informs me that a new map of the colony 
of New South Wales has been constructed in the Survey Branch 
of his Department, and will shortly be published ; it is to the 
scale of eight miles to an inch, and the size of the mounted map 
will be about nine feet six inches by seven feet six inches : the 
construction is on a conical projection, and is based upon points 
determined by astronomical observation at stations on the main 
telegraph lines, an eigbteen inch altazimuth instrument being 
used, and the longitudes determined by time signals from the 
Sydney Observatory, with which is incorporated the triangulation 
80 far as it has extended, i.e., over the southern counties of the 
eastern watershed, and say a hundred miles westward thereof^ 
The map was designed with a view to engraving, which, it is hoped 
may be accomplished in due course ; it will then be a fitting 
accompaniment to the fine engraved maps of the colony of Victoria 
and Continental Australia, which were both produced in the 



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38 HENBT DEANB. 

Lands Department of Melbourne. For immediate use in the 
public offices a photo-lithograph to the same scale has been printed. 
It may here be stated that a photo-lithograph to the same scale as 
the original map is rather a troublesome process in the printing, 
on account of the minute detail. 

It is needless here to enter upon the impartance of accurate 
territorial maps ; these are absolutely necessary for the manifold 
purposes of government, e.^., administration of the public estate, 
postal and telegraphic services, parliamentary electorates, public 
works and local government divisions. This necessity is recog- 
nized in all civilized countries, and as an instance the beautiful 
territorial maps of America may be mentioned, which are published 
and sold at very low prices. It is to be hoped that in due course 
the map referred to may be engraved, and may be widely distributed 
throughout our public institutions and offices, not forgetting the 
instruction of the youth of the country in the public schools ; and 
thus one of the objects may be attained which justify the publica- 
tion of geographical maps by the State. 

Observatory, — Mr. Russell informs me that there has been no 
original ■ investigation during the past year, as the additions to 
the ordinary work have taken up the few hours that he used to 
have to spare for other investigations. 

The New South Wales Branch of the British Astronomical 
Association with its head quarters in Sydney — now in the fourth 
year of its existence — ^still continues to do useful work under the 
presidency of Mr. G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s. Having for its object 
the advancement of a popular interest in astronomy, and the 
formation of sections to study different branches of the science, 
regular monthly meetings are held and papers are read and 
discussed. During the past year the Jupiter, cometary, meteoric 
and solar sections were active, and the observations obtained 
were forwarded to London for discussion by the directors of 
the sections of the parent association. 

Mount Kosciusko Observatory. — Mr. Wragge has successfully 
established a mountain experimental observatory on the summit 



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ANNIVEBSABT ADDBE99. 39 

of Mount Kosciusko, 7,328 feet above sea level, also a sea level 
station on its south-east coast adjacent, at Merimbula where 
simultaneous observations are taken. The hours are midnight, 
4 a.m. and 8 a.m., noon, 4 p.m. and 8 p.m., also half-hourly from 
8*30 a.m. to 11*30 a.m. inclusive. Simultaneous readings are 
also taken at a new station in Sydney, at Sale in Victoria, and 
at Hobart and on Mount Wellington, Tasmania. 

Anta/rctic Research, — Attention is being again directed to this 
important matter. During the Jubilee proceedings in 1897 the 
Royal Geographical Society arranged for a conference of Colonial 
Premiers and others, with a view to ultimately obtaining Austra- 
lian co-operation, and the Society has further appealed to Lord 
Salisbury to assist in carrying out the object. A special meeting 
of the Royal Society to discuss the question was held on February 
24th last, presided over by Sir John Evans in the absence of Lord 
Lister through illness. The proceedings began with an able 
address by Dr. John Murray, explaining the extent of our present 
knowledge and the scientific results to be looked for by renewed 
exploration, and he was followed by the Duke of Argyll, Sir 
Joseph Hooker, Dr. Nansen, Dr. Neumayer, Sir Clements Mark- 
ham, Dr. Alexander Buchan, Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr. Sclater, 
Professor W. D'Arcy Thompson, Admiral Sir William Wharton 
and the Chairman. To us in Australia this matter is of special 
interest, and it is to be hoped that the Australian Governments 
will give their assistance, not only moral but pecuniary, to the 
movement. 

Technical Colhge, Ultimo. — Dr. Morris, Superintendent of 
Technical Education, has furnished me with the following par- 
ticulars. A new branch has been established at Broken Hill, for 
the purpose of teaching chemistry, geology, mineralogy and 
assaying. The Technical College has lost the valued services 
of Mr. W. A. Dixon, who has resigned. A rearrangement of 
subjects has been introduced, which, it is anticipated, will prove 
highly beneficial. The Rev. J. Milne Curran directs instruction 
in chemistry, geology, mineralogy, metallurgy and assaying, and a 



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40 HBNBT DEANB. 

practical course in mining is given. Dr. Morris informs me that 
the available space in the college is already inadequate for the 
great variety of subjects which require to be taught to make the 
whole range of technical education complete, and requests to take 
up good work have sometimes to be refused. The work of the 
college is chiefly utilitarian in character, but its scientific basis is 
always receiving increased attention. 

P. N, Eussell Scholarship.— ''In 1896, Peter Nicol Russell, Esq. 
formerly of Sydney, but now living in London," to quote the 
University Calendar, "presented to the University a sum of 
X50,000 for the endowment of the Department -of Engineering in 
the University," under certain conditions which were namely : — 
(1) That the Department of Engineering was henceforth to be 
called the P. N. Russell School of Engineering ; (2) That out of 
the income of the said endowment practical and theoretical 
instruction were to be given in mechanical engineering, surveying, 
mining, metallurgy and architecture ; (3) Certain restrictions in 
applying the money to expenses already incurred. The Senate 
have now the matter well in hand, a portion of the money has 
been devoted towards the cost of lectureships, and a scholarship 
has been founded of the value of £90 per annum, to be competed 
for by applicants who shall have qualified themselves by a certedn 
amount of preliminary theoretical and workshop training. The 
successful candidate will thus be assisted in following up the B.E. 
course in mechanical engineering. There is a marble bust of Mr. 
P. N. Russell in the Hall, and he has been asked by the University 
Senate to allow his portrait to be painted and placed there. A 
metal die has been made for a gold medal (£20) to be awarded 
annually for distinction in engineering work, but the exact con- 
ditions of the award have not yet been determined. The medal 
has upon it a very fine portrait of Mr. Russell. 

Biology. — The Manual of Zoology of Professors Parker and 
Haswell deserves special mention. It is a work of great industry 
and scientific importance, and being up to date it is a most 
useful book of its kind. The death of Professor Parker on the 



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ANNIVBB8ART ADDBES8. 41 

7th November, 1897, in the prime of life, is an event much to be 
regretted, as in him Science in the Southern Hemisphere has lost 
a most zealous student and able worker. Several papers of special 
Australian interest have been published in England, and being 
such it would appear proper to make a reference to them here. 
Among these are papers by Dr. Robt. Brown on the Morphology 
of Jacobsen's organ in Mammalia, and by Mr. J. Y. Hill on the 
Placenta of Paramelea, 

Madeay Bacteriologist. — The bequest of Sir William' Macleay for 
the purpose of endowing bacteriological research, which, although 
accepted with the imposed conditions by the University was 
afterwards returned by that body with the sanction of the Court 
of Equity, was taken up by the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales and recently the appointment of a bacteriologist has been 
made. It will be known to some of us that the Council of the 
linnean Society in 1896 offered the salary of J&350 per year to 
the successful applicant — invitations having been issued to all 
parts of the world. The number of candidates forthcoming was 
not considered suf&cient to make the Council sure that they could 
not do better if their objects were made more widely known. It 
was decided therefore to postpone the appointment, and after a 
time to advertise afresh and raise the salary to J&400. At the 
end of last year fresh applications were received, and after con- 
siderable deliberation two candidates were selected, and ultimately 
Mr. Greig Smith, B. So. Edin., M. Sc. Durh,, P.c.s., was appointed 
as Macleay Bacteriologist. 

Communication with New Hebrides and other Islands, — It is of 
interest to record that a steam service has been started by Bums, 
Philp and Co., to the New Hebrides touching at Norfolk Island 
and Lord Howe Island. The service is to be subsidised to the 
extent of £1,200 by the Government of this Colony, and £800 
by that of Victoria. Convenient access to these islands for 
scientific investigation will thus be afforded. With regard to the 
New Hebrides, it is to be remarked that " the French Govern- 
ment pay an annual subsidy of £16,000, and by this means they 



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42 HENBT DBANB. 

settle people on the islands, and run an inter-island and a direct 
steamer to Australia. The Australian Company so far, has carried 
on nearly all the trade, but has to battle against many disabilities." 
The disabilities referred to are the fighting against the handicapping 
caused by the French subsidy, the restrictions against sale of fire- 
arms, as to the treatment of the natives and as to the acquisition 
of land, which seem to be very proper in themselves, but which 
British subjects alone appear to be liable to. 

In the above account I have been obliged through lack of time 
to confine myself almost exclusively to the work of Government 
Departments, paying special attention to subjects of engineering, 
mining, and agricultural interest. It will be seen that I have 
not described the work done by other Societies, as their proceed- 
ings can be consulted. With regard to the Australasian Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, it is probable that their 
proceedings will shortly be published,^so that the necessity for 
my going into details is thus also obviated. 

Part III. — The Australasian Association for the Advance- 
ment OF Science held its seventh meeting in Sydney in January. 
Although the attendance was not so numerous as might have been 
hoped, the gathering was a distinct success. A large number of 
papers were presented and read ; some were of the greatest impor- 
tance, while their character generally showed a great improvement 
over those of earlier meetings. One feature of this meeting was 
certainly the Presidential Addresses to the Sections, some of these 
being of special value, another was the evening lectures, one of 
which delivered free to working men was an innovation, and 
having proved a success is an example worthy of being followed 
in the future. Some of the papers read in the sections, such as 
Professor David's description of the Funafuti work and Mr. 
Pittman's account of his observations in Western Australia being 
of a highly popular character were largely attended. 

Although some excursions were successfully carried out, it must 
be acknowledged that on the whole the excursion programme was 



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ANNIVEBSABT ADDBESS. 43 

rather a failure. Whether this was due to the prevalence of hot 
summer weather, or whether there was any defect in the manner 
of bringing the proposed trips before the members, it remains a 
fact that many important excursions fell through. It is worthy 
of note that the greatest energy was displayed by the members of 
Section H. 

A very enjoyable excursion almost of an impromptu character, 
considering the short notice at which it was got up, was to Went- 
worth Falls in a special train of the new corridor and Pullman 
cars generously provided by the Railway Commissioners. 

In reviewing the proceedings of a meeting so successful as the 
last it will not be thought mere cavilling when it is pointed out 
that some improvements could probably be made in future. 
According to the views of some much more fitted to judge of the 
question than myself, there are too many papers submitted to the 
sections. At the start the secretaries are naturally anxious to 
get papers, and perhaps they take to themselves no little credit 
when they find they are making up a long list. The result is 
that the sectional work is heavy and the opportunities for members 
of diiferent sections to meet one another are diminished. What 
seems to be more wanted are especially papers of a larger scope, 
which would interest members from different colonies at the same 
time, and such as, embraciag a larger field, would require the 
presence of members of more than one section at the discussion. 
Subjects, it has been suggested, might be given out and papers on 
them invited, so that a united conference or discussion on them 
might be arranged. I am given to understand that steps are 
likely to be taken to put this proposal into effect at the next 
meeting in Melbourne, and it is expected that Professor Baldwin 
Spencer will show some good results from his efforts in this 
direction. A great deal of good will be done by useful discussion 
of such larger questions, there would be better opportunities for 
members to meet one another and local societies would not be 
robbed of papers which should be preferably read before them, 
because chiefly of local interest. 



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44 HBNRT DEANE. 

Professor Liversidge informs me that the list of members at the 
Sydney Session was divided as follows between the different 
colonies : — New South Wales four hundred and seventeen, South 
Australia seventy-two, Queensland seventy, Victoria fifty-three, 
New Zealand forty-three, Tasmania fourteen, Western Australia 
six, and Fiji three, while Great Britain contributed three, total 
six hundred and eighty-one. Of these one hundred and three 
were ladies, derived almost wholly and in proportionate numbers 
to the male members from New South Wales, Queensland, South 
Australia and Victoria. ■ 

The number of papers read before the different sections were as 
follows : — A fifteen, B twelve, seventeen, D thirty-one, E seven, 
F twenty-two, G — Economic Science eleven, Agriculture twenty, 
H thirteen, I five, J twenty, total one hundred and seventy-four. 

Note on Work Done by the Association. — Encouragement of 
Science, — That the meeting was a success was almost entirely 
due to the forces within the Association, to the energy of the 
Permanent Secretary and present President and to the secretaries 
of the sections, and many other members who willingly aided in 
the work. Our city authorities afforded no encouragement — a 
very short-sighted policy, for the arrival in our midst of some 
few hundred visitors must, to say the least, have a certain effect 
on the trade and consumption of the place. That the visit of 
our scientific friends from the other colonies wsis not made the 
occasion for a welcome by the city authorities is a fact very much 
to be regretted, as Sydney now I believe, stands in this remark- 
able position, that although vaunting herself as the chief city of 
the Southern Hemisphere, she alone of all cities where the English 
tongue is spoken, has missed an opportunity of according to 
science the honour which is her due. In other colonies the 
Association has met with the greatest hospitality. The proto- 
type of our Association, the British Association, has met annually 
for more than sixty years, in one or other of the important cities 
of the British Isles, with the exception of two occasions when the 
meeting was held in Canada, and year after year there is an 



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ANNIVEB8ABT ADDRESS. 45 

eagerness and competition among cities often much smaller than 
Sydney in the endeavour to secure the advantages of the presence 
of the Association at the next meeting. The American Association 
has I believe the same experience — everywhere welcome — and 
other science congresses of Europe and America can tell the same 
tale. 

I am afraid that the attitude referred to is largely adopted by 
the public generally. I ask therefore to what is it due ? The 
consideration of the question has led me to the following obser- 
vations : — 

There is a total misconception as to what science is. Many 
people fancy that it is a collection of fads, an unreality, an un- 
practical occupation which amuses perhaps in a harmless sort of 
way, but which is rather contemptible than otherwise. They con- 
nect it with the mere catching of butterflies, collecting way-side 
weeds or perhaps starfish on the sea shore. 

There are other people who unless they see immediate gain to 
themselves are content to let others work in the field of science 
and lend no helping hand. As regards occupations they prefer 
those which, they say pay, and as regards amusement — well, they 
are quite satisfied with the usual outdoor amusements for which 
our climate is so well fitted and which do not fatigue the brain. 
Other people again look upon science as something very abstruse 
and beyond their comprehension. 

The term " Science " embraces nearly all real knowledge, which 
goes to the culture of the individual, and especially systematic 
knowledge, and in repudiating science a man repudiates what 
really places him above the level of the savage. When he does 
so, he does not in fact recognise how much scientific knowledge 
he is himself in possession of, or to how much he is indebted to 
scientific work for the use and enjoyment of all those comforts 
which are supposed to make life worth living, and certainly are 
the chief instruments in raising our civilisation above that of the 
past ages. 



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46 HENBT DEANE. 

Now as to the utility of science. If the dictionary is searched 
it will be seen that Science embraces all theoretical knowledge 
and Art is the application of it — science and art go together. 
How then can we have art without science ? Art is eminently 
practical. Our Technical College, in conformity with the mean- 
ing of the term, is intended for the teaching of the various 
branches of art, and no one can complain that the classes there 
are not practical in their object and tendency. If this view is 
correct, science which is essential to right art must be practical also. 

It is probable that people do not know what a range of subjects 
may be dealt with at a scientific meeting like that of the Austra- 
lasian Association for the Advancement of Science. The titles of 
the sections are as follows: — A, astronomy, mathematics and 
physics; B, chemistry; 0, geology and mineralogy; D, biology; 
E, geography; F, ethnology and anthropology; G, economic 
science and agriculture; H, engineering and architecture; I, 
sanitary science and hygiene ; J, mental science and education. 

Is it possible that any man or woman with any claim to 
intelligence cannot find among the above list some subject or 
subjects which he or she is interested in, and which he or she 
would like to gain information upon ? I do not believe that any 
one* would like to acknowledge that all these subjects are beyond 
their comprehension, and yet if they only took an active interest 
in one they might help the Association, and it is to be observed 
that the object and scope of the work of the Royal Society of 
New South Wales which should represent the chief scientific 
thought in this colony, is quite as wide as those of the Association 
which fills a similar role with regard to Australasia. 

It is not pretended that the subjects thus included under the 
term " Science " are all those that go to make the culture of the 
individual. There is of course a great deal of knowledge besides 
and among these the study of language, literature and history, 
but even with regard to these it may be said that they closely 
concern sections F and J. Some aspects of language, such as the 



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ANNIVEBSABT ADDBB88. 47 

comparative study of various languages and general history of 
races could well be brought under F, while literature and history 
can be considered in their educational aspect and can therefore 
be claimed by section J. 

In fact so broad is the term ^* Science," and so unbiassed and 
BO wide-reaching are the aims of the Association, that if the list 
of sections is not long enough a new one could be readily added 
to cover any new subject of interest that may be submitted to the 
Council of the Association, and what may be said of the latter 
body is all the more applicable to our Society, seeing that its 
objects are stated in the Act of Incorporation to be the " en- 
couragement of studies and investigations in Science, Art, Litera- 
ture and Philosophy." 

There is evidently a much greater lack of the scientific spirit in 
Australia than in Great Britain, and Europe, and America. Why 
is it ? Is it that p>eople are too physically vigorous 1 As soon as 
their work is done, and sometimes before, their whole attention 
seems to be taken up with out-door games and amusements. 
Is it the bright sunshine and the attractions of the open air that 
leads to the cultivation of the physical and the neglect of mental 
culture? If people generally could only be awakened to the 
delights of a study of nature, they could enjoy the open air while 
learning some of the mysteries of the life around them, and still 
find time enough for healthy games and social amusements. 
Their own life would be enlarged to them, and there would be an 
additional pleasure in existence. 

In this Nineteenth Century when the quality and cheapness of 
everything we use is so much the result of scientific thought and 
discovery, people ought to be better informed. Can they not be 
taught 1 Would it be possible to make a regular practice of 
giving public lectures ? Could societies for the study of science 
at home, on the same basis as the home reading societies for 
literature be instituted? And is it possible not only to help 
educated people but the great masses of the people to learn some- 
thing of the secrets of science 1 I think all these questions can 



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48 HENBT DEANS. 

be answered in the affirmative, and that we as members of the 
premier scientific society of this colony, shoald do something more 
to bring aboat a better state of things. 

I think we are bound, in the first place, to advocate the placing 
of science in a more prominent position in the education of the 
young. I do not in any way intend to depreciate the value of 
literary studies and languages, because it is certain that anything 
approaching a complete education cannot be arrived at without a 
grasp of literature and language, but the day has gone by when 
these were universally considered to be the only way in which the 
mind could be trained. It is now accepted by our best authorities 
that science answers exactly the same purpose, and it has this 
advantage that it leads to habits of observation and to a sharpen- 
ing of the outward faculties which at the present day of compe- 
tition must be of great utility, and that while the study of ancient 
languages and literature helps the retrospective faculties, with 
the aid of science man deals with the present and makes plans 
for the future. 

It is very much to be regretted that men in high positions, 
when they make speeches at scientific meetings, should affect to 
despise science or say that they know nothing about it, and pass 
off their own ignorance with a laugh, as if it was not rather a 
matter to be deplored. Science is so wide in its scope that surely 
every man in a prominent position should have studied some par- 
ticular branch of it. 

Importance of Teclt/nical Training to all those engaged in ik$ 
mechanical and manufacturing a/rta, — Few now dispute the 
importance of technical training. Much has been written and 
spoken on this subject in Great Britain during the last few years, 
and the question has been the subject of an important inquiry 
and report by a Commission appointed by the British Government. 
It is now acknowledged that the British manufacturer has allowed 
himself to be outstripped in manufacturing progress, because other 
nations, notably the Germans, have for a long time based their 
practice on sounder scientific knowledge. In their countrj 



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ANNIYEBSABY ADDRESS. 49 

technical schools have been long instituted, and care has been 
taken not only to train men specially to undertake the chemical 
and other departments in manufacturing establishments, but to 
give opportunity to artizans to properly learn their trades on 
scientific principles. 

Sound technical training implies a knowledge of theory, and 
the student must be carefully instructed in the principles which 
underlie his subject, if he b to be in a position to properly exer- 
cise his judgment. The necessity for this is clear. The trained 
man starts in the business of life with a grasp of his subjeMct, a 
fund of information which the untrained man does not possess, 
and he IB in a much better position to cope with difficulties and 
achieve success than the other. 

The training of the skilled artizan and that of the professional 
man have this much in common. Both require a certain know- 
ledge of theory in order to understand their work, although, of 
course, in the case of the latter the extent and range of subjects 
to be learnt is vastly greater than in the other case, and they 
both have to acquire a facility in manipulation in the particular 
instruments essential to their calling. 

It cannot be too strongly urged, how important it is that all 
classes from employer to workman should be taught as their vary- 
ing circumstances require, if the British race wishes to keep in 
the front. 

With regard to the profession of engineering, it is not to be 
denied that the great engineers of the early part of this century 
started life without much theoretical teaching, and that their 
careers have been pre-eminently successful, but how much more 
transcendent would their position have been had theiy had the 
preliminary training which we now enjoy, but whidi in those days 
was not to be had 1 and it may be asked whether these great men 
would at the present time, did they enter upon their calling with- 
out it, be able, in spite of their genius, to comcpete with those who 
having less genius were better equipped. They certainly would 

D— May 4, 1896. 



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50 HBNBT DBAMB. 

have been seriouBly handicapped, and it is not likely that they 
would have distinguished themselves above their fellows to the 
same degree. 

The reality of the importance of properly instructing engineers 
in the ground work of their profession is now officially recognised 
by the Institution of Civil Engineers. An alteration in the by- 
laws has been quite recently effected, by which the council are 
empowered to require that all candidates for the associate-mem- 
bership shall submit themselves for examination, the same to be 
dispensed with only if evidence of previous t^^ining of an acknow- 
ledged kind is forthcoming. Other qualifications such as experi- 
ence have the same value as before. In the case of full member- 
ship application for entry will be most carefully scrutinised, and it 
is probable that it will not be long before the stamp of membership 
of the Institution will be looked upon as the greatest testimonial 
of competence, next to the carrying out of some great work, which 
the engineer will be able to show. 

The above ought to be an encouragement to young would-be 
engineers, to enter the Engineering School at the Universities. I 
have not infrequently been asked to advise as to youths who 
wished to take up engineerings and I have invariably recommended 
a University training. It is of no use beginning at the wrong 
end. If a man tries to learn practical engineering first, and study 
the principles afterwards, he will have very great difficulty in 
acquiring the latter at all, he will not have time to devote to it, 
and he will always be seriously handicapped. All men are not 
equally endowed with common sense, and a certain untrained man 
may have more of that article naturally than some other trained 
man, but it is only the man who is properly taught who can cor- 
rectly use his judgment and his reasoning powers. Those young 
men who have not studied the principles of their profession had 
better begin now. I fully believe that in a few years* time the 
untrained man will cease to be employed, or at least he will 
have little chance of rising. 



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ANNIYEB8ABT ADDBE8S. 51 

I should like all who have sons or relations aspiring to be civil 
engineers to bear this in mind, and let it not be forgotten that 
the term " Civil Engineer " as defined by the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, applies also to the mechanical, electrical and mining 
engineer. There should be no back door entrance to the profession, 
and the man who attempts that method should have to content 
himself with the lower grades. 

It is an advantage to our Public Service that the qualifications 
of all applicants are carefully scrutinised before employment. Even 
for junior clerkships the Public Service Board very properly 
arrange for examination before entrance. How much more 
necessary then for the professional candidate ! With regard to 
the latter I hope the Board will see their way to give due recog- 
nition to University degrees, to forego the further unnecessary 
examination in the subjects in which the candidate has already 
qualified, and make their choice dependent on his general fitness 
and experience on actual work, while at the same time if the 
Public Service Act requires it, a thesis could be asked for on 
some set subject by way of examination. 

I have urged the importance to the engineer of proper and 
sound training, but my remarks are in the main applicable to 
other callings, — certainly to the allied profession of architecture 
as well as more or less to all the manufacturing arts. 

I should like to see the work already begun by that most useful 
institution, the Technical College, extended and enlarged. I 
believe that just as the University is fitted to deal with higher 
education in general and with the education of professional men, 
so the Technical College is the best body to teach in a practical 
manner the various branches of arts and manufacturing, while at 
the same time it includes sufficient theoretical teaching to enable 
the student to understand the groundwork of his subject. I am 
sure all will agree that the encouragement of this institution will 
prove one of the best investments the State has ever made. It 
does not matter what classes of the community are benefited, 
increase of knowledge in the individual, if widely extended, must 



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52 HENBT DEANB. 

add to the aggregate of knowledge, and thus benefit the nation 
at large. 

I wish to say a few words as to methods of teaching. Students of 
small classes like those in the Engineering and Medical Schools 
at the University, have an incalculable advantage over those who 
have to work in larger clflisses, as they have better opportunities 
of personally coming into contact with their teacher. Means caki 
be adopted by the teacher by which the individual student's 
application to his studies can be tested from time to time. This 
seems to me a matter of very great importance. It can scarcely 
be denied that the object of a teaching institution is to teach, and 
not merely to lecture. If the chief object of a University were 
to test knowledge by examination, lectures might well be dispensed 
with, as after the course had been prescribed and text-books re- 
commended the student might be left to himself or his coach, and 
it would be cheaper for him as he would have no class fees to pay. 
If an institution, however, undertakes to teach, every opportunil^ 
should be given to the student to enjoy the personal influence of 
the professor, his assistance, guidance and advice. This would 
result in some considerable supervision and authority over idlers, 
who ought to be made to realise the time and opportunities they 
are wasting. 

In the English universities, where residence is required, a gopd 
deal of supervision is exercised, but in non-residential universities 
it is all the more necessary that the short hours during which the 
student is under control should be utilised to his best advantage. 

Of course the University professor is dealing with young men 
who are supposed to have arrived at years of discretion. He can- 
not indeed treat them as school-boys, but he can call them to a 
sense of duty and encourage them. Even in the case of large 
classes, some means might be found by which the lecturer could 
inform himself of the progress being made by each individufJ 
student. Gould the right influence be brought to bear, I am sure 
that we would not hear of the enormous proportion of first ye^ 
students who fail to pass the year's examination. The young men 



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ANNIVEB8ABT ADDBBSS. 53 

and women of the first year particularly require assistance — they 
have recently left school, where they were under constant control ; 
they are now left to themselves, and for most of them the sense 
of freedom is too great ; they are not strong-willed enough to give 
the attention to their studies that is necessary, and the best of 
them want some guidance. 

Another question seems to me well worthy of attention. Some 
students, while showing fair proficiency in certain subjects fail in 
others when they come up for the year's examination, and they 
then have to enter all classes again the following year if they 
mean to persevere in their university studies. Why should 
they have to recapitulate those they had successfully passed 1 
I admit that some restrictions must be enforced, but is it not a 
waste of time to have to attend lectures over again, and an un- 
necessary expense to pay fees in those subjects they have already 
passed in. Perhaps if the student's progress could be properly 
gauged from time to time during the year there would be fewer 
failures at the end. 

I think it is acknowledged that in the second year of our 
Engineering School the extent of study prescribed is too great ; 
what it would be were the classes large and the interest taken by 
the professors and lecturers less, I do not know, but in the School 
in question the personal influence and assistance of the teaching 
statf is very great, and the student finds his difficulties consider- 
ably smoothed down. I am sure it would be better to allow the 
student to divide the work of the year if he prefers to do so. 
What is to the advantage of the student is to the advantage 
of the university. To make the three years' course into a 
compulsory four years' course, might be too hard on the brilliant 
but not too affluent student, though it would suit the slower, 
more plodding, hard working student. As it stands at present 
if the second year man fails to make himself proficient in all 
subjects, he has to go over every one of them again another year, 
which is not only hard but in part waste of time and money. 
Gould not the system be made a little less rigid ? 



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54 HBNBY DEANS. 

Professor Liversidge, in his presidential address to the Aostra- 
lasian Association for the Advancement of Science, gave it as his 
opinion that the engineering and science courses should be of four 
years duration. I presume that this is recommended for the 
double purpose of securing more thorough work and also a higher 
standard. With regard to the work of the Engineering School in 
which I naturally take a special interest, I should like to see the 
studies so arranged, if spread over four years, that the first three 
years should be devoted almost exclusively to the teaching of 
principles and theory, while if thought desirable the study of 
special machines, questions of economy and cost could be dealt 
with in the fourth year ; but I am not very much disposed to 
favor the teaching of matter which can better and more quickly 
be acquired after leaving the university, when the young engineer 
has entered upon his practical life. One great object would be 
gained by the lengthening of the whole course — the student would 
have more time for mathematics, and he would, as I think he 
ought, learn to use the calculus with as much facility as the unpro- 
fessional man uses the ordinary rules of arithmetic. He would 
also have more time for physics and chemistry, if found desirable, 
as well as for the engineering subjects properly so called. 

I offer the above observations with all deference to those to 
whom has been entrusted the care of the higher education of our 
young men and women. I am convinced that these matters have 
by no means been overlooked by them, but it will not be out of 
place if I submit views, which are shared with me by men well 
competent in virtue of their position to form an opinion. 

Before concluding, I wish to place on record my thanks for the 
kind assistance received from heads and principal officers of 
Departments and others, in collecting the information contained 
in my address. 

It now remains for me to thank you for the consideration with 
which you have treated me during the time that I have occupied 
this chair, and congratulate you on the election of my successor, 
to whose able keeping I now have the pleasure of handing over 
the responsibilities of this high office. 



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ASBONAUnOS. 55 



"AERONAUTICS." 
By L. Hargrayb. 



IRead before ihe Boyal Society of N. 8. Wales, June 1, 1898,'] 



Since the paper on the possibility of soaring in horizontal wind 
was read, no efforts have been spared to determine the essential 
features of carved surfaces that are of any practical utility to 
aeronautics, and the models shown in Figs. 1 and 2, embody what 
is known to date. The poles and horizontal cord have been found 
a most useful method of experimenting; indeed it may safely be 
said that without them the trifling amount of available wind 
would have been quite insulequate to find out anything new. As 
suggestions to those who wish to advance this matter rapidly, it 
may be stated that the wind near the ground is comparable to the 
surf on the sea shore, which all will admit is not suitable for 
testing the sailing capacity of yachts or boats. To utilize wind 
from all directions, a platform of wire netting should be placed 
in a situation like the top of the shearlegs on Garden Island. 
The top of a building, cliff or rugged mountain would be unsuitable, 
as walls and vertical surfaces merely create the aerial breakers 
which it is the wish of the experimenter to avoid. 

It is well at this point to have a distinct understanding that 
soaring is quite different from kite-flying and gliding. I9 gliding 
as practiced by Lilienthal and others, a free apparatus descends 
from an eminence and its fall is more or less retarded by the air 
on which it slides. In kite-flying, a weight attached to the earth 
is raised and supported by the wind sliding under it. In soaring, 
the mechanism is unattached to the earth, and maintains its 
elevation by using as a motor the vortex that its peculiar shape 
generates. Most people would at once say the last statement 
involves perpetual motion, and therefore is not worth considering; 
a few will see that a ball retaining its position in front of a nozzle 
against gravity and the downward thrust of a high-pressure jet 



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56 L. HASOBAYB. 

of water is a close analogy to the soaring vortex. The water 
clearly makes the ball weigh less than nothing. There is little 
doubt that the weight of a ball dancing on a fountain is greater 
than when it is at rest. 

The makers of soaring models will find great difficulty in per- 
suading them to remain tolerably stable in a fore and aft direction. 
The trouble will be greatly reduced if they avail themselves of 
the experience of a tight-rope walker with his balancing pole. 
The acrobat makes his pole as long and stiff as possible, and puts 
as much weight on the ends of it as he conveniently can, he then 
has no further difficulty with his athwartships stability. It is 
the inertia of the weighted ends that takes the wobble out of his 
body. Likewise the weighted ends of the fore and aft tubular 
rod in Figs. 1 and 2 check the erratic motion of the vulcanite 
propeller. 

When you consider the conformation of a soaring bird, it will 
be noticed that a large part of the under surface is not adapted 
for the formation of the soaring vortex. The tips of the rigid 
wings and tail are obviously of such a nature that they will not 
readily allow the bird to rise or fall suddenly when the soaring 
parts of the wings are struck by a gust from underneath or above. 
These surfaces are represented in Figs. 1 and 2 by the horizontal 
projection of the surfaces of the two cylindrical cells at the ends 
of the tubular rod. The vertical projection of the two cells repre- 
sents the vertical surface of a cellular kite or the dihedral angle 
of some soaring birds. 

The parts of a soaring bird's wings next to the body are repre- 
sented in Figs. 1 and 2 by the bent sheet of vulcanite. This is 
the propeller, and it makes sufficient thrust to overcome its own 
head resistance and that of the rod and two end cells. No attempt 
has yet been made to ring the changes on the numberless curves 
that probably soar; the essential points seem to be that the front 
part of the propeller shall be bent to about the quadrant of a 
circle, the extreme after part plane, and the intermediate portion 
hyperbolic. Rigidity of construction is all-important. Springy 



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58 L. HARORAVE. 



bo 

IN 



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AERONAUTICS. 59 

and vibratory surfaces are not conducive to steady soaring; their 
practical effect is to increase the head resistance. No curved 
surfaces made of muslin have yet soared; the nest for the vortex 
must be hard and smooth. 

The tubular rod and two end cells form really a cellular kite, 
and their head resistances are reduced to the utmost. In Fig. 1 
the total area exposed is 1-27 square inches without making any 
deduction for rounded edges. In addition to this there is the drift 
of the two strings which in practice will be dispensed with. The 
horizontal projected area of the cylindrical cells is 46*8 square 
inches, that of the propeller 165 square inches, total 211*8 square 
inches ; the total weight 1*53 &>s. gives a weight of 1*04 &>s. per 
square foot. 

The force of the wind required to make any show at all with 
the model depicted must be at least fourteen miles per hour ; light 
north-east and west winds have been a sore trial to the writer's 
patience, south-east and east being the only winds from which 
any results can be expected in the locality where the experiments 
are being carried on. 

The centre of gravity in Fig. 1 is 2*6 inches abaft the leading 
edge of the propeller and 3*725 inches forward of the middle of 
the tubular rod. The string is attached to the centre of gravity. 
The vulcanite propeller is fastened in such a manner that the 
angle it makes with the rod and cells can be varied from -h 1° to 
- 14^''; the best results in light winds have been obtained with 
about 3J° negative angle. There is no way of finding accurately 
at what angle the wind strikes the cells ; the rod appears to be 
horizontal. 

A light string is tied to the after end to prevent the kite rush- 
ing over the horizontal cord ; this string is slackened out till the 
kite is near the level of the top of the poles and in a horizontal 
position facing the wind; it then soars to windward, sometimes 
over but more frequently under the cord. Sometimes the kite 
can be steadied near the zenith by means of the tail string. 



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€0 L. HABOBAVB. 

The question arises as to what is the use of trying to make a 
large soaring machine, if under ordinary circumstances one may 
wait weeks for a few hours' trial with small models. Irrespective 
of the pleasure to be derived from attempting to unravel nature's 
secrets, there is the prospect that an apparatus fitted with soaring 
curves may be raised by thrust in calm weather with greater 
facility than the ordinary screw-driven aeroplane; and that 
although the air is calm near the earth's surface, a few hundred 
feet elevation would bring the machine into disturbed air. where 
the soaring curves would develop their full power and the machine 
could then proceed without steam. 

The late gales (May 5) enabled me to find out that the pou nds 
per square foot suitable for a fourteen miles per hour wind did 
not give as good results in thirty-five miles ; and served to show 
that there are three cases in which soaring is possible : 

Case 1. When all the surfaces are shaped for soaring. This 
form of apparatus will be extremely difficult to steer. 

Case 2. When the cellular kite part of the machine is inclined 
at a slight positive angle. This form is for use in the lightest 
winds in which soaring can be done. 

Case 3. When the cellular kite as well as the propeller is at a 
negative angle. This is for very strong winds. 

There is no reason why the propeller should not act if the axis 
of the vortex is not horizontal. Possibly concentric ring propellers 
may be found to give steady and uniform results with little 
weight. The kite shown in the Fig. 1 has been greatly improved 
by increasing the rigidity of the tubular rod; it is now -55 inches 
external diameter, and all the ballast is put inside the ends* 
There is 12*75 inches of -5 inch round lead in the forward end 
and 6*75 inches inside the tail. This brings the weight up to 1-95)8, 
per square foot. When loaded to 1*87 Bbs. per square foot with a 
wind of sixteen or seventeen miles per hour, the propeller set at a 
negative angle of 6*3°, and centre of gravity 3 inches abaft the 
leading edge of the propeller, it has frequently soared to the 
end of its tether. 



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▲XRONAUnCS. 61 

The soaring kite with the double propeller rolls very sharply; 
this is thought to be due to the centre of gravity being too low. 
The rod is now clamped to the steel wires joining the two parts of 
the propeller, in such a way that it can be adjusted vertically. 

As it seems impossible to arrange for the members to see these 
particular experiments, it is thought that an accurate drawing of 
the model is amply sufficient to enable others to reproduce and 
extend the elementary observations here recorded. 

The principle points that require investigating, are : — 

1. How much the after edge of the propeller can be cut away 
without impairing its efficiency ? 

2. What is the diameter of vortex that is best for general use? 

3. How many propellers can be advantageously superposed ? 

4. The proper relation between the propeller area and the kite 
area. 

5. The shortest rod that will keep the longitudinal equilibrium 
stable. 

6. What is the supporting power of the propeller when used 
for gliding, as compared with that of the gliding machines now 
used ? 

7. Oan the vortex be produced by a motor in calm air so as to 
be more economical than the thrust of a screw? 

8. To make an instrument to show simultaneously what pressure 
there is at every part of the concave and convex surfaces of the 
propeller. 

These alone form a large volume of work for one pair of hands 
to endeavour to accomplish, and it appears regrettable that Aus- 
tralians should leave to Americans and others the tardy adoption 
of the views circulated by this Society. 

A steam screw motor Figs. 3 and 4, which is intended to develop 
five or six horse power has taken ^p much time, but as yet it will 
not work in a reliable manner. It is of course quite a secondary 
consideration while the soaring kites are developing. The water 



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62 ^* HABGRAIH. 



Fig. 3. 

is contained in the square part of the tubular frame, and the 
kerosene in the centre upright part. The cylinders (2) are 4-25 
inches diameter, the stroke is one inch, and they rotate with 
the screw. The shaft is clamped to the frame. The boiler is 
made of one hundred and twenty-four feet six inches of iV ii^ch 
copper pipe, with 10*27 square feet outside heating surface ; the 
capacity is 88*4 cubic inches. Weight of pipe is 8*37 ft)8., coiled 
eight and a half inches outside diameter. The upper two-thirds 



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ABBONAUTICS. 63 



Fig. 4. 

of the pipe branches into two parts joining again at the steam 
pipe. The fuel is vapourized in seven feet six inches of one- 
quarter inch copper pipe coiled inside the tin burner casing 



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64 L. HABGBAYB. 

shown under the boiler. The total weight of the motor exclusive 
of water and kerosene is 36*5 pounds. 

The principle that long continued thought on any subject must 
tend to a clearer view of the detail connected therewith, has 
encouraged me to state some considerations as to the disposition 
of the supporting surfaces of flying machines that do not seem to 
have yet struck other experimenters. 

It has been usual to make the lifting surface in one or more 
pieces rigidly connected to the weight to be lifted. In the machine 
for the engine, Figs. 3 and 4, it is intended to depart considerably 
from this practice by dividing the required surface into numerous 
small aeroplanes, all attached to the weight by one wire. 

The aeroplane derives its lifting power either from moving air 
passing it when attached to the earth or from bemg moved hori- 
zontally through calm air; in either case there is no necessity for 
the aeroplanes to be connected to the weight by rigid booms and 
numerous stays, as the lift and drift can act only in tension and 
in one vertical plane. By dividing the surface into a number of 
small planes, any refinement of curve may be introduced with the 
certainty that the advantage accruing therefrom will be effectively 
used, and that the head resistance will be reduced to a minimum. 

It will be obvious that forty aeroplanes of ten square feet area 
each can be constructed with much less material for spreading 
them horizontally than one plane of four hundred square feet area. 
In fact we are substituting arithmetical for geometrical progression 
in the weight of our surfaces and their head resistance, and lifting 
our machine pound by pound with foot by foot of added sur&u^. 
We are also able to unite very large and therefore more eflicient 
engines with the extraordinary lifting power known to exist in 
small and carefully curved aeroplanes. You will gather from 
these remarks that the proposed flying machine will be a rather 
tall structure, and that fact alone will make it extremely easy to 
work and certain in its action. 

The most suitable time for experimenting will be when the 
wind velocity is slighlily belpw ths^t at. which the machine is 



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AERONAUTICS. 65 

designed to flj. The aeroplanes are sent aloft kite fashion, the 
anchor restraining the drift. Steam is then raisod and the pro- 
peller started ; if it is driven hard enough the machine rises over 
and picks up the anchor; if the power is insufficient no risks have 
been run and there are no damages to repair. 

There is no special gear for causing the machine to ascend or 
descend ; it is simply a matter of more or less steam. The turning 
to the right or left is done by pulling slightly on one or other of 
two strings attached to the forward corners of some of the lower 
aeroplanes. The weight is kept from spinning round by some 
small vertical surface to the rear of and in a line with the thrust 
of the propeller, so that it is immaterial whether the weight is 
deflected by the small vertical surface and pulls the aeroplanes 
after it, or the aeroplanes are made to shoot to one side by the 
strings and pull the weight after them. There will probably be 
aa advantage in the motor working in air of less velocity than 
the higher current when going to windward. 

It is not generally understood that when the motor has succeeded 
in thrusting sufficiently hard to run over and lift the anchor, the 
aeroplanes exert a steady lift on the motor, and that whether the 
wind blow high or low, or change its direction, the whole apparatus 
maintains a uniform velocity through the air as long as the engine 
maintains a uniform speed. Of course the machine will drift 
vith the air currents, but this set has to be allowed for and a 
course shaped accordingly. The set of the air current would be 
Qoknown if the earth were invisible; in like manner that the 
set of an ocean current is not ascertainable when out of sight of 
land without the aid of astronomy. 

If there is no wind at all, there is no means of getting this form 
of flying machine aloft except by making a more or less extended 
run along the ground. This run may be then made round a 
circular track. In the event of the motor stopping, the machine 
does not full vertically as a parachute, but slides down gradually 
in any desired direction. These remarks refer to the screw-driven 
aeroplane machine, if soaring propellers are substituted for some 
or all of the aeroplanes, a new power is introduced that completely 
modifies all preconceived conditions. 

E-Jnne 1, 1898. 



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66 B. H. IfATHBWS. 



AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONAL SYSTEMS. 
By R. H. Mathews, l.8. 



IRead brfore the Boyal Society of N. 8. Wales, June 1, 1898.] 



In the following pages it is proposed to give a brief account of 
all the intermarrying divisions of the aborigines throughout 
Australia, with which we are acquainted up to the present time. 
As no similar work has hitherto been attempted, it is hoped that 
an article of this character will be found of some value to others 
who may embark in the same line of investigation. The group 
and totemic divisions are strongly manifested in all the principal 
ceremonies of the Australian aborigines ; hence it is of the utmost 
importance that any one studying the customs of these people 
should have a knowledge of their divisional systems. 

Before proceeding to enumerate the different systems found 
throughout the continent, it will perhaps be interesting to give a 
short outline of the structure of aboriginal communities in general 

An Australian tribe has certain territorial limits, and is known 
by a general name, which is in most cases derived from the 
language spoken by its members, as is the names of the Wiradjuri, 
Kamilaroi, Koombanggary, etc. The area of a tribe's domain 
varies with the character of the district they inhabit, as well as 
with the numerical strength of the people. In the well- watered 
coastal districts of New South Wales, where fish and game are 
abundant, their hunting grounds would be comparatively small ; 
whilst in the open plains of the interior, where game is not so 
plentiful and water is often scarce, the tract of country required 
to support a tribe would necessarily be more extensive. 

Every tribe is made up of several sub-tribes, all speaking the 
same language, each of which occupies its own hunting grounds, 
which are defined by hills, water-courses, patches of scrub, or 
other remarkable natural features. Each of these sub-tribes has 



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AUSTRALIAN DIVIBIONAL 8T8TEH8. 67 

a headman or chief, and these headmen collectively are the rulers 
of the whole tribe. The customary laws are administered by 
these headmen, who, in the exercise of their authority, are 
supported by all the initiated men of their respective divisions. 
When a number of these tribes are bound together by having the 
same divisional (or class) systems — speaking dialects of the same 
tongue, participating in identical or similar initiation ceremonies, 
and among whom intermarriage is more or less frequent — they 
form communities. Aggregates of these communities may be 
called nations. 

The members of a tribe, and of course, also of its component 
sub-tribes, are divided into two exogamous intermarrying groups, 
bearing distinctive appellations, and having a more or less varied 
selection of totems attached to each. In some tribes these two 
groups are the only divisions observable — the individuals of one 
group intermarrying with those of the other — of which the Mattiri 
and Earraru groups at Port Lincoln, South Australia, may be 
taken as an example. 

In other tribes the two groups are subdivided into smaller 
segments. For example, the Yuipera tribe at Mackay is composed 
of two primary groups, called Wootaroo and Youngaroo ; the 
former is again divided into two sections, called Woongo and 
Coobaroo, and the latter into two, called Bunbia and Gurgila. 

In other communities, of which some tribes in the Northern 
Territory may be taken as an example, the two primary groups 
are segregated into four sections each. Group A. is subdivided 
into Choolum, Jamerum, Chenum and Yacomary. Group B. is 
similarly divided into Chingalum, Bungarin, Ohooralum and 
Palyarin. 

There are other tribes, especially in some parts of West Aus- 
tralia, whose divisions appear to be of an abnormal type, but I 
shall be glad to receive further particulars before coming to any 
definite conclusions respecting them. 

Besides the segregation of the community into the groups and 
sections to which I have referred, there is another partition of 



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68 B. H. HVTHBWS. 

the latter into lesser divisions, bearing the names of animals, or 
other natural objects, which from their analogy to the well known 
North American tribal division^ have been called totems. It is 
evident therefore that an aboriginal native inherits a group and 
a sectional name, followed by that of his totem. For example, a 
man of the Kamilaroi tribe may belong to the group Kupathin^ 
section Ippai, and totem Emu. In addition to these ancestral 
titles, each blackfellow has his own personal name, as Fleet- 
foot. 

The individuals belonging to any group, section, or totem, da 
not collect into certain localities by themselves, separate from the 
rest, but are dispersed indiscriminately throughout the whole 
tribal territory — members of each section and totem being found 
in all the local divisions. It is possible for all the totems in the 
community to be represented in the same locality. This dispersion 
of the totems is due to the intermarriage of the individuals of 
which the groups and sections forming the social community are 
composed. 

As the intermarriages of the groups, sections and totems will be 
fully explained later on, it is only necessary to say here that, in 
nearly all Australian tribes descent is reckoned through the 
mother only — the father being generally disregarded in determin- 
ing the division to which the children belong. There are also 
strict totemic regulations of universal prevalence which prevent 
persons of the same totem from either marrying or having sexual 
intercourse with each other. 

In dealing with this subject it will be preferable to take the 
divisions existing in each of the colonies separately, stating shortly 
who was the first to observe thom, and then to give particulars 
of their structure and geographic range, from information collected 
by myself. 

South Australian Divisions. 
The Rev. 0. W. Schiirmann was the first to place on record the 
rules of marriage and descent in force among the aborigines of 



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AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONAL SYSTEMS. 69 

South Australia. In a pamphlet which he published in 1840/ 
describing the customs of the Parnkalla and other native tribes 
inhabiting the Port Lincoln district, on the west of Spencer's 
Oulf, he says : " They are divided into two distinct classes, the 
Mattiri and Karraru people. . . If a husband be Mattiri, his 
vife must be Karraru, and vice versd, the children taking invari- 
ably the appellation of that class to which their mother belongs.^' 
That is, if a Karraru man married a Mattiri woman, the sons and 
daughters would be Mattiri, the same as their mother. In a 
similar manner the children of a Karraru woman would be 
Karraru. Mr. C. Wilhelmi, in I860* confirmed the divisional 
names and rules of descent given by Mr. Schilrmann. 

These rules of marriage and descent will be more apparent if 
arranged in tabular form, thus : — 

Husband Wife Offspring 

Mattiri Karraru Karraru 

Karraru Mattiri Mattiri 

In 1874 the Government of South Australia issued circulars 
asking for certain particulars respecting the customs of the abori- 
gines, and such circulars were sent to all persons likely to be 
acquainted with the subject throughout the colony. In response 
to these notices, a large amount of valuable information was 
obtained, and was published by the Government Printer, Adelaide, 
in 1879, under the title of "Folklore, Manners, Customs, and 
Languages of the South Australian Aborigines." This book was 
•edited by the Rev. George Taplin, who had taken an active interest 
in the movement from its inception. In the following pages refer-, 
ences will frequently be made to the work mentioned. 

Mr. James Bryant mentions two divisions as obtaining amongst 
the tribes about the Gawler Ranges, who adjoined the Port Lincoln 
people on the north. He spells the names of the divisions as 

1 Aboriginal Tribes of Port Liacoln, S. A. (E. Thomas & Co., Adelaide). 
This work is republished in " Native Tribes of Sooth Australia/* (1879), 
pp. 207-262. 

» Trans. Eoy. Soc., Victoria, (1860) Vol. v., p. 178. 



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70 R. H. IfATHEWS. 

Mathury and Oariero, and states that they intermarried with 
each other. ^ 

Still farther inland, round the head of Spencer's Gulf, and down 
the eastern side of it as far as Orystal Brook, as well as in the 
Flinders Ranges, which extend from there to the east of Lake 
Torrens, Mr. Noble reports the existence of the same two divisions 
which he calls Muttay and Arriee.' Both Mr. Bryant and Mr. 
Noble call these divisions "clans," — which is by the way quite as 
suitable a term as "classes," although neither of these names are 
very appropriate. 

Mr. Samuel Gason, in describing the customs of the Dieyerie 
tribes at Lake Eyre, states that they were organised into inter- 
marrying divisions, bearing the names of animals.' In 1882, Mr. 
A. W. tTowitt, from information supplied by the Rev. H. Vogel- 
sang, a missionary among the tribes referred to, reported that 
their divisions were Mattiri and Karraru, being the same names 
as those stated by the Rev. 0. W. Schiirmann at Port Lincoln. 
Dr. E. 0. Stirling in 1896,* and Professor W. B. Spencer in 1897,* 
mentioned these divisions in the same district. 

It will be seen that I have traced the two divisions, Mattiri 
and Karraru, through a wide extent of territory, reaching irom 
Port Lincoln, vift Port Augusta and Faiina, to somewhere abput 
Oodnadatta, a distance of over seven hundred miles. From the 
latter place northerly to the neighbourhood of the James Ranges 
the tribes are divided into four sections ; and thence to the Gulf 
of Carpentaria they are divided into eight sections, the particulars 
pi whose organisation I shall now endeavour to explain. 

In 1875, Mr. Christopher Giles,® who was a station master at 
Charlotte Waters telegraph station, reported that the tribes in 
that neighbourhood, who spoke the Arrinda language, were divided 

1 Folklore, Manners, &c. of S. A. Aborigines, p. 103. 2 Ibid,, p. 64. 

3 The Dieyerie Tribe of Australian Aborigines, (1874), p. 13. 

4 Horn Exped. Central Anstralia, Part iv., p. 46. 

5 The Engwurra Ceremony — Proc. Eoy. Soc. Vic, N.S., x., 18. 

6 Folklore, Manners, &c. of 8. A. Aborigines, pp. 82-91. 



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AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONAL SYSTEMS. 71 

into four classes, called Farroola, Panimgka, Booltara and Eoo- 
inurra. He gave the rules of intermarriage established in relation 
to these four diyisions, with the names to which the offspring 
belonged, which may be briefly summarised as follows : 
Husband Wife OflFspring 

Paroola Panungka Koomurra 

Panungka Parroola Booltara 

Booltara Koomurra Panungka 

Koomurra Booltara Parroola 

In 1878, Mr. J. D. Woods^ confirmed the observations of Mr. 
0. Giles in regard to the divisions of the tribes from the Peake to 
Charlotte Waters and Alice Springs, his spelling of the four names 
being as follows : Parula, Pooninga, Pultara and Goomara. He 
says the children of either sex always take their mother's family 
name. Mr. E. M. Curr mentions the same names in 1886.* In 
the same year they were referred to by Mr. P. E. H. W. Krichauff,* 
and in 1887 Mr. D. Lindsay also mentions having observed them.^ 
Mr. W. H. Willshire reported these four classes at Alice Springs 
in 1891,*^ and again in 1895.* 

The Rev. Louis Schulze, a missionary at Hermannsburgh, on 
the Finke River, discovered that each of the four classes which 
had been reported by previous writers, had a fellow or comple- 
mentary class, if I may so term it, attached to it, thus making 
four pairs of classes, or eight divisions in all. The names of the 
additional classes he found to be Pungata, Mbutjana, Knurraia 
and Ngala.^ Mr. Schulze also observed that a man had the 
privilege of choosing his wife from either of two prescribed divis- 
ions. A Bultara man, for example, could marry either a Koomara 
or Mbutjana woman.^ 

I Trans. Philos. Soc., S. Australia, ii., 85-86. 
s Australian Race, i., 417. 

3 Proc Roy. Geog. Soc. Aust., S. A. Branch, n., 88. 

4 Ibid., II., 8rd Session, p. 4. 

5 The Aborigines of Central Australia, (Adelaide^ 1891) p. 18. 
« Joum. Anthrop. Inst., xxiv., 188. 

7 In 1897, Professor Spencer and Mr. Gillen conflrmed the existence of 
the four additional divisions.— Proc. Roy. Soc, Victoria, x., N.S., 19. 

8 Trans. Roy. Soo. S. Australia, xiv., 228 - 227. 



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72 



B. H. MATHEWS. 



I was much interested in the paper communicated by Mr. 
Schuize, and during 1895 I was enabled to make independent 
enquiries through Mr. Jackson, a friend who went out to the mica 
and ruby fields in the Hart's ranges, and the gold mines about 
Arltunga, or Paddy's Waterhole, as it is commonly called. From 
information then obtained, I was enabled to tabulate the divisions 
as under, showing two intermarrying groups, A and B : — 





Hasband 


Wife 


Children 




rBultara 


Koomara 


Panungka or Knurraia 


< 


Pungata 


Mbutjana 


Knurraia or Panungka 


1 


Parulla 


Panungka 


Koomara or Mbutjana 




.Ngala 


Knurraia 


Mbutjana or Koomara 




Koomara 


Bultara 


Parulla or Ngala 




Mbutjana 


Pungata 


Ngala or Parulla 


o 


Panungka 


Parulla 


Bultara or Pungata 




VKnurraia 


Ngala 


Pungata or Bultara 



My correspondent confirms Mr. Schulze's statement regarding 
the intermarriage of the men of a pair of complementary sections 
with the women of another pair. Thus, Bultara can marry a 
woman from either the Koomara or Mbutjana sections, and 
Pungata can marry into either of the same sections that Bultara 
can. If Bultara marry a Koomara woman, the children will be 
Panungka, but if he select an Mbutjana wife, the children will be 
Knurraia. It appears, therefore, that the children of each of 
these men may be either Panungka or Knurraia, which is regulated 
by the section to which the mother belongs. Marriage and descent 
in the other pairs of sections will follow the same rules, miUatis 
niutandisy as examplified in the table. 

It will be seen by the above table that my arrangement of the 
divisional names differs from that of Mr. Schulze. He also states 
that the children have paternal descent, but Mr. Jackson represents 
that they belong to their mother's group, as shown in the table, 



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AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONAL SYSTEMS. 



73 



and this is supported by Mr. Woods' statement already quoted. 
As there is a difference of opinion in regard to the line of descent 
among the Alice Springs tribes, I intend making further enquiries 
and will also endeavour to obtain comprehensive particulars 
respecting the totems. For the present, therefore, a list of totems 
already collected will be omitted. 

My correspondent afterwards made his way northwards, and 
before leaving the Hart's Ranges I gave him such particulars of 
the divisions of the Warramonga tribes as I could obtain from 
Mr. A. M. Giles' statements published by Mr. A W. Howitt,^ 
sud asked him, if he had the opportunity, to make certain further 
enquiries which I indicated. He met some of these blacks and 
gathered particulars from which I am able to tabulate eight 
divisions in the following order, illustrating the rules of marriage 
and descent: 

Husband Wife Sods Daughters 

. /Kabatjee Nakamarra Ungary Namatjillee 

^ JOpalla Namatjillee Ampatjona Tampatjona 

o j Apungata Tampatjona Aponunga Naponunga 

^ vTungulli Naponunga Akamarra Nakamarra 



£ 
O 



/Akamarra 
Ungary 
Ampatjona 
Aponunga 



Kabatjeen 
Narulla 
Napungata 
NunguUi 



Opalla 
Apungata 
Tungulli 
Kabatjee 



Narulla 
Napungata 
Nungulli 
Kabatjeen 



The foregoing table shows that the community is segregated 
into two groups, A and B, one of which intermarries with the 
other ; and each of these is again subdivided into four sections, 
the names of which are given. The sons of the women of group A 
marry the daughters of the women of group B, and vice versa^ 
therefore the women of one group are the mothers of the men of 
the other. 

Each group has perpetual succession through the women — the 
daughters belonging to the same group as their mothers, but to a 

I Joum. Antbrop. Inst., xni., 44. 



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74 B. H. ICiLTHBWS. 

different section of it. The women of group A pass sucoessivelT^ 
throagh each of the four sections in as many generations. For 
example, taking the women of group A in the table, we find that 
Nakamarra is the mother of Namatjillee ; NamatjiUee of Tarn- 
patjona; Tampatjona of Naponunga; and Naponunga is the 
mother of Nakamarra, the same sectional name with which wO' 
started, and this order of succession is repeated cui infinitum. 

The men of any given section likewise reappear in the fifth 
generation, but in a different manner to their sisters. We have 
seen in the last paragraph that the women of a group never pass 
out of it, but perpetually alternate from one section to another. 
The men, however, fluctuate from one group to the other in each 
generation. For example, Kabatjee, of group A in the table has 
a son Ungary who belongs to group B; Ungary has a son 
Apungata of group A ; Apungata has a son Aponunga of group 6; 
and Aponunga has a son Kabatjee, which brings us back to the 
starting point in group A. In four generations the men pass^ 
through two sections of each group. 

The son of the brother marries the daughter of the sister, and 
conversely, the son of the sister marries the daughter of the brother* 
This can easily be shown by preparing a short pedigree of any 
given individual. Let us take a man of the Opalla section as an 
example : 

Opalla marries Namatjillee 



Son 
Ampatjona 
Ampatjona marries Napungata 



Son 
Tungulli 



Daughter 
Nungulli 



Daughter 
Tampajona 
Apungata marries Tampatjona 



Squ 
Apanunga 



C^ . J 



Daughter 
Naponunga 



I ' I 

By this table it is seen that Opalla marries Namatjillee, the 
offspring being Ampatjona and Tampatjona. Ampatjona marries 
Napungata, and has a son and daughter Tungulli and Nungulli 
Ampatjona's sister Tampatjona marries Apungata and has a son 



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AU8TEALIAN DIVISIONAL 8T8TBM8. 



75( 



and a daughter Aponunga and Naponanga. Tungulli th^ son of 
Ampatjona marries Naponunga, the daughter of Tampatjona his 
father's sister. Apanunga the son of Tampatjona marries Nun- 
gulli, the daughter of Ampatjona his mother's brother. The 
relationship of brother and sister here referred to must of course 
be understood as tribal only, and not of the full blood. 

Mr. S. N. Innes, having read my paper on the Kamilaroi class 
system,^ took a lively interest in the subject and commenced study- 
ing it. He wrote me that he was acquainted with a number of 
tribes having very interesting divisions, and stated his willingness 
to assist me if I gave him the points on which to make enquiriesv 
This I immediately did, and made such suggestions as I thought 
might be of value. After a lot of correspondence, and much 
thrashing out, I am now enabled to prepare the following table^ 
showing the divisions of the tribes occuping a considerable tract 
of country in the Northern Territory, stretching from near the 
Gulf of Carpentaria westerly across the overland telegraph line ; 
and there is reason to believe that a similar organisation extends 
onwards into West Australia. 





Husband 


Wife 


Sons 


Daughters 


< 


Choolum 


Ningulum 


Palyarin, 


Palyarinya 


Jamerum 


Palyarinya 


Chooralum 


Nooralum 


i^ 


Cheenum 


Nooralum 


Bungarin 


Bungarinya. 


o 


Yacomary 


Bungarinya 


Chingulum 


Ningulum 




Chingulum 


Noolum 


Yacomary 


Yacomarin 


Bungareen 


Yacomarin 


Cheenum 


Neenum 




Chooralum 


Neenum 


Jamerum 


Neomarum 


O 


Palyarin 


Neomarum 


Choolum 


Noolum 



The community is divided into two intermarrying groups, A 
^nA B, the men of one group marrying the women of the other, or 
the sons of group A marrying the sisters of the men of their own 
generation in group B, and vice versa, subject to certain rules which 

1 The Kamilaroi Class System of Australian Aborigines — Proc. Boy» 
Geog. Soc. Auflt (Q.), x., 18 - 84. 



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76 R. H. MATHEWS. 

are apparent in the table. The women never change oot of the 
group to which they belong, but pass 'successively through each 
of the four sections of which it is composed. Taking the women 
of group A as an example, it is shown that Ningulum is the 
mother of Palyarinya, Palyarinya of N€k>ralum, Nooralum of 
Bungarinya, and Bungarinya of Ningulum, and this series is con- 
tinually repeated, each section name reappearing in the fifth 
generation. Succession is counted through the females — the 
women of one group producing the men of the other. 

New South Wales Divisions. 
The Wiradjuri and Kamilaroi communities are divided into the 
four undermentioned sections, the names of the women in each 
section being different from those of the men. For example, in 
some families all the sons are Murri, and all the daughters Matba- 
in others they are Kubbi and Kubbitha ; in others Ippai and 
Ippatha; and again in others they are Kumbo and Butha. These 
names were first reported by the Rev. Wm. Ridley in 1853 as 
occurring among the Kamilaroi tribes on the Namoi and other 
rivers.^ Since then I have reported the same divisional names 
among the Darkinung^ tribe of the Wollombi district, and among 
the Moorawarrie of the Culgoa and adjacent rivers. I have also 
observed four divisions with the same nomenclature among the 
Wailwan, Uollaroi, Wallaroi, Pickumbul, and Ukumbul tribes. 

The intermarriage of the sections, and names of the offspring 
can be more clearly understood by means of a table : 

Husband Wife Offspring 

Murri Kumbo Ippai 

Kubbi Ippai Kumbo 

Kumbo Murri Kubbi 

Ippai Kubbi Murri 

From particulars supplied by Mr. Chas. G. N. Lockhart, the 
Rev. L. Fison, in 1872, states that among the Darling River tribe 



1 Studies in Aocieiit History, Second Series (1896), by J. F. McLennan, 
p. 289; also, Kamilaroi etc., (1806), p. 88. 

i Jouni. Eoy. Soc. N. S. Wales, mi., 170, 171. 



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AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONAL SYSTEMS.. 77 

at Wentworth, a Kilpara man must always marrj a Mookwara 
-woman, and a Mookwara man a Kilpara woman.^ Speaking of 
the same people in 1875, the Rev. R. W. Holden' reports the 
same divisional names and rules of marriage as those given by 
Mr. Fison, but neither of these gentlemen mentioned the divisional 
names of the offspring. In 1878, Mr. R. B. Smyth, in referring 
to these divisions says, on the authority of Mr. J. Bulmer, that 
the children take their caste from their mother.'' For example, 
if the mother be Mookwara the children will be Mookwara ; if the 
mother be Kilpara, the children will also belong to that division. 
This appears to be the first report showing the line of descent in 
the tribe referred to. 

In May 1883, Mr. F. Bonney, who resided fifteen years near the 
Darling, mentions the divisions Muckwarra and Kilparra aa 
obtaining on the Darling River above and below Wilcannia. He 
also mentions their prevalence among the natives of the Barrier 
Ranges, which includes Silverton and adjacent stations.'* 

In 1884-85 I was surveying in the Silverton and Bro*ken Hill 
district, and made a tour from there to Tibooburra, and thence to 
the Darling via the Paroo river. Among the tribes throughout 
that immense tract of country I found the two divisions, Muck- 
warra and Keelparra, with groups of totems attached to each. 

In 1885, Mr. A. L. P. Cameron, who lived some years between 
the Darling and the Lachlan Rivers reported that these twa 
divisional names extended up the Darling from Went worth at 
least as far as Menindie. He was also the first to observe that 
Mukwarra was equivalent to the pair of sections lidurri and Kubbi 
of the Kamilaroi, and that Kilparra was the equivalent of the 
Ippai and Kumbo sections." 

In 1883, Mr. £. Palmer described the divisions of what he 
called the Kombinegherry tribe on the Bellinger River," consist- 

1 Trans. Koy. Soc Victoria, x., 161. 

8 Folklore, Manners, Ac. of S. A. Aborigines, p. 17. 

» Aborigines of Victoria, i., 86. 

4 Joom. Anthrop. Inst., xin., 129. « Ibid., xrv., 861. « Ibid., xiii., 804. 



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78 B. H. ICATHBWB. 

ing of the foar sections Karbo, Wombo, Marro, and Wirro. Since 
then I discovered the same divisions, with some modifications of 
flound and spelling, among the tribes of the Clarence, Kempsey, 
Manning, Hastings and Hunter Rivers, with their numerous 
affluents. I also found similar divisions in the New England 
tribes, but two of the female sectional names were entirely different. 
I have elsewhere given the sectional names and list of toteoois, of 
all the tribes referred to in this paragraph with their rules of 
marriage and descent.^ I was moreover the first to establish the 
equivalence of the sections to those of the Kamilaroi and Wirad- 
juri communities,' 

Queensland Divisions. 
The Rev. Wm. Ridley gave the names of the four divisions of 
the Kogai tribe, on the Balonne, Maranoa and Coogoon Rivers, 
with the laws of marriage and descent as follows : — ^ 



Hasband. 


Wife 


Sons 


Daughters 


Wungo 


Unburrigun 


Urgilla 


Urgillagun 


Obar 


Urgillagun 


Unburn 


Unburrigun 


Unburn 


Woongogun 


Obur 


Oburrugun 


Urgilla 


Oburrugun 


Wungo 


Wungogun 



Mr. Ridley was also the first to draw attention to the equivalence 
of the sectional names in different tribes. For example, he showed 
that Wungo of the Maranoa tribe was equivalent to Murri of the 
Kamilaroi ; Obur to Kubbi, Urgilla to Ippai, and Unburri to 
Kumbo.^ It may be as well to explain that when a certain section 
in one tribe holds the same place in the system as a section in 
another tribe, such sections are said to correspond to each other, 
or in other words, to be equivalent, as in the above example.^ 

When Mr. R. B. Smyth was compiling his work on the 
aborigines, published in 1878, one of his correspondents, Mr. 
George Bridgman, Superintendent of Aboriginal Stations, near 
Mackay, who had seen Mr. Ridley's classification, reported that 

1 Journ. Eoy. Soc., N. S. Wales, xxxi., 168 - 171. « Ibid,, xxxi., 169, 170. 
s Kamilaroi and other Australian Languages, (1866) p. 38. * Ibid., p. 38. 
» Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q.), x., 31. 



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AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONAL STSTBMS. 79 

the Yuipera and adjoining tribes at Mackay were divided into 

two primary classes, each of which was subdivided into two others. 

This will be bettor understood in tabular form :— ^ 

Primary Division Husband Wife Offspring 

Wootaroo / W^^^«<> Bunbia Gurgila 

wootaroo ^ Co^baroo Gurgila Bunbia 

y i Bunbia^ Woongo Coobaroo 

^* \ Gurgila Coobaroo Woongo 

The above four names, although differing somewhat in spelling 
from those reported by Mr. Ridley, are manifestly the same. 

Mr. Bridgman was the first to observe that the tribe, although 
divided into four sections, actually consisted of two groups, 
Wootaroo and Youngaroo ; and that the children belong to their 
mother's primary division, but to the other section of it. He 
farther states : — **An intelligent native now at Mackay, who has 
been living with the Kamilaroi people, says the Kamilaroi system 
is the same as that here." This was subsequently found to be 
^x>rrect by Mr. Cyrus E. Doyle, one of Mr. A. W. Hewitt's cor- 
respondents, who reported the primary divisions of the Kamilaroi 
as being Dilbi and Kupathin.' He had no doubt been informed 
of the two groups of the Mackay tribe, published ^ve years before. 
The Rev. L. Fison, in 1880, and Mr. E. M. Curr in 1886, also 
refer to Mr. Bridgman's researches. 

In 1883 a paper by Mr. Edward Palmer* was read before the 
Anthropological Institute, London, containing the results of his 
personal researches, in which he dealt, inter alic^ with the divis- 
ions of the tribes on the Flinders, Cloncurry, Mitohell, Kennedy 
and other rivers in Northern Queensland. He showed that the 
natives about Hughenden and the heads of the Flinders and Clon- 
curry Rivers, and extending easterly from Tower Hill Creek 

1 Aborigines of Victoria, (1878), i., 90, 91. 

s This word is written Bembia in Smyth's book, but it is evidently a 
misreading of the MS., for we find that Mr. Bridgman spells the word 
Bonbia in an article he contributed to Mr. Curr's work on the ''Australian 
Eace," Vol. m., p. 46. 

3 Joom. Anthrop. Inst., (1888) zm., 335. « Ibid., xni., 302. 



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80 B. H. MATHEWS. 

towards the Beljando River, were divided into four sections called 
Woonco, Coobaroo, Bunbury and Kurgielah,^ which is practically 
the same nomenclature as the tribes at Mackay and Maranoa 
River. The intermarriages of the sections, and the names of the 
offspring, were also identical. 

In 1886 Mr. E. M. Curr published the names of the same four 
divisions as obtaining among the Kowanburra, Wokkelburra, and 
other tribes on the Belyando and Suttor Rivers, Elgin Downs, 
Bowen Downs, and the sources of the Alice. The particulars 
were supplied to Mr. Curr by Mr. James Muirhead, a resident of 
that district This gentleman appears to have been the first to 
draw attention to the native custom of each section being restricted 
to certain kinds of food. He stated that the Bunbury section is 
confined to opossum, kangaroo, dog, honey of small bee. Woongo 
is allotted emu, bandicoot, black duck, black snake, brown snake. 
Obur has carpet snakes, honey of stinging bee, etc. Kurgilla haa 
porcupine, plain turkey, etc. He also observed that Woongo and 
Obur formed a primary division called Wootheroo, whilst the 
other two sections were Mallera.' The primary division Mallera 
is the equivalent of Youngaroo of the Mackay tribes. 

Some of Mr. Curr's correspondents reported the same four 
sections among the tribes of the Nogoa and other head waters of 
the Mackenzie River^; and at Logan Downs, Peak Downs, etc., 
where the primary divisions were called Youngaroo and Wootheroo,** 
being identical with those at Mackay. Other correspondents of 
the same author discovered that the four divisions referred to also 
obtain at the Cape River.'' At Halifax Bay — at Hinchinbrook 
Island, and on the mainland adjacent — identical sectional names 
were reported to Mr. Curr,^ and published by him in his valuable 
work. 

1 Each of these named has a feminine equivalent : Wooncoan, Coo- 
barooan, Bonbarjao, and Eurgielan. 

« The Australian Race, ( 1886} in., 26, 27. « Ihid., in., 91. * Ibid., in., 66. 

' Ihid., II., 468. Mr. Curr mentions the names Utheroo (Ootaroo), and 
Multhuroo (Mallera), as occarring on the Cape River. 

6 Ihid., II., 418, 425 and 427. 



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AU8TBALUN DIVI8I0NAL 8TBTBHS. 81 

The Rev. Wm. Ridley, in his "Journal of a Missionary Tour 
among the Aborigines in 1855/'^ stated that the ^unily names at 
Moreton Bay were Bandur, Bundar, Barang and Derwain, with 
the corresponding female names Banduran, Bundaran, Barangan, 
and Derwaingan. He reported that the Warwick and Canning 
Downs blacks had the same family names as at Moreton Bay, and 
also that these names prevailed from the latter place to Wide Bay.' 

In 1865 Mr. G. S. Lang said : ''The Moreton Bay blacks are 
divided into four classes, and all the children take after the class 
of their mother."* The Rev. E. Fuller, a missionary for some 
years at Eraser's Island, north of Wide Bay, says: "The children 
are supposed to belong to the mother's tribe."^ 

In 1883 Mr. £. Palmer stated that he found the divisions 
mentioned by Mr. Ridley extending northerly from Wide Bay to 
near Rockhampton, except that Balcoin was used instead of 
Bandur." He also reported them as existing among the tribes in 
the Bunya Bunya Mountains. The last statement is confirmed 
by the Rev. J. Mathew, one of Mr. Ourr's correspondents. Mr. 
Mathew says: "The names of the children depended directly on 
the mother's name."* 

Mr. Palmer, from information supplied to him by Mr. Jocelyn 
Brooke, Sub-Inspector of Police, gives a diagram showing the four 
names in a rectangular position, and states that " the child always; 
takes its name from that opposite to its father's nama"^ This does 
not necessarily lead to the inference that descent is through the 
father, though it may bear this construction. 

In 1888 Mr. A. W. Howitt, from particulars furnished to him, 
by Mr. Palmer's informant Mr. Brooke, arrived at the conclusion/ 
that "descent was in the male line."® In 1894, partly from Mr. 

I This article was also published in Dr. LaDgfs "Queensland/' (1861)^ 
p 436 

> Kamilaroi and other Australian Languages, (1875), p. 168. 

3 Aborigines of Australia, p. 10. 

-» Queenslander, Sept. 7, 1872. 

5 Jonrn. Anthrop. Inst., xiii.. 304, 806. 

ft Australian Bact>, in., 162. 163. 

7 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xiii., 305. 8 Pnd., xviii., 49, 50. 

P— June 1, 1898. 



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82 



B. H. MATHEWS. 



Palmer's statement above referred to, and partly owing to Mr. 
Howitt's coQclnsions, I aasnmed that these tribes had paternal 
descent.^ On making farther ^iqairies of some natives of Jon- 
daryan run, who belong to this organisation, the following arrange- 
ment of the divisions was arrived at — the spelling being in acoord 
with the pronoanoiation of my native informants. 

Husband Wife Sons. Daughters 

Djerwine Bandjooran Barrang Barrangan 

Bunda Barrangan Bandjoor Bandjooran 



Bandjoor 
Barrang 



Djerwinegan 
Bundaran 



Bunda 
Djerwine 



Bundaran 
Djerwinegan 



When travelling among the tribes on the head waters of the 
Clarence, Richmond, Dumaresq and Oondamine rivers, I found 
the rules of marriage and descent somewhat different to those 
obtaining farther north, particulars of which are given in the 
following table : — 

Husband Wife Offspring 

Terrawine Barrang Banjoor 

Bunda Banjoor Barrang 

Barrang Terrawine Bunda 

Banjoor Bunda Terrawine 

Terrawine and Bunda are the equivalents of Ippai-Kumbo, and 
Barrang-Banjoor of Murri-Kubbi. 

In the article published by Mr. Palmer in 1883 he gave the 
sectional divisions of the Mycoolon and Myappe tribes on the 
Saxby and Clonourry Rivers, with the laws of marriage and 
descent which he tabulated as follows : — * 



Husband 


Wife 


Offspring 


Marringo 


Goothamungo 


Bathingo and Munjingo 


Yowingo 


Munjingo 


Jimmalingo and Goothamungo 


Bathingo 


Carburungo 


Marringo and Ngaran-nghungo 


Jimmalingo 


Ngaran-nghungo 


Yowingo and Carburungo 



1 Proc. Boy. Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q), x., ! 

2 Jonm. Anthrop. Inst., zni., 802. 



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AU8TBALIAN DIYISIONAI. 8T8TBMB. 83 

This table clearly shows that there is matriarchal descent^ and 
Mr. Palmer reports that such is the case. Mr. A. W. Howitt, 
howerer, arranges Mr. Palmer's sectional names in a different 
<Rder to that shown above, and endeavors to show that descent is 
through the father. He says "under the influence of agnatic 
descent, the girl is of the same class name as her mother's mother."^ 
This is not correct, because in the Kamilaroi tribes, where descent 
is uterine, the daughter always takes the sectional name of her 
mother's moUier.' 

Mr. Palmer also reported the discovery of four other sectional 
names among the Koogobathy tribes on the Mitchell River and 
surrounding country. These divisions he arranged as follows, 
with the rules of marriage and descent :' 

Husband Wife Offspring 

Jury Barry Mungilly 

Mungilly Ararey Jury 

Ararey Mungilly Barry 

Barry Jury Ararey 

He stated that Jury was equivalent to Marringo, Mungilly to 
Yowingo, Ararey to Bathingo, and Barry to Jimmalingo. When 
I first read Mr. Palmer's paper — having confidence in his general 
accuracy in other cases — I assumed that descent among the 
Koogobathy was in the male line ; and in a paper I wrote in 1894, 
it was stated that there were some tribes in the Gulf country who 
had agnatic descent.^ Shortly afterwards I made enquiries through 
correspondents, who reported that the children belonged to the 
mother's group, the same as in the Mycoolon tribe. In a paper 
read before the Royal Society of Queensland in September 1897, 
1 corrected the statement I had made in 1894.' 

A blackfellow at Charters Towers, who had travelled with 
drovers to the Palmer river informed me that the descent of tL« 

^ Jonrn. Anthrop. Inst., xiii., 846. 3 Ibid., Tin,, 804. 

2 Proc. Boy. Qeog. See. Aost. (Q.), x., 24. « ihid., t„ 82. 

s "Aboriginal Customs in North Queensland." — Proc. Boy. Soo. Queens- 
Iwid, xui. 



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84 B. H. MATHBWS. 

children is uterine, as exemplified in the following table. He 
spoke from memory of what the Palmer natives had told him, 
and I have not jet had an opportunity of checking his statement. 
Husband Wife Offspring 

Jury Barry Ararey 

Mungilly Ararey Barry 

Ararey Mungilly Jury 

Barry Jury Mungilly 

In 1897 Dr. Roth found that the same divisions which had 
been reported by previous writers on the Maranoa, at Mackay, 
and the other places referred to also obtained on the Hamilton^ 
Georgina and neighbouring streams. Dr. Roth also confirmed the 
sectional names discovered by Mr. Palmer among the Mycoolon 
and Myappe tribes ; atid further, he ascertained the equivalence 
of the sections to those of the tribes about Hughenden and Boulia. 
For example he states that Bathingo corresponds to Ooobaroo, 
Jimmalingo* to Woongo, Yowingo to Kurgielah, and Marringo to 
Bunbury. He also reports that the Mycoolon divisional names 
are found with some modifications, in the Kalkadoon and neigh- 
bouring tribes.* 

West Australian Divisions. 

Oapt. Grey, now the octogenarian Sir George, when exploring 
in West Australia in 1837-39, observed that the natives were 
divided into certain great families ; and that each family adopted 
some animal or vegetable as their kobong or totem. A man could 
not marry a woman of his own family name, and the children 
always took the family name of their mother. Sir George gives 
the names of these divisions as Ballaroke, Tdondarup, Ngotak, 
Nagarnook, Nogonyuk, Mongalung and Narrangar. From his 
table of genealogies I collect the following partial statement 
regarding the intermarriage of the sections : 

1 In 1883 Mr. E. Palmer stated that Jimmalingo belonged to Wootharoo 
among the Leichhardt Biver tribes, which agrees with Mr. Both'a obser- 
vations. — Joum. Anthrop. Inst., xiii., 803. 

2 Ethnological Studies among the Australian Aborigiaes, (1897), p. 57. 



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AU8TBALIAN DIVI8I0NAL BTSTBMS. 86 

Ballaroke marries Ngotak, and the children are Ngotak 
Ballaroke „ Noganyuk, „ „ Noganyuk 

Tdondarup „ Ballaroke, „ „ Ballaroke 

Ngotak „ Ballaroke, Nagamook and Noganyuk 

Noganynk „ Ngotak and Tdondamp.^ 
In an official report on the '* Habits and Oostoms of the 
Aboriginal Inhabitants of West Australia," printed at Perth in 
1871, p. 21, Bishop Salvado gives the names of six classes prevalent 
in the tribes at the Oatholic Mission Station at New Norcia, in 
the Victoria district, eighty-two miles northerly from Perth. The 
Dftmes of the classes which each one of the others may marry, and 
also the classes into which they may not marry, are stated, bat 
nnfortnnately the classes to which the children belong are not 
given. The information supplied by Salvado may be tabulated 
thus: — 

Class Coald Marry Could not Marry 

Palarop, Jiragiock Tirarop, Mondorop 

N-ocognok Tondorop 



Tirarop | -^^ 
® I Tirarop, Mondorop 



N-ocognok 
Jiragiock 



PaUrop } :ji>°<Jo~P; Mondorop Palarop 

*^ \ N-ocognok, Tirarop Jiragiok 



Tondorop { ??•'"??; NjOcog°o>' 
^ \ Jiragiok, Mondorop 

Mondorop I £"^*^\'^°'»^"»P 
*^ ( N-ocognok, Palarop 



Tondorop 
Tirarop 

Mondorop 
Tirarop 



Jiraffi k i '^^''*^®P> Mondorop Palarop, N-ocognok 

^^^ 1 Tondorop Jiragiok 

The information supplied by Sir George Grey, and by Bishop 
S^l^ado, is very meagre and unsatisfactory. I trust that if this 
tfticle of mine should be read by any gentlemen residing in either 
of the districts referred to, that they will endeavour to gather 

* Two Exped. N.W. and W. Australia, (1841) VoL n., pp. 226, and 228. 



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86 B. H. MATHBWB. 

further details regarding the divisional names and totems, with 
the rales of marriage and descent established in relation to them. 
When Sir John Forrest visited Nichol Bay on the north-west 
coast, in 1878, he found that the aborigines were divided into four 
families, with rules of marriage and descent which he tabulated 
in the following manner : — 

Hosband Wife Children 

Paljarie Kimera Banigher 

Boorunggnoo Banigher Kimera 

Kimera Paljarie Boorunggnoo 

Banigher Boorunggnoo Paljarie 

The grand-child in the male line is of the same family as his 
grand-father ; and in the female line, of the same family as her 
grand-mother.^ 

In 1880, the Rev. L. Fison published these class names, which 
he had obtained from a correspondent, as Paliali, Paronga, Kimera 
and Banaka.' A correspondent furnished Mr. £. M. Curr with 
the same divisions in 1886, which he reported as Palyeery, Boor- 
ungo, Kymurra, and Panaka.' The resemblance of these names 
to those of the divisions at Alice Springs, 1000 miles to the east- 
ward, is remarkable. 

Equivalrnoe of Divisions. 
It is highly important to show how the groups and sections of 
a tribe in one district correspond to those of other tribes in different 
parts of the country. From some natives whom Mr. Jackson met 
about Oodnadatta, Macumba and Charlotte Waters, he ascertained 
that the group Mattiri of the Arrabunna tribe was equivalent to 
the pair of sections, Bultara and ParuUa of the Arrinda tribe ; 
and the group Karraru to the sections Panungka and Koomara. 
I subsequently checked this statement by referring to Mr. Kempe 
of Peake Station, who gave me the same answer. 

I Joorn. Anthrop. Inst., iz., 856, 857. Aostr. Assoc. Adv. Sci., u., 
668,654. 
s E[amilaroi and Kumai, p. 36. 
3 The Australian Race, i., 298. 



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AUSTRALIAN DIYISiONAL SYSTEMS. 87 

The eqaivalence of the Alice Springs and Warramonga tribes 
is as follows : — Baltara corresponds to Elabatjee ; Pungata to 
Apnngata ; Parulia to Tongolli ; Ngala to Opalla ; Koomara to 
Akamarra ; Mbutjana to Ampatjona ; Panungka to Aponanga ; 
Knnrraia to XJngary. It is evident therefore that the group 
Mattiri is equivalent to the four sections of group A of the Alice 
Springs and Warramonga tribes respectively; and that Karrani 
corresponds to group B of each of these communities. 

In June, 1887, Mr. David Lindsay stated that the Warramunga 
tribe occupied the country lying between Tennant's Creek and 
Powell's Creek, N.T., and for a considerable distance on each side 
of the Overland Telegraph line. He was also the first to report 
that they had an unusually large number of divisions regulating 
the intersexual relations.^ 



1 Proc. Boy. Geog. Soc Aust., 8. A. Branch, Vol. ii., 8rd Sessioii, p. la 



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88 J. W. BOULTBEB. 



ARTESIAN WATER IN NEW SOUTH WALES. 

By J. W. BOULTBEE. 



IBead hrfore the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, June 1, 1898.^ 

That a work is now in progress, perhaps the most important ever 
undertaken to aid the development of the arid lands of this 
Colony, no one will I think deny, the possibilities of which, how- 
ever I fear, are at present far from adequately recognised and con- 
sidered. The superiority of this means of water supply to pastoral 
lands, over the precarious and inferior supplies afforded by water 
conservation in excavations and by well sinking, is beyond dispute. 
The further possibility of the irrigation of limited areas in the 
neighbourhood of population centres, and of small close settlement 
is attracting attention and criticism. The first essay in artesian 
boring made in 1879, by Mr. David Brown of Kallara Station, in 
the Western Division — was in the neighbourhood of one of the 
numerous mound springs which dot this area — which resulted in 
flowing artesian water, did not then attract the general attention 
it deserved, and it was not until some years later that the Oovem- 
ment of the colony purchased some boring plants, ineffective 
compared with those of the later type, and with them had some 
success, obtaining flowing wells upon the Bourke to Wanaaring 
Road. It was, however, reserved to a Canadian driller, and some 
spirited pastoralists, to really exploit the industry by the intro- 
duction of the Canadian Pole Rig, and the contract system, which 
was followed by the Government, after a far seeing Crown tenant, 
Mr. W. Davis of Kerribree Station, near Bourke, had demonstrated 
its superiority over old existent methods. The work both public 
and private has progressed rapidly, but there is still an enormous 
proportion of the 60,000 square miles of artesian water-bearing 
country untouched and unexplored by the drill. 

The question of the utilization of artesian water for irrigation 
and cultivation did not enter in any way into the calculations of 



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ABTB8IAN WATBB IN N. 8. WALKS. 89 

the C^vemment, or of those Crown tenants who essayed to find 
it, the main and only object being the provision of water for stock. 
The results in this direction have far exceeded anticipations, and 
miles of ditches, canning the flowing water through enormous 
paddocks have been made. 

The other aspect of the question, namely the closer settlement 
in small holdings in the neighbourhood of bores, near centres of 
population, has been dealt with by the (Government in the experi- 
mental farms etc. at the Native Dog and Pera Bores, and is rapidly 
passing beyond the range of experiment. In the initiation of an 
experiment, such as this, much consideration had to be given to ■ 
the many questions arising in connection with it. In the first 
place there existed a widespread and ill-defined fear, now rapidly 
passing away, that artesian water was unsuitable for irrigation, 
and that there would be no market for produce: and that accord- 
ing to the experience of a pastoral population used to large 
areas of land, the possibility of doing anything with so small an 
area as twenty acres was very remota The Department had to 
avail itself of the experience obtained in other countries, and to 
enquire and decide what area the class of people it expected to 
obtain as settlers could cope with single handed. 

The evidence furnished by the wonderful development at Fresno 
in the San Joacquin Valley, California, is most important, and it 
largely guided the Department. In 1871 five hundred emigrants 
from the East settled there and secured some 5,000 acres of land, 
which was divided into small vineyards for the cultivation of the 
raisin grape : the progress made has been phenomenal, and Fresno 
stands as one of the most prosperous settlements in Califomiai 
and a striking example of what intense culture upon small areas 
means. The land originally cost 2-50 dollars per acre. The 
population within twenty years reached 100,000 souls, and Fresno 
city is to day a well laid out town, with all modem improvements, 
of some 25,000 inhabitants, surrounded by an area of 20,000 acres 
of vineyards. The condition of this land at the time of the incep- 
tion of the settlement is described as follows : — " The entire area 



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90 



J. W. BOULTBBB. 



of which would be worthless except for occasional crappingg q£ 
wheat and sparse feeding of cattle, without the system of irrigatioa 
in vogue." 

The cultivation area is now stated to have a capital value of 
30,000,000 dollars, and had it been sold twenty years ago for 
1,000,000 dollars that would have been considered a high price. 
When once the vines commenced to bear in 1873, the return b^an 
to come in, and has increased yearly; in that year 6,000 boxes of 
raisins (20fi>s. each) were shipped ; in 1883 the yield was 140,000 
boxes or 2,800,000 fi)s. ; in 1890, 900,000 boxes or 18,000,000 fiw. 
The land values run from fifty to one hundred dollars per acre^ 
that is land unimproved with water, improved and under ditch, 
from one hundred to three hundred dollars per acre. I quote 
two returns shewing the total areas and subdivisions and the yield 
per acre for this district. The first gives the numbers of holdings 
of from two to one hundred acres respectively, and the areas above 
the latter quantity. The second return shows the results per 
acre and the areas of the holdings, and as it will be seen, the best 
returns are from the smaller holdings. 



No. of 
holdings. 


Agregate 
Acreage. 


Average acreage 
per holding. 


1 
Benuirk9. 


473 


4,087 


8-46 


From 2 to 10 acres 


570 


9,068 


15-90 


.. 10 „ 20 „ 


207 


5,552 


26-82 


„ 20 „ 30 „ 


156 


5,755 


36-90 


„ 30 „ 40 „ 


43 


2,072 


4818 


.. 40 „ 50 „ 


44 


2,571 


58-43 


,. 50 „ 60 „ 


22 


1,429 


64-95 


,. 60 „ 70 „ 


55 


4,279 


77*8 


M 70 „ 80 „ 


6 


610 


86 


„ 80 „ 90 „ 


10 


985 


98-5 


„ 90 „ 100 „ 



In addition to the 1,586 holdings given above, there are 77 
embracing from 107 acres up to 800 acres, making a total in these 
larger holdings of 15,407 acres, or an average of over 200 acres 
each. The total area in the smaller holdings reaches 49,325 aoro^ 
and gives an average holding of a little over thirty-one acres each. 



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ARTESIAN WATBB Hi N. S. WALKS. 



91 



The 


following table illustrates the yield :^ 






Tata] 


Vlii«»- 


Fruits 


Yield 
zmUlnt. 
toua. 


Pwaert 
ingrmpM. 


Potmn 
In fruit, 

dollars. 


Total Talne, 
dolUra. 


Number 


Yield jperecre. 
dolUn. 


8 


8 


... 


... 


137 




1100 


8 


187-50 


14 


9 


8 


... 


244 


188 


2600 


14 


186-90 


20 


12 


2« 


16 


188 


228 


2167 


14* 


15500 


20 


20 


... 


20 


... 


... 


8000 


20 


15000 


20 


7 


2 


18 


259 


50 


1968 


9 


21800 


20 


15 


8 




247 


60 


3705 


18 


20500 


80 


... 


80 




... 


83 


2600 


30 


83-33 


40 


11 


20 


14 


127 


93 


8197 


81 


10812 


40 


30 


... 


46 


145 


... 


5400 


30 


18400 


40 


15 


11 


83 


151 


100 


4430 


21 


168-88 


80 


70 


... 


70 


... 


100 


7000 


70 


10000 


80 


20 


1 


12 


60 


150 


1350 


21 


6500 


118 


118 


... 


118 


118 


... 


13962 


118 


11837 



Other returns could be quoted showing much larger values and 
returns also, than the forgoing statements indicate, but the above 
are sufl&ciently moderate to be taken as a reliable basis for calculat- 
ing the returns from nearly all fruit land in California, except that 
devoted to Citrus culture. The average net returns per acre of 
wine raisins, prunes, and deciduous fruits, generally when they 
are in a matured state, will range from eighty to one hundred 
dollars per acre. The average net returns for matured orange and 
lemon orchards will not be less than three hundred and fifty dollars 
per acre, when all conditions are fair. The statements of fifteen 
residents in San Bernardino County, California, for example, sets 
the ordinary value of such land at three hundred to fifteen hundred 
dollars per acre. The majority of them placed the selling value of 
such orchards at from eight hundred to one thousand dollars per acre. 

The evidence also furnished by another prosperous settlement 
in California gives a further striking example of the progress and 
possibilities of the small holding — I refer to Riverside, the crack 
fruit ranch of Southern California. This settlement was com- 
menced in 1870 by people from the Eastern States, under the 
leadership of the late Judge North, and attention was at once 



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92 J. W. BOULTBBB. 

given to the cultivation of the orange. Regarding it Colonel 
Hinton states : — "At that time the site o£ Riverside was occupied 
by an Indian villiage. Without artificial conservation and distri- 
bution of water, Riverside, like other prosperous settlements of 
San Bernardino County, would have had no real value for farm 
purposes. It would have taken eight hundred acres of its area to 
support a ranchman or hunter, and twenty-five to poorly feed one 
broad homed steer. About 6000 people now live with the greatest 
comfort, even luxuriously, upon 6000 acres of land. Within the 
range of cultivated land in America there will be found no settle- 
ment more closely worked or subjected to more intensive farming, 
returning a larger result for labour, skill and enterprise, than this 
cultivated area,'' 3000 acres of which are under oranges, the trees 
varying in age from one to fifteen years. As at Fresno the yield 
shows steady annual increase. In 1880 1,480 car loads of oranges 
and lemons were forwarded to market as the product of the 3000 
acres referred to. Taken at a value of 800 dollars per car load, 
which is the official value given, the shipment gave a return of 
1,184,000 dollars, and a net return of 395 dollars per acre. Since 
1880, additions, referred to later on, through the inception of the 
''Gage" system of artesian wells, have been made to the cultivated 
area, which upon Riverside proper is now some 12,000' acres, 
which supports a population of 8,000 souls. 

Besides the Citrus fruits the raisin grapes, the Muscat of Alex- 
andria and the Gordo Blanco are largely cultivated, and the return 
given for 1891 for this product alone amounted to 700,000 dollars, 
while the annual average value of fruit of all descriptions, shipped 
from Riverside, is stated to be 2,200,000 dollars. This gives a 
return of 300 dollars per acre, presuming that 8,000 acres only 
are at present revenue producing. Colonel SEinton thinks that 
the original cost of this land did not exceed 100 dollars per acre, 
or 1,200,000 dollars in all. He estimates the total cost of the 
works for the original settlement at Riverside at 80 dollars per 
acre, or a total of say 500,000 dollars ; for the other works, viz., 
pipes, pumps, canals and artesian wells, the total cost will be 



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ABTB8IAN WATBB IN N. 8. WALB8. 93 

about 1,100,000 dollars, making in all 1,600,000 dollars, or a 
fraction over, for the whole 12,000 acres embraced in the settle- 
ment, of 100 dollars per acre. The maintenance of the system 
appears to be but a comparatively small item. It may be seen by 
these statements, which are rather above than below the mark, as 
to the cost of land and works, that two years' production at River^ 
side would return a profit of fifteen per cent., at least on the 
average totality of outlay. Of course the present value of land 
to the later purchasers and occupants give an entirely different 
balance sheet. Even with these high figures a large return is 
secured, as for example, a purchase was made in 1890 of a ten 
acre orange orchard, all of which was in bearing : the cost of the 
land and trees to the purchaser was 1000 dollars per acre: the 
crops sold divided into two grades of oranges, one for 1750 dollars 
and the other for 1250 dollars, making a return of 300 dollars per 
acre. Under this percentage of returns the purchasers would 
in less than four years receive 2,000 dollars more than their original 
outlay. During the past year the returns from Citrus trees at 
Riverside ranged from 100 dollars to 261*80 dollars per acre. 
These figures cover the net, not the gross profits. 

As further illustrating the value of, and the preference for the 
small holding in America, the same authority instances a sale 
recently held of 8,000 acres by an irrigation company, at which 
the land brought an average of 66 dollars per acre; 2,000 acres 
of which were sold in ten acre blocks, the balance being in twenty, 
forty, fifty, sixty, seventy and eighty acre blocks. 

Besides Riverside there are other settlements wholly dependent 
for their water supply upon artesian wells, the most important of 
which is the Lake View Colony in Riverside County. The original 
value of these dry lands did not exceed ten dollars per acre.; many 
thousands of acres have been sold with water rights attached for 
100 dollars per acre, and are still rising in value. This colony is 
served by a group of wells, yielding one and a half cubic feet per 
second (say 800,000 gallons per twenty-four hours), the estimated 
capital value of which is £10,000 per cubic foot per second, it 



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94 J. W. BOULTBXB. 

being estimated that the daty of this volume of water is 250 acres; 
The State EDgineer, Mr. Wm. Ham Hall, who is at the present 
time, I believe, reporting upon the question of water conservation 
generally, for the Government of the Cape of Good Hope, in 1891 
pointed out what a marked effect upon land values the in8tituti<m 
of the Gage system of artesian wells had at Riverside. There 
was a large area of land above the existing canal, to which there 
was but small expectation of bringing water. This land is 
described as being worth ten dollars per acre, while that under 
irrigation at Riverside was worth 250 dollars per acra The con- 
struction of the Gage artesian wells and canal brought the water 
to these dry lands, and at once increased their value from ten 
dollars to 200 and 500 dollars per acre. 

In the Dakotas, Kansas, Colorado, Texas, as well as other States 
in the arid region of America, irrigation from artesian sources 
has been largely and successfully carried out, and the areas irri- 
gated by the wells insure to the farmer a certain return for his 
labour in the worst season. Professor R. T. Hill in his report on 
the Occurrence of Artesian and other Underground Water in 
Texas, Eastern New Mexico and Indian Territory, west of the 
97th meridian, published in 1892 by the U.S. Agricultural Depart- 
ment in part iii. of the Final Report of Artesian and Underflow 
Investigation, says of the artesian waters of the Black and Grand 
Prairies, the greatest artesian belt of Texas : — " In no portion of 
the country has there been a grander development of artesian 
wells than in the past five years in the Grand and Black Prairie 
regions of Texas. At numerous places throughout its extent 
magnificent flows of water have been secured, and what ten years 
ago was in many places a poorly watered district, now abounds in 
magnificent artesian wells, which supply water to cities and farms 
in quantity large enough to make many new industries possible 
besides furnishing water to irrigate many thousands of aci^es. The 
wells vary in depth from fifty to nearly 2000 feet, with every 
intervening depth. They also vary in volume or flow from less 
than a gallon a minute to a thousand, and in pressure from 



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▲RTB8IAN WATBB IN N. 8. WALKS. 95 

nothing to maxiinaiD. The parity of this artesian supply for 
domestic purposes and its healtbfnlness gave Fort Worth an 
enviable superiority which her rival cities were not slow to 
imitate, and as a result of her success nearly every city and village 
in the grand and Black Prairie Region and in fact throughoat 
the State, made artesian experiments. A few of these were put 
down in unfavourable locations and were failures, but hundreds 
more were successful, and to-day most of the cities of the State, 
which before this artesian epoch were without good water, are 
supplied with abundance. . . The industrial uses to which 
these waters are at present put are many. At Waco hundreds 
of sewing machines in clothing factories, electric motors, wood- 
working machinery and other small industries, are run by the 
pressure of wells without wasting the water, by the use of small 
and powerful Calif omian wheels. When the high cost of fuel in 
Texas is considered, this use of artesian water becomes a most 
important factor. The greatest use of this water at present is 
the fact that it brings to hitherto poorly watered farming and 
grazing lands an abundant supply of water for domestic and stock 
purposes, making small farms of 100 acres or less possible, where 
until recently subdivisions of large bodies of land or ranches were 
impossibla . . . The value of these wells for irrigation has 
been demonstrated by the modest farmers of the Paluxy Valley, 
who by their own humble methods, and without previous know- 
ledge of the subject, are now quadrupling the yield of cotton and 
grain. A farmer at Paluxy stated that his ten acres of cotton, 
yielding nearly two bales of five hundred pounds each to the acre 
was far more profitable and easily worked than one hundred acres 
livhich he had until recently cultivated in Alabama. 

**The largest and most prosperous city in Texas, San Antonio, 
is built upon and about an irrigation enterprise, which has most 
profitably and successfully utilized their underground waters for 
nearly three hundred years, affording occupation for all the mission 
settlements in the past, supporting hundreds of gardens at present 
and destined to be of great value in the future." 



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96 J. W. BOULTBBS. 

"Every drop of water from these springs and wells can be 
utilized for irrigation, and when people of the region appreciate 
the fact that each gallon of water has a specific value in agriculture 
as has a pound of coal in industrial enterprise, not one d{pp of 
this water will be allowed to escape unutilized, and the agricultural 
wealth will be enormously increased/' 

There are more than one thousand flowing wells in Texas, nearly 
all of them being found west of the 97th degree of west longitude. 
Several hundreds have been bored during the year 1891. Their 
vast capability and adaptability for making secure an agriculture 
always rendered uncertain under high temperature, even when 
the rainfall if properly distributed is ample for industrial uses, 
appears to have become a matter of general understanding. 

He further adds that in the development of such wells their 
use for irrigation was not dreamed of originally, but now they are 
being widely utilized. Riverside, before referred to, derives a 
portion of its water supply from artesian wells, which as I have 
stated are known as the Gage system. There are 12,000 acres 
under fruit served by fifty-five artesian wells, all grouped within 
an area of seven hundred acres, from which the water is taken in 
flumes or cement ditches to the land irrigated. There is also in 
the Upper San Gabriel Valley, a similar system known as the 
Whittior, which comprises fourteen wells ; the works consist of 
eleven miles of cement conduit and 6,200 feet of fluming on trestles. 
The Alamosa Town Well is the source of supply for the thirty 
miles of ditches within its corporate limits. In Utah the artesian 
wells in the Salt Lake Valley were first used for irrigation eight 
years ago, since when the area of cultivation has increased from 
twenty-five to thirty-five per cent. There are now over 2,000 
flowing wells in Utah. Within three years, and largely during 
the past year, over 3,700 flowing wells have been sunk in the San 
Louis Valley or basin, within an artesian area of 8,000 square 
miles. Comparing these statistics, relating to one artesian basin 
alone, with the statistics of our own Colony, where we have at 
present slightly over 120 flowing wells, both Government and 



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ABTE8IAN WATBB IN N. 8. WAUSS. 97 

private, upon an artesian area of 62,000 square miles, it wiU be 
readily realized what a large field for development there is. The 
climatic conditions existing in this Ck>lon7 and America are some- 
what similar, the advantage if any, being with us. The whole 
of the country lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra 
Nevada, and to some extent to the west of the Rocky Mountains 
embracing Southern California, Arizona, Texas and New Mexico, 
may be described as the arid lands of the United States. The 
temperature varies exceeding, that is to say from frost to 120' Fah. 
The climate is extremely dry. The rainfall in the dry belt of 
Southern California which embraces Riverside, Los Angeles, and 
the Kern Valley, varies from six to ten inches per annum. The 
area of this latter valley is eighteen by fourteen miles, and upon 
this area are sixty flowing wells, (utilized almost entirely for the 
irrigation of lucerne for stock feeding), which yield the handsome 
supply of 61,000,000 gallons per diem. In Arizona, Texas and 
New Mexico, the heat is more intense. Take for instance the 
Mojave Desert, the rainfall of which does not exceed six inches 
per annum, where wheat has been harvested, irrigated with 
artesian water, which took a prize against the competition of all 
Southern California, — the soil is described as a shifting sand 
growing in its natural state nothing but cactus, mesquite, and 
sage brush. The general character of the soil, except upon the 
Mesas or tablelands, is exceedingly poor, so poor that we have 
nothing so desert or arid in our Colony, and nowhere except 
perhaps in the Northern Territory of South Australia can a 
parallel be found to it. 

If such a revolution in the condition of any land can be effected 
in the course of a few years, as has been done in America, one 
naturally pauses to think if there is any reason why the same 
results cannot be obtained in our western lands, where we have a 
soil of unbounded fertility, free from the alkali so prevalent in 
American soils, only requiring the beneficent aid of the water now 
lying hidden beneath the surface. The illustration of the problems, 
namely the possibility of close settlement, and the profitable 

Ch-Jnne 1,^898. 



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98 J. W. BOULTBBB. 

occupation of small areas upon land hitherto devoted to stock 
raising, and the employment o£ a nomadic and restless popnlationy 
practically unacquainted with the steady, patient daily labour so 
necessary for the success of this class of industry, is now to be 
seen at Pera. The prejudice or fear as to the unsuitability of 
artesian water for irrigation is passing away, as will be seen from 
tiie following communication from Mr. Licensed Surveyor Mullen, 
Bourke, which indicates a distinct advance all along the line : — 
"I have just returned to Bourke after a trip of eight weeks throogh 
my district. I feel I must draw your attention to the fact that 
the Pera Experimental Farm has been the means of giving a great 
start to irrigation works on large and small scales throughout the 
Bourke district. I now have more irrigation farms to design and 
lay out within one hundred miles from Bourke than I can cope 
with this year, unless I give my whole attention to that business 
alone, and that I cannot do, as my hands are fairly full of Govern- 
ment work, which must be first attended to. About ten weeks 
ago I was engaged at Weilmoringle, adding to their present 
irrigation area of forty acres ; all this was under a very heavy 
wheat crop when I was there at work, and for two years running 
they have taken over one hundred tons each year off this small 
area. Their water supply is a bore of one and three-quarter 
million gallons per diem. The scheme was designed and levelled 
by me some three years ago. It is now intended to increase the 
area to one hundred acres, and I am engaged upon the plans for 
that scheme. They have carried their bore water for miles north, 
east, south, and west, in drains, to water their sheep in many 
different paddocks. 

"At Kerribree I have instructions from the lessees to lay out 
forty miles of drains and an irrigation farm, and I hope to be 
able to tackle it this year. Nearly every station, and where they 
have the means, many small holders, practically recognise the value 
of home grown fodder in times of drought, and it is a pleasing 
relief to the eye to see the green patches on the banks of all the 
rivers in the districts of Bourke and Brewarrina, and nearly every 



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ABTBSIAN WATEB IN N. 8. WAIiBS. 99 

station has its irrigated vegetable garden. It is only within the 
last four years that crops have been irrigated with bore water. 

"I must congratidate you on the suooess of the Pera Bore Farm. 
I consider that it is one of the wisest conceptions of the Depart- 
ment, and I hope to see the day when all our artesian water pro- 
ducing area will become much more closely settled through the 
means of irrigation, for without doubt the soil and climate are 
eminently fitted for the purpose, when bore or river water is 
judiciously applied to it, for I notice that the more the land is 
cultivated the less water it requires, and that the greatest mistake 
an irrigationist can make is too much flooding." 

The question of markets is one that has not been adequately 
studied, and recently when giving evidence before the Public Works 
Committee, I stated that the local market in Bourke is far larger 
than is generally supposed, and I furnished a list of one firm's con- 
sumption in a year of products that can be grown at Pera, totalling 
the sum of ^33,065. In regard to the production of fodder for 
stock, I stated that I do not think this aspect of the question has 
received the consideration it merits at the hands of pastoralists. 
Oalifomian and Mexican stock raisers have recognised that with 
the irrigation of lucerne they can increase the carrying capacity 
of their ranches by thirty per cent. Here if they can only grow 
reserves of fodder against times of drought, the losses which so 
often occur could be mitigated and reduced. The Ohowchilla 
Canal, Fresno County, California, thirty miles in length, is used 
solely for the irrigation of natural grasses. The area of irrigated 
lucerne in America is very large, and is stated to carry up to 
twenty sheep per acre, if cut and fed to them ; eight and ten 
tons per acre is a common yield. 

There is so far no sign of any alkaline def>06it in the soil at 
Pera, nor should there be at any bore, provided the drainage is 
sufficient and an adequate state of tilth is kept up. 

In regard to the actual and practical work of boring much has 
done; much geological information has been obtained 



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100 J. W. BOULTBBB. 

also. The survey of the catchment area in Queensland, and the 
definition of the bibulous Blythesdale braystones, have done much 
to encourage the work and remove the impressions that existed 
as to a speedy diminution of the supply. 

It was found that the basal or intake beds of the artesian system 
outcropping at various points had an area of about 1,000 miles 
long by forty miles wide, instead of two hundred miles long by 
one-eighth of a mile wide as previously supposed, and the opinion 
was expressed that the diminution, or rather cessation, of the flow 
could only result from such a drought as would mean the destruc- 
tion of the land fauna of this part of Australia, including the 
genus homo. Taking up the survey on our border, where Mr. 
Jack, the Queensland Government Geologist, left it, our own 
Government Geologist, Mr. Pittman, has by his investigation 
and by the discovery of fossils from the Coonamble, Moree and 
other bores, demonstrated the existence of large supplies of artesian 
water in formations other than Cretaceous. He has by the direct 
evidence obtained, established a fact which had hitherto been a 
matter of conjectural opinion expressed upon imperfect evidence, 
namely that artesian water occurred in large volume in the Trias- 
Jura formations, and he adds that he would "even go so far as to 
suggest that the porous strata of the Trias-Jura formation may 
constitute the chief storage beds of the artesian water supply of 
Australia." This discovery practically adds an area of 22,000 
square miles to the basin as hitherto recognised, and is perhaps 
the most important development yet experienced. In the actual 
work of boring the following figures give some idea of the steady 
progress made upon the Government works. Two of the bores, 
one completed and the other in progress, have been bores of 
exceptional difficulty and depth, that at Dolgelly, Moree District, 
being 4,086 feet, the supply being over a million gallons per diem. 
Upon reaching a depth of 2,600 feet, by the carelessness of a 
workman the casing was allowed to slip in the clamps, the fall 
telescoped the casing, and damaged both it and the hole, and it 
was only after nine months fishing that the damaged casing was 



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ABTBSIAN WATBB IN N. 8. WALB8. 101 

got dear and boring resumed. The work done was a monument 
of patience and skill. The other bore, -that at Bancanya, Broken 
Hill district, is still in progress at a depth of 3,600 feet. It 
required five strings of casing to be used before the immense 
bodies of drift met with all the way down to the 1,300 feet level 
was successfully pierced. Since that depth the bore has been 
continued at one diameter, viz., four inches, the smallest at that 
depthy 3,660 feet, ever attempted. 

The following return indicates our yearly progress : — 

Bores completed previous to June 1894 26 

„ June 1894 to June 1895 12 

„ June 1895 to June 1896 10 

„ June 1896 to June 1897 11 

„ June 1897 to date 7 

Total completed to date 66 

Total depth bored previous to June 1894 ... 34,678 feet 
„ „ Junel894to June 1895 ...22,516 „ 

„ „ June 1895 to June 1896 ... 29,055 „ 

„ „ June 1896 to June 1897 ... 20,104 „ 

„ „ June 1897 to present date... 31,234 „^ 



Total depth bored 137,587 



Average cost, including casing and all charges 

previous to June 1894 38/7 per foot. 

Ditto, June 1894 to June 1895 36/10 „ 

„ June 1895 to June 1896 37/3 „ 

„ June 1896 to June 1897 27/1 „ 

Flow from bores sunk previous to 

June 1894 (approximate)... 8,983,500 gals, per day. 

1 Indades bores in progress (10). 



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102 J. w. B0UI4TBBB. 

Flow from bores from June 1894 to 

June 1895 3,057,000 gals, per day. 

„ June 1895 to June 1896 ... 9,967,000 „ 

„ June 1896 to June 1897 ... 4,597,000 „ 

„ June 1897 to date 4,069,000 „ 



Total output from Government Bores 30,674,500 



Many improvements have been* introduced in the took and 
plants in use, the most notable being the Calyx Drill, which has 
a rotary motion, and with steel cutters chips an annular groove 
round a core, which is detached and removed after the manner of 
the diamond drill plant. The system which is being tested, would 
if successful, prove a far more acceptable and economical one than 
the percussive action of the existing tool, the Canadian pole rig. 
Rates for both boring and casing have been reduced fully twenty- 
five per cent, since the earlier bores were undertaken, and as the 
formations become known and more competition is introduced, 
the rates will no doubt fall further. 

The introduction of the Artesian Wells Act 1897, by Mr. 
Sydney Smith, Secretary for Mines and Agriculture, will it is 
thought, open a new era for the pastoral tenants. Under the 
provisions of this Act an individual or a group of land holders 
can approach the Department, and upon dedicating a site for 
the bore, and together with other formalities undertaking to pay 
the charges levied under the Act, the Minister may construct a 
well and the necessary distributing channels. Upon completion, 
the charges which represent the direct benefit to be derived by 
each person, but which shall not exceed six per centum per annum 
on the cost of the works, are assessed by the Local Land Board, 
and such charges are a first charge upon the land. Twenty-two 
i4)plications have already been received, representing groups of 
selectors owning up to 75,000 acres in the group. This will prove 
a great benefit, as the want of water on small holdings at critical 



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ABTBSIAN WATEB IN N. 8. WALB8. 103 

periods, has no doubt had the effect of simple annihilation for 
them. 

The illustrations from the valuable American reports could 
be multiplied, and they all tend to show what the possibilities of 
the question are and how similar the conditions which existed 
twenty-eight years ago in America are to those now obtaining, 
in New South Wales ; also to point towards developments far 
beyond the conception of the present settlers upon our Western 
lands. 

I am indebted to Colonel Hinton's valuable report upon the 
Artesian Well and Underflow Investigation 1893, Washington : 
to Professor Hill's report on the occurrence of Artesian and Under- 
ground Waters in Texas etc. 1892 ; also to departmental reports 
by the Government Geologists of New South Wales and Queens- 
and, Mr. E. F. Pittman and Mr. Jack respectively. 



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104 B. T. BAKSB AND H. O. SMITH. 



On the "STRINGYBARK" TREES op N. S. WALES, 

ESPEOiALLY IN REGARD TO THEIR ESSENTIAL OILS. 

By R. T. Baker, p.l.s., Curator, and H. G. Smith, p.ca, 
Technological Museum, Sydney. 



[Read he/ore the Royal Society of N, S, Walei, July 6, 1898.'] 



Part I. 

CONTBNTS. 

1. Introductory. 

2. Botany of the Species. 
8. Chemistry of the Oils. 
4. Summary of Besults. 

1. Introductory. 
This, the third paper read by us before this Society on the trees 
•of the genus Eucalyptus and their essential oils, includes three 
species instead of one, as in previous papers, and sufficient 
botanical details are given to clearly establish the identity of the 
material employed in the research. The chemical results we 
regard as of some importance at the present time in view of the 
appearance of the new edition of the British Pharmacopeia just 
issued (1898). 

2. Botany op the Species. 
The trees to which the name '* Stringybark " is applied in this 
Colony and which will be included in this, and Part II., of our 
Stringybark paper, are as follows : — E. ohliqua^ L'Her., E. 
Baileyana^ F.v.M.; E, maerorhyncha^ F.v.M.j E, eapitellata^ Sm.; 
E. euffenioideSf Sieb.; E.fastigatOy Deane and Maiden. ' 

E. piperita, link, might perhaps be placed in this list as well 
as E. triantha^ Link, but our researches in connection with these 
latter species are not yet complete. 

Of this list the best known "Stringybarks" are: — E. fnaer(h 
rhynoha^ F.y.M., E, capitellata, Sm., and E, euyenioides^ Sieb.; 



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STBINOTBARK TREB8 AND THEIB ESSENTIAL OILS. 105 

the first is commonly called *'Red/' and the latter '* White Stringy- 
bark,'' and we now propose the name of ** Brown Stringybark '' for 
S, eapitellata* They have the widest range of the series and 
consequently any economics pertaining to them will be of the 
greatest importance to the Colony, and so we intend in this paper 
(Part I.) to confine ourselves to these three species, leaving the 
others to be dealt with subsequently. It is not proposed to give 
so full a description of each species as was done in our previous 
paper on " Ghrey Gum " E, punctata, DC, because in that instance 
the descriptions of the species had not been brought up to date ; 
the above three "Stringy barks '' have however only recently been 
examined by Messrs. Deane and Maiden.^ 

In regard to the sequence of spacies (a matter upon which we 
place the greatest importance) our researches have produced results 
which have inclined us to favour the classification of Baron von 
Mueller* rather than that of Bentham in his Flora Australiensis. 

Our order of the following three species is the result of each of 
us working on quite independent lines of investigations, viz : — 
botanical and chemical. By agreement nothing was divulged till 
each line of investigation was completed, when it was found that 
both botanically and chemically the same affinities of species had 
been educed. Our researches however, lead us to suggest that 
there may be a missing species or species between JE. macrorhyncha 
and E. eapiiellatay and also between the former species and its 
West Australian congeners, and we hope that our undescribed 
material will supply the " missing links." 

Our researches have been carried out on material obtained from 
the following species : — 

E. macrorhyncha, F.v.M.. 
" Red Stringybark " of N. S. Wales, " Stringybark " of Victoria. 

This species, founded by Baron von Mueller (1853) is figured 
and amply re-described in his £ucalyptographia Dec. I. (1879), 

1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. xxi., p. 798 (1897). 
2 Second Census^ Australian Plants. 



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106 B. T. BAKSB AND H. O. SBOTH. 

whilst Messrs. Deane and Maiden (loa oit.) have still farther 
advfiuioed oar knowledge of this ** Stringybark." 

The timber is not so dense as that of either the " White ** or 
" Brown Stringybark/' and is inferior in darability to both, and 
the remarks appearing under it in the Botany of Rylstone,^ were 
intended to apply to 27. eugenioidet and were placed there in error. 

Sabitat — As we now regard this Eucalyptus as probably the 
most important commercial tree of the whole gen as, we give the 
following specific localities rather than state its general range. 
Orange district, Mudgee (and other places in the same district, 
viz : — Widdin Ranges, Mt. Oorricudgee, Kelgoola, Rylstone, and 
Ilford), Marulan district, and Bungendore, where it is so plentiful 
within three miles of the railway station that a supply could be 
obtained for years to come. 

JE. capitellataj Sm., B. Fl. iii. p. 206. Eucalyptographia Dec. 3. 
" Brown Stringy bark." 

It is rarely called " Red Stringy bark," and we should prefer to 
reserve this name for the previous species. In addition to the 
above references the descriptions of this species also have been quite 
recently amplified by Messrs. Deane and Maiden (loc. cit.) so that 
there is little more to be said concerning it except that our 
researches confirm its affinity with E. eugenioides as shown by a 
gradation of varietal forms mentioned by one of us in the Rylstone 
Botany.* In botanical sequence we place it between E. macro- 
rhyncha and E. eugenioides. 

The timber is very dense and no doubt very durable, but very 
little data has been published concerning it. 

Habitat — Ooast district and Dividing Range. 
E. eugenioides^ Sieb., B. Fl. iii. 208. Eucalyptographia, Dec. 10. 
" White Stringybark." 

The remarks under previous species apply also to this one, as 
the two are very closely allied. 



1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N.8.W., Vol. xx., p. 447 (R. T. Baker). 
2 Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. xi., 2nd Ser. p. 447. 



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BTRDiaTBAUC TBBBS AND THBIB ■8BBNTIAL OILS. 107 

The timber is the most durable and more highly prized thaa 
that of the two other " Stringybarks " of this paper. It is a most 
fissile wood and we have seen split posts and rails with a surface 
almost as smooth as if it had been planed. It is a tree that should 
be conserved, as besides its other qualities it would probably 
make an excellent wood blocking timber. The timber is very 
durable in the ground, and is in great request for posts in the 
Rylstone district. 

Mr. H. J. Ramsey, writing from Barber's Greek, states : — " A 
few months ago I purchased an old three rail fence on Crown 
lands which was erected by a lessee twenty-five years ago, and 
have pulled it down and re-erected it on my own property. The 
rails which were all White Stringybark, JE. eugenioides^ are appar- 
ently as good and sound as the day they were erected, except for 
the ravages of fire in some places. The posts were White Stringy- 
bark, Grey Gum, E, punctata, and Snappy Gum, E, micrantha. 
The Stringybark have weathered below ground to the thickness 
of the sap about three quarters of an inch, on average quite sound 
above ground. The Grey Gum have mostly rotted below ground 
but are fairly sound above, while the Snappy Gum seem least 
affected of all. To all appearances the fence of White Stringy- 
bark supposed to be sixty years old still has many of the posts 
standing, but as they were split very thin originaUy they are not 
much good now." 

Histological Notes, 

The leaves of all three species, E, tnacrorhyncha, P.v.M., E, 
eapitellata, Sm., E. eugenioides, Sieb., vary little in shape and 
outward appearance, and the histology of one is almost applicable to 
all three. The oil-glands are unequally distributed in number in 
ettoh species, being most numerous in E, eugenioides and least 
numerous in E. eapitellata. The stomata are also very numerous 
in each. The cells of the cuticle are very irregular in shape, the 
walls of which when seen in a surface view lack that regular 
polygonal structure as shown to exist in E, punctata in our previous 
paper.^ The leaves are somewhat coriaceous, but least so in E, 

1 Boy. Soc N. S. Wales, 1887. 



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108 B. T. BAEBB AND H. O. SMITH. 

eugenunde9^ and we were at first inclined to attribate this character 
to a much thickened cuticle, but microscopical transverse sections 
show that the epidermis has no sach thickening, bat resembles 
that of E. punctata (loc. cit.). The palisade layers, spongy tissne, 
vascular bundles, however, differ from those of JE.punetata in that 
they contain a very much larger quantity of what appears to be 
chlorophyll. In the case of the " Red Stringybark," (B. maerO' 
hyncha) it is principally myrticolorin. It is the presence of these 
bodies and not the thickened cuticularised external wall that gives 
the leaves the leathery opaque character. 

3. Chbmistby of thb Oils. 
Oil of E, maororhyncha. 
In the investigation of the oils obtained from the leaves of this 
species of Eucalyptus, the methods followed were those adopted 
in the research on the oil of E. punctata,^ and although this 
investigation is not as complete as we could have desired, yet, we 
are able to decide that the same differences exist in the physical 
behaviour of the oils from E, maororhyncha^ as those found in the 
case of E, punctata. We had not the same facility for arriving 
at results from material obtained from individual trees or of trees 
of varying ages, as was previously done with E. punctata^ since 
the Bed Stringybark does not grow in the neighbourhood of 
Sydney, but we obtained material at different times of the year 
and from two localities, namely Ilford and Bylstone (N.S.W.). 
The leaves were distilled as soon as possible after removal from 
the trees, only two or three days elapsing between the dates of 
.collection and distillation. The oils were reddish in colour in all 
instances. 

No. 1. Oil from leaves collected at Ilford, distilled 25th March 

1898. 

The oil was light reddish-brown in colour, odour pleasant ; yield 

0*312 per cent. 100 fbs, of the leaves and branchlets yielding five 

ounces of oil ; specific gravity as obtained 0*924 at 22'' C. The 

1 Proc Eoy. Soc. N.S.W. 1897, 269. 



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STBINGTBABK TBBB8 AND THBIB B8SBNTIAL OILS. 109 

oil was of too dark a oolour to enable the rotation to be taken in 
a 200 mm. tube. On redistillation of 100 cc. a few drops only 
came over below 172*4'' 0., this portion contained some aldehydes 
and also some volatile acids, as the water that is always obtained 
in these redistillations was quite acid; the thermometer then rose 
slowly to 174*5'* when the distillation proceeded, two per cent, 
having been obtained. The temperatures were read in whole 
degrees and were corrected to the nearest decimal. (See tabulated 
results). 

First fraction 25%; sp. gr. =0*8993, specific rotation = +lir 

Second „ 35%; „ =0*903, „ „ =+0*88" 

Eucalyptol in crude oil — no satisfactory reaction with phosphoric 

acid. Eucalyptol in first fraction = 47 9%; second fraction = 53 0% 

Equal volumes of the first and second fractions were added 
together and the eucalyptol found was 49*99 per cent, while the 
mean of the two fractions was 50*45 per cent. 

No. 2. Oil from leaves collected at Rylstone, distilled 15th March, 
1898. 
This oil in colour and odour exactly resembled that from Ilford, 
yield 0*281 per cent., or 100 tt)s. of leaves and branchlets gave 
four and a half ounces of oil ; specific gravity as obtained = 0*927 
at 22" C; the oil was too dark to enable the rotation to be taken 
in a 200 mm. tube. On redistillation of 100 cc, the rate of 
distillation and the percentage results obtained between the several 
degrees of temperature 174*5" to 185*9" corresponded almost 
exactly with the results obtained from the Ilford sample, No. 1 ; 
and like the Ilford oil, contained but a small percentage of con- 
stituents boiling below 174*5": the percentage of eucalyptol in the 
first fraction of both oils was but slightly less than that obtained 
from the second fractions ; the oils obtained between the tem- 
peratures 174'5" and 185*9" were taken as one fraction; the 
specific gravity of which was 0*9023 at 23"; it showed no rotation 
in a 200 mm. tube. The eucalyptol present was found to be 
51*4 per cent., while that of a first fraction of another distillation 



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110 R. T. BAKBB AND H. O. SMITH. 

gave 48*2 per cent. The determination of the eucalyptol in the 
crude oil was fonnd to be as ansatisfactory as in the case of the 
cmde oil from Ilford. The fraction distilling between 185*9** and 
193*2'' equalled 8 percent., and had a specific rotation +1*54* 
and a specific gravity 0*911 at 18^ it contained a small qaantitj 
of an ester like the fraction obtained from the oil from Ilford. 
The portion requiring a higher temperature than 193 2* for dis- 
tillation equalled 31 per cent, and contained about the same 
amount of eudesmol in this portion as was found to be present in 
the corresponding portion of the No. 1 oil from Ilford. It is thus 
seen that oils from different localities from the same species of 
Eucalyptus, are almost identical in composition, providing they 
are collected at the same time of the year. 

No. 3. Oil obtained by mixing together the oils from nine distil- 
lations of leaves obtained from Ilford. Distilled at various 
times during March 1898. The quantity of leaves of E, 
macrorhyncha distilled for this research was 2,238 lbs. 
Oil light reddish-brown in colour, odour fairly pleasant ; yield 
= 287 per cent., (mean of the nine distillations), or 100 fi»s. of 
leaves with branchlets gave four and a half ounces of oil ; specific 
gravity as obtained =0*927 at 18^ The redistillation of 100 cc 
was done at ordinary atmospheric pressure, only a few drops, 
besides the usual water which was acid, coming over below 169*5'*. 
Between that and 172*4*" two per cent, had distilled, at which 
temperature regular distillation commenced. (See tabulated list) 



First fraction 23% 
Second „ 32% 
Third „ 11% 
Fourth „ 27% 



sp. gr. = 0*9003, specific rotations -1*11* 
„ =0 9057, „ +-0- 

„ =0*911, „ +1-54' 

„ =0*9542. 

Eucalyptol in crude oil — no satisfsustory reaction with phosphoric 
acid. 

(a) Eucalyptol in combined first and second fractions « 52*36% 
(6) „ in whole fraction but stopping at 182** 0. = 53*2% 
Specific gravity of whole fraction (a) = 0*9035 at 18"* C; (6)a 
0-9058 at 14' C. Eucalyptol in third fraction =43*5%. 



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STRXNGYBABK TBES8 AMD THBIB BSSBNTIAL OILS. Ill 

The oils of the first and second fractions were found to be 
exceedingly good, they were colourless,^ pleasant both in taste and 
smell, and contained a large percentage of eucalyptol, had no 
rotation when mixed together, and contained but a trace of 
phellandrene. The third fraction was slightly coloured and acid 
from the slight decomposition of an ester : — 1 *994 grams of the 
oil boiled three-quarters of an hour on water-bath with upright 
condenser with 20 cc. of semi-normal alcoholic potash required 
18*8 cc. of semi-normal sulphuric acid to neutralise the remaining 
potash. The fourth fraction was grecusy in appearance, much 
resembling a fixed oil ; it was somewhat coloured ; it was placed 
in a closely stoppered bottle and in two days two-thirds of the 
fraction had crystallised into a solid mass; the crystallisation 
continued, and after five days thQ whole had solidified showing 
that this fraction consisted almost entirely of eudesmol; as 
it was found by a special test that slight decomposition occurred 
when pure eudesmol was heated to near its boiling point, and as 
the temperature required for distillation is so high at atmospheric 
pressure, it would be preferable in practice to distil at a reduced 
pressure. 

It win be observed that differences exist in the rotation of the 
several oils from this species ; in the first fraction of No. 1 , 25 
per cent the specific rotation was -1-1*11'' while in that of the 
mixed oils it was IsBvorotatory in exactly the opposite degree, 
being — I'll" so that increased laevorotatory ter penes were present 
in some of the oils. It was not found possible to keep the leaves 
from individual trees separate, but we have little doubt that the 
same want of constancy in the physical properties of the several 
oils from different trees of this species corresponded to that found 
existing in the oils of E, punctata. 

It will be noticed by referring to the table that in the rectifica- 
tion of the oil of E. macrorhyncha the temperature required to 
distil the eucalyptol from the crude oil is higher than is usually 

1 In colour and appearance this rectified oil could not be distinguifihed 
from the pure eucalyptol made from it. 



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112 B. T. BAKBB AND H. O. SMITH. 

the case with eucalyptus oils. This is no doubt accounted for by 
the presence of such a large percentage of eudesmol, as the 
eucalyptol was found to have the usual boiling point. We have 
acquired data of much scientific interest bearing upon this subject, 
but further researches have to be undertaken before the results 
can be published. We hope eventually, however, to be able to 
account satisfactorily for the physical differences and varied com- 
position of these oils. It is found that the chemical constitution 
of the many substances found existing in the Eucalypts is very 
different in character, although it appears that those having similar 
constituents form distinct chemical groups. 

Oil of E. capitellata. 
In the determination of the oil from this species the methods 
previously described were followed. The leaves were obtained in 
the neighbourhood of Sydney, and were distilled almost as soon 
as collected. 

Oil from leaves collected at Canterbury, distilled 9th and 10th 
August 1897 ; red in colour, rather dark ; yield 0*103 per cent, 
(mean of four distillations on 807 flbs. leaves), or 100 Bbs. of leaves 
with branchlets gave nearly one and three-quarter ounces of oil ; 
specific gravity, crude =09153 at 18" C. The oil was too dark 
in colour to enable the rotation to be taken. On redistillation of 
100 cc. the usual water was obtained at about 100"*, this was acid ; 
below 152' only a few drops had come over, by 169-5* 3 per cent, 
had distilled, at 1704' distillation commenced. (See tabulated 
results.) 

First fraction 22%; sp. gr. = 0-893 ; specific rotation +7-28' 
Second „ 44%; „ =0-8992; „ +3-5' 

Third „ 7%; „ =0-912 

Fourth „ 17%; „ =0-946 
Eucalyptol second fraction = 38*4% 

Although the appearance of the several fractions, the results of 
distillation etc., somewhat resembled the oil from E. macrorhynchoj 
yet the fourth fraction having the high boiling constituents con- 
tains only a very small quantity, if any, of eudesmol, and we hope 



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8TSINOYBABK TBBE8 AND THSIB BSSSNTIAL OILS. 113 

before these researches are completed, to be able to account for 
this, because the oil of M piperita^ does contain eadesmol in that 
fraction, although the fraction is smaller than in the case of S. 
eapiUllata. The oil of U. piperita also contains phellandrene, 
whilst that of S, eapitellata contains only a trace of phellandrene. 
It is apparent^ therefore, that the oil of £!, eapitellata resembles that 
of ^. macrarhyneha and belongs to the same type. In composition 
the oil of H, piperita resembles somewhat that of U, eapitellata, 
and might fill the vacant place in the list between U. eapitellata 
and £!. ettgeniaides did it not contains eudesmol, as the crude oil 
is light coloured and resembles E, eugenioides in that respect. The 
oil from E, eugenioides does not contain a trace of phellandrene.^ 

Oil ofJS. eugenioides. 
This oil was obtained from leaves collected near Canterbury, 
and were distilled soon after removal from the trees. Two results 
were obtained, 670 tbs. of leaves being distilled. 

No. 1. Oil from leaves collected at Canterbury, distilled 18th 
June, 1897; almost colourless; odour fairly pleasant; yield = 0*689 
per cent., or 100 fi^s. of leaves with branchlets gave 11 ounces of 
oil; specific gravity as obtained = 0*908 at 22"* C. ; the specific 
rotation was + 3 '745". On redistillation of 100 cc, a little water 
was first obtained as usual ; below 166** only a few drops had come 
over, the distillation then commenced, but the thermometer slowly 
rose to 171*4" by which time 3 per cent» had been obtained, the 
distillation then continued regularly. (See tabulated results). 
First fraction 21%; sp. gr. = 0*899, specific rotation +4*6" 
Second „ 69%; „ =0*904, „ +2-9" 

Eucalyptol, crude oil = 31*4 % ; section fraction = 34*8 %. 

1 Proc. Eoy. Soc. N.S.W., August 1897, 195. 

3 The detection of phellandrene in these oils was carried out as follows :. 
2 cc of the oil was added to 8 cc. of an aqueous saturated solution of 
sodium nitrite in a test tube, and without agitation 8 or 10 drops of 
glacial acetic acid was added. On standing some time, half to two hours^ 
a crystalline crnst forms at the junction of the liquids if phellandrene be 
present, this will separate and float in the oil. If much phellandrene be- 
present fresh crystalline crusts form until the oil becomes almost solid. 

H-Jnly 6, 1896. 



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114 B. T. BilKBB AND H. O. SMITH. 

No. 2. Oil from leaves collected at Canterbury ; distilled 23rd 
July, 1897. Identical in appearance cuid odour to that of No. 1 ; 
yield 0'795 per cent., or 100 lbs. of leaves with branchlets gave 
12f ounces of oil ; specific gravity as obtained = 0*907 at 22"* O. ; 
the specific rotation was + 5*246°. This oil was not redistilled. 

Eucalyptol in the crude oil = 28-4 per cent. 

It will be seen that the yield of oil from this species is good ; 
the greater portion had redistilled (No 1) below 183° C. Thia oil 
does not contain phellandrene. It appears to contain no other 
<K>nstituent having special interest. By referring to the table, it 
will be seen that this oil contained a larger percentage distilling 
at a lower temperature than either the oils of E. macrorhyncha or 
E. capitellata. The constituents of E. eugenioides boiling at and 
below 174*5° C. equalled 38 per cent., whereas the most obtained 
from E. macrorhyncha was 8 per cent, and of E, capitellata 22 per 
oent. The exudations or kinos of these three Stringybarks are 
identical in composition, and contain neither gum, like the Iron- 
barks, nor eudesmin or aromadendrin like the Boxes, etc. 

In reference to the tables, we wish it to be distinctly under- 
stood that the results therein given refer only to oils investigated 
within three months after distillation, as we have found that 
Eucalyptus oils alter in composition when kept in their crude 
<3ondition. Experiments are now being carried on to investigate 
these alterations and the results will be made known when the 
investigation shall have been completed. 

This table gives the results of the redistillations of the oils of 
the throe species of Eucalypts. The numbers are those given to 
the oils of the several species in the paper. The temperatures 
are corrected. The results are percentages obtained from one 
temperature to another, ignoring the first two or three per cent, 
that came over before regular distillation commenced. The (a) 
denotes the temperature where the second fraction commenced, 
the (6) the same for the third fraction, and (e) the commencement 
of the fourth fraction. 



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116 B. T. BAKSB AHD H. O. 81IITH. 

TkeEmdetmol. 
'Hub jysw steaix^tene, eadesmol, was first foand in the oil of 
Jhicalifptus pipmta floe. eitj. It exigts in large quantity in the 
oil of EueahfpUu macrorhyneha and may be obtained in abondanoe. 
Three methods have been saccessfnlly raiployed in obtaining it: 
(1) It may be obtained from the oil distilled about Noyember (when 
it appears to be present in the greatest quantity) by placing Uie 
oil in shallow vessels and allowing the volatile constituents to 
evaporate, eudesmol then crystallises into a solid mass after a few 
days. The March distillate did not succeed so well in this respect, 
but it is a very wasteful method and not to be thought of practic- 
ally. (2) The oil may be redistilled and the constituents boiling 
below 188" C. removed ; this represents about 57 to 60 per cent ; 
the remaining 40 per cent is then placed in shallow vessels and 
left a few days to crystallise, whereupon it forms a solid mass 
having the consistency of butter. As the presence of a very small 
quantity of adherent oil prevents the ready purification of eudes- 
mol, we found it better to spread this impure product upon porous 
plates, whereby the adhering oil was absorbed ; a whitLsh product 
was thus obtained (pressure between drying paper was not satis- 
factory) ; no difficulty being then experienced in purifying the 
eudesmol. (3) By complete redistillation of the oil. A fraction 
boiling between 269° and 289*" C. is obtained ; this represents 27 
per cent, of the original oil. On standing, this fraction crystallised 
into a solid mass, being mostly eudesmol. 

Oonsideratiofu respecting the epeeific gravity of Sueal^tue Oils, 
According to the British Pharmacopoeia, 1898, Eucalyptus oil 
should have a specific gravity of 0*910 to 0*930. When the crude 
oil of E. macrorhyneha is rectified an excellent product is obtained, 
boiling between 172*4'' cuid 188** 0., colourless, pleasant in taste 
and smell, very volatile, and containing by the most rigid phos- 
phoric acid test 50 to 53 per cent of eucalyptol, while only a trace 
of phellandrene could be detected ; and yet this rectified portion 
of the oil, comparable in all requirements with the best Eucalyptus 
oils, except the specific gravity test^ cannot pass the tests laid down 



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STBINOTBABK TBBBS AMD THSIB B8SBMTIAL OILS. 117 

because its specific gravity is only 0*9035 at 18** 0. (Another re- 
distillation gave an oil having a specific gravity of 0*9058 at 14*" 0.) 
Although the rectified portion of this oil (E, macrorhyncha)^ might 
be rejected because of its low specific gravity, the crude oil being 
of high specific gravity, 0*927, might be accepted as indicating an 
excellent oiL^ The reason is, that besides the usual residue, this 
oil contains a large percentage of eudesmol (the stearoptene found 
in Eucalyptus oil, and discovered by us last year),' the fraction 
distilling between 268* and 289* C, representing 27 per cent, of 
the original oil having a specific gravity of 0*954 at 18* C. We 
showed in our paper on the Grey Gum (E, punctata) that the 
specific gravity of an oil was no criterion as to the amount of 
eucalyptol contained therein, and we are enabled in this research 
to further emphasise that fact. It is evident that if the specific 
gravity 0*910 - 0*930 be insisted upon, some excellent oils 
would be made to appear of inferior quality while inferior oils 
would pass the test. We suggest that fixing the test as high as 
0*910 is both unnecessary and unsatisfactory, and that if it were 
insisted upon that the oils should contain 50 per cent, of eucalyptol 
then the specific gravity test might be reduced to 0*90 - 9 25. 
Another instance of the unreliability of the specific gravity of cui 
Eucalyptus oil to indicate the eucalyptol content^ is that the frac- 
tion of the oil of E, macrorhynchi distilling between 185* and 
195* C. had a specific gravity of 0*911 and contained only 43 per 
cent, of eucalyptol, much less than in the previous fractions of the 
same oil, and which had a lower specific gravity. 

We have taken this opportunity of drawing attention to the 
matter of specific gravity of Eucalyptus oils because of its im- 
portance. We have had our attention directed to this feature, 
t.e., of specific gravity, during these researches, and it would be a 
mistake to consider an important oil like that of E, macrorhynoha 
of inferior quality because it does not come up to requirements 

1 The oolonr is no objection, as being of an acid character it is readily 
removed by agitating with potash. 
* Proc. Eoy. Soc. N.S.W. loc, dt. 



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118 B. T. BAKBB AND H. O. SiaXH. 

formulated on researches limited principally to the oil of E. 
globulus^ which belongs only to a type of Eucalyptus oils, and 
which may very well be styled the globulus type. This matter ia 
of importance also, because it may eventually be that a large pro- 
portion of the Eucalyptus oil of commerce will be distilled from 
the leaves of E, tnacrorhi/ncha for the reason that it will be obtained 
practically as a bye-product connected with the extraction of 
myrticolorin. The yield is not sufficiently large for the extraction 
to be remunerative if the oil alone were the main product sought 
for, unless the stearoptene may be found to be of value, but in 
connection with the extraction of myrticolorin it has great possi- 
bilities. 

Euealyptol determination by Phosphoric Acid, 

It will be noticed that the crude oil of Eucalyptus macrorhifneha 
did not react satisfactorily with phosphoric acid, although a large 
percentage of euealyptol was present in the oil, as will be seen by 
referring to the table of results. It is only after the oil has been 
redistilled, whereby the fractions containing the euealyptol are 
separated from the eudesmol and other constituents boiling at a 
high temperature, that the reaction with phosphoric acid is at all 
satisfactory. This test cannot be considered a satisfactory quali- 
tative one for euealyptol in some crude Eucalyptus oils, and with 
the crude oil of E. macrorhyncha it could not be used for quanta- 
tive determinations. Other constituents besides eudesmol may 
have an adverse influence. When ice was added to the water 
bath a crystalline product was obtained, but with difficulty, and 
the reaction was far from satisfactory, and no attempt was made 
to determine the euealyptol content quantitatively in the crude 
oil of E, macrorhifneha. It appears, therefore, that crude oils of 
unknown species should be redistilled before a decision can be 
arrived at as to the absence or otherwise of euealyptol, when phos- 
phoric acid is used. 

The quantitative euealyptol determinations were carried out in 
the following manner; the phosphoric acid was added by drops from 
a burette to 10 grams of the oil, using a cold water bath ; thorough 



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STBINaTBABK TBBBS AMD THSIB S88BNTIAL OILS. 119 

incorporation was made between the addition of every two or three 
drops, the pink colour being taken as the end of the reaction. 
Drying paper as used in the herbarium for drying plants was used 
for the pressing, as being far preferable to blotting paper, being 
stron^r and quite as absorbent ; a copying press was used for the 
pressing. The cake was broken up with the point of a knife, and 
renewal of the paper was continued until oily indications ceased. 
By this method fairly concordant results were obtained, and the 
eucalyptol when regenerated was found to have the physical 
characteristics of that body, and to be almost pure. Duplicate 
results at least have been taken and the mean given. CioHigO, 
HjPOf was the formula taken in the calculations. For other con- 
stituents of these trees we refer to two papers on myrticolorin by 
one of Qs, and published in the proceedings of this Society. 

4. SUMMABT OF RESULTS. 

1. Baron von Mueller's classification of the " Stringy barks " is 
endorsed. 

2. That an oil having a less specific gravity than 0910 has 
been found to exist containing over fifty per cent, of eucalyptol, 
and answering all the tests laid down in the British Pharma- 
copsea of 1898, except that of specific gravity. It is thus seen 
that the specific gravity test for Eucalyptus oil as given in the 
B.P., if enforced, might be the means of excluding some excellent 
oils. 

3. That phosphoric acid is not a satisfactory qualitative test 
for eucalyptol in some crude Eucalyptus oils. 

4. That eudesmol, the stearoptene of Eucalyptus oil, exists in 
large quantities in the oil of E» macrorhyncha and can be readily 
purified. 



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120 M. W. O. HBFWOBTH. 



CURRENT OBSERVATIONS on the CANADIAN- 
AUSTRALIAN ROUTE. 

By Capt. M. W. Campbell Hepwobth, F.B.Met.soc., f.b.a.8.. 

R.M.S. Aorangi. 

(Communicated by Mr. H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.b.s.) 

[Bead brfore the Royal Society of N. 8, Wales, July 6, 1898.'] 

As a material assistance towards the successful navigation of the 
Pacific Ocean when making the passage between Australia and 
British Columbia on the steam-route between these two Colonies, 
I obtained sometime ago a number of current observations recorded 
in the log books of past voyages of the steamer Warrimoo dating 
from the ISth of June 1893 to the 1st of December 1897, and 
through the kindness of Captain Hay, the present commander of 
the Warrimoo^ then commanding the Miawera^ similar data from 
log books of the latter steamer dating from April the 9th 1896 to 
June the 3rd 1897, were supplied to me. These observations, 
together with a number which have been made by myself during 
twenty months on the Pacific in the steamers Warrimoo and 
Aorcmgi were found to furnish so much information as to the 
movements of the sea surface on the diagonal cut across the 
Pacific which is taken by the steamers of the Canadian Australian 
line, that I ventured to hope the results of my investigations 
might be of interest to this Society. In all sixty-two passages 
have been dealt with, and the currents experienced have been 
drafted on track charts for the month or months during which 
the passage is made. In this work I have had the valuable 
assistance of Mr. H. Reader, second officer, and Mr. F. Bayldon, 
third officer, of the Aorangi who have taken a keen interest in 
the work and devoted to it a considerable portion of their time 
during their watches below at sea. 

The direction of the currents — which are given true on all these 
charts — are shewn by arrows with ends barbed in the direction 



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OUBBBNT OB8EBVATIOI98. 121 

f 

the stream was found to be flowing, the value from noon to noon 
of the observed current being shewn by the numbers beside them. 
The direction and value of these currents are of necessity only an 
approximation, being the course and distance between the position 
of the ship as found by observation and of that estimated by 
account. It will be readily understood then that accuracy is 
dependent upon the correctness of observation for latitude, longi- 
tude, and compass error on the one hand, and upon good steering 
and exactness in logging on the other. Inaccuracies due to errors 
in observation are as a rule small, and the same may be said in 
regard to the steering of a fast modern steamer, but this is not 
the case in respect to logging. Hand logs and patent logs alike 
are not to be relied upon in estimating accurately the speed at 
which a fast steamer is travelling or the distance she has travelled. 
The hand log or patent log influenced by the disturbed water in a 
steamer's wake will denote a rate of progress under or in excess 
of her actual rate, in the one condition of the vessel's trim, although 
it may have recorded the actual speed through the water in 
another condition of trim. The accuracy, to sum up, of a log 
will therefore depend upon the approximation of a vessel's trim 
to one particular condition, and no workable amount of stray line 
will altogether eradicate this error. In the case of a patent log 
moreover, the slip of the rotator will be found to vary according 
to the speed of the vessel, and as the mechanism, from the eflect 
of friction, will probably after a time offer slightly reduced resist- 
ance to the action of the rotator, a corresponding variation in the 
rate of the machine will result. It is far from my intention to 
condemn the use of the hand or patent log generally. In the daily 
navigation of sailing vessels, and of all steamers of low, or com- 
paratively low power, whose speeds are easily affected by conditions 
of wind and weather, the assistance that may be gained by their 
use, is in my opinion invaluable, as it is also in full powered 
steamers at times, notably when on account of fog the speed main- 
tained is not uniform, or in intricate navigation, when the course 
has to be altered frequently upon the completion of short distances. 



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122 M. W. C. HEPW09TH. 

The only reliable method of correctly logging a full powered 
steamer, under ordinary circumstances, is by calculating the speed 
by the revolutions made by the engines, making allowance at the 
same time for slip, and the accuracy with which the distance run 
may thus be estimated, when experience has taught what slip to 
allow for the trim of the ship and the state of the sea, is most 
satisfactory. 

On the run between Australasia and British Columbia the 
Admiralty current chart compiled by Staff Captain F.J. Evans, b.n. 
and Staff Commander T. A. Hull, R.N., under the superintendence 
of Admiral G. H. Richards, c.B., F.R.S., will be found of great 
assistance to the navigator, and its accuracy, considering how 
little information regarding the meteorology of the Pacific was 
available to its compilers, is astonishing. 

Formerly the steamers of the Canadian Australian line made 
the passage from Suva to Sydney direct, but since the month of 
August of the present year they have been calling at Wellington, 
New Zealand. Current observations between Sydney and Cook's 
Straits, and between Cook's Straits and Suva are as yet few, and 
do not call for any special remark. 

In Mr. Russeirs first contribution to the Royal Society of New 
South Wales on the subject of current papers, he shewed how 
several bottles containing these papers, thrown overboard near 
the coast of New Zealand, were picked up far to the northward, 
having travelled apparently against the current known to set to 
the southward along the east coast of Australia. Now the 
Admiralty current chart shf ws us that the east coast current, 
which is as a matter of fact the equatorial current diverted to the 
southward on its impact with the east coast of Australia, is 
deflected between the 31st and 35th parallel to the eastward, and 
afterwards to the north-eastward by that current from the Indian 
Ocean which has passed through Bass' Straits and round the south 
coast of Tasmania. The current observations under discussion 
to-night testify to the accuracy of the Admiralty chart, and shew 



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OUBBSNT 0B8BBVATION8. 123 

moreover that eastward of the 160th meridian and between the 
20th and 30th parallels this north-eastward moving stream meets 
one of its parents, the equatorial stream, and flows to the west- 
ward. Thus as Mr. Russell truly surmised, these bottles instead 
of travelling against the current, made a long detour with the 
current of many hundreds of miles. 

Under normal conditions the east coast current obtains all the 
year round, but during southerly gales its velocity is considerably 
checked, if not after a prolonged spell of wind altogether arrested 
for the time near the coast, and the easterly and north-easterly 
current will be found further to the northward its strength con- 
siderably augmented. My charts shew currents setting to the 
north-eastward between Sydney and Middleton Reef of forty-one 
miles in the month of May, forty-one miles again in June« thirty- 
eight and twenty-three miles in October, and many other of less 
value at all times of the year. Between Middleton Reef and the 
Fiji Group following the steamer's track the set will be found to 
trend mainly to the westward, and to the north-westward, when 
southerly winds have prevailed, and to the southward when the 
type of weather has been northerly. Between the Horn Islands 
and the Fiji Group the drift current is usually to the southward 
or south-westward, but during the monsoon season a strong 
easterly set may be experienced, and this easterly set may exist 
as far to the north-east on the steamer's track as seven degrees 
south latitude. Referring to the chart for January, we see that 
the only current recorded between the Phoenix and Fiji Groups 
were to the eastward during this month. Steering to the south- 
ward at this season, it is well to make a point of sighting the 
Horn Islands before shaping a course for the Fiji Group, other- 
wise, during the thick rainy weather which usually prevails during 
the monsoon season the easterly currents may carry a vessel into 
danger. From ten degrees south latitude to the equator, still 
following the "Ash track," the equatorial current will be found 
setting for the most part to the southward and westward, and 
increasing in force as the line is approached. Between the 



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124 



M. W. O. HBPWOBTH. 




parallels of five and ten degrees south, a north-eastward and north- 
westward set is here and there recorded, in the months of May, 
June, July, and August ; and to account for the same I may here 
remark that in May the south-east trade wind is ro-established and 
blows steadily until September. From the southern limit of the 
Phoenix Group to three degrees north latitude the equatorial 
stream appears to attain its greatest strength on the track I am 
asking you to follow, and we find in my records of daily currents 
such values in miles as the following :— 29, 20, 36, 22, 25, 23, 20, 
36, 20, 28, 37, 38, 26, 24, 34, 33, 32, 39, 24, 44, 40, 28, 25, 31, 



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OUBBBNT OBSBBVATIONS. 125 

and 35. Of course there are numerous records of daily current 
observations of less than twenty miles ; the strongest current will 
be found on the chart for the month of October. On a general 
chart for the year which I drafted, but which is not here published, 
the currents appeared to set indiscriminately eastward and west- 
ward, where the eastward stream or counter current may be 
looked for, the explanation being that the line of demarcation 
between the equatorial and counter currents alters according to 
the season, and therefore when the former still obtains at one 
season of the year, the latter has established its right of way, so 
to speak, at another season. This eastward moving, or counter 
current of the Pacific referred to, is analogous to the counter 
current of the Atlantic Ocean which goes to feed the Guinea 
current. These mighty ocean streams — the equatorial and counter 
current — run side by side in opposite directions, their surface 
temperatures and densities having no appreciable difference, yet 
they preserve their individuality as though divided by a solid 
barrier. Near the equator, the heaped up waters of the equatorial 
stream overflow where the saturated trade winds fail and pre- 
cipitate their moisture, and one of the localities in which these 
overflows, which form the counter stream, takes place, according 
to the Admiralty chart, is crossed by the steamers ot the Canadian- 
Australian line, and the records from the log books of these 
steamers bear out in a remarkable manner the accuracy of the 
chart. The latitude assigned to this counter current by the com- 
pilers of the chart, namely, between four and eight degrees north, 
may be considered its average limit throughout the year. My 
records shew that during the months of May, June, and July, the 
counter current may be met with between the parallels of one and 
six degrees north, and during August, September, and October, 
between the parallels of five and nine degrees north, and it should 
be noted that during these months the south-east trade winds blow 
without intermission. During December we find two observations 
of counter current between the equator and the fourth parallel, 
and three observations of current flowing to the north-eastward 



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126 



M. W. G. HBPWOBTH. 




and east-north-eastward between the eighth and eleventh parallels 
of north latitude, which will not, for reasons given hereafter, be 
considered as belonging to the counter current proper. During 
February and March no eastward moving currents have been 
recorded, but in April two observations of counter current are 
recorded, one between the third and fifth parallels, and one 
between the eighth and tenth. 

Disregarding these last two observations, which may be looked 
upon as exceptions to prove the rule, we find that from December 
to March inclusive, i.e., during the monsoon season in the region 



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CUBBBNT OBBEBVATIOMS. 127 

about the Fiji Group, and westward to the Coral Sea, when the 
wind between this and the equator is drawn to the north-eastward, 
the equatorial counter current slackens, or is altogether absent, 
and that it is questionable whether it has much value during 
April. When this current first separates from the parent stream 
it flows to the northward and north-eastward for probably a 
hundred or two hundred miles before it turns to the eastward. 
There appears to be some evidence to shew that a considerable 
body of the counter current retains its northward course as an 
under current, coming to the surface again to the north of ten 
degrees north latitude, and mingling with the waters of the north- 
east Trade Drift, but still maintaining its course to the northward. 

Before my acquaintance with the Canadian-Australian route 
commenced, Captain Charles Bird — a very keen observer whose 
observations are amongst those that may be considered to have 
most weight in judging the value of these records — gave me some 
useful information as to the winds and currents he had experienced 
on his voyages across the Pacific, and among other things he told 
me, which greatly interested me, was the fact of a set to the 
northward dead against the north-east trade wind having been 
several times experienced by him between the parallels of ten 
and fifteen degrees north latitude, on the run between Fiji and 
Honolulu. Persona] experience as well as the testimony of the 
Warrimoo'S and Miowera's log books have fully borne out Capt. 
Bird's statement, and by referring to the charts we shall find in 
January a set to the north-north-east of thirteen miles, and a set 
to the east-north-east of twenty-five miles, between the parallels 
of eight and eleven degrees north ; and again a set to the north 
of fourteen miles, and a set to the north-north-west of six miles, 
and a set to the north-north-east of fifteen miles, between the 
parallels of twelve degrees and eighteen degrees north, all in the 
heart of the north-east trade winds, and travelling against it. The 
question in my mind arises, is this the equatorial counter-current, 
credited with having continued its northward course as an under 
current, come to the surface ? 



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128 



M. W. 0. HBPWOBTH. 




The January chart has been referred to in order to point oat 
the phenomenon as shewing the extreme southern limit of the set 
during this month, but this set will be found cropping up between 
the tenth and twentieth parallels on the charts for each month of 
the year. Between the tenth and the eighteenth parallels, except- 
ing when the northerly current referred to is met with, the north- 
east Trade Drift sets to the westward, its direction varying from 
south-west to noth-west, and approaching the Hawaiian Islands 
southerly and south-westerly currents may still be considered to 
prevail, but northerly and easterly have frequently been experienced 



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0X7BBBNT OBSEBVATIONB. 129 

and may be expected when the north-east trade wind fails and 
gives place to southerly winds ; the southerly season is coincident 
with the northern winter, but it must be conceded that my records- 
tell of northerly and easterly currents, not only from October to- 
March, but at all times of the year. 

Continuing our voyage from the Hawaiian Islands to British 
Columbia, the data in my possession at first sight appear to 
supply evidence of a conflicting nature, but I shall hope to prove 
that this is not in reality the case, but on the contrary, the direc- 
tion and force of the current at different seasons of the year may 
be predicted on this portion of the voyage with considerable 
accuracy. The north-east Trade Drift in approaching the 
Hawaiian Islands from the east-north-eastward is deflected under 
normal conditions to the north-westward. It is probable that the 
prevailing westerly winds of the north Pacific, between the thirty- 
fifth and fiftieth parallels, produce the surface current setting to 
the eastward which is augmented by the Kuro Siwo or Japan 
Stream which has found its way thus far across the Pacific, and 
mingling with the north-east Trade Drift deflects it to the north- 
eastward, which direction it retains until near the north-western 
shores of the American Continent, when it is again diverted to 
the south-south-east and ultimately becomes the Mexico current. 
This circulation roughly outlined, is reversed or m<klified in places 
according to the season, changes in one way or another consequent 
upon an alteration in the distribution of atmospheric pressure 
having a marked effect upon it. The centre of the north Pacific 
anticyclone, or area of high pressure, oscillates during the year 
between the one hundred and thirty-fifth and one hundred and' 
fiftieth meridian of west longitude and between the thirty-eighth 
and forty-second parallels of north latitude. This area of high 
pressure is furthest north and west from May to October, attain- 
ing its extreme north-west position in August. It is farthest 
south-east from December to April, attaining its extreme south- 
east position in March. During the former months the north- 
east trade winds blow steadily from about the twenty-sixth degree of 

I— Jnlje, 1886. 



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130 



M. W. 0. HBPWOBTH. 




latitade, and on the charts for June the only ourrenta recorded are 
to the north-westwardy on our track between the Hawaiian lalaiids 
and the thirty-first parallel. In July the records are conflicting 
it is true, but the August chart shews strong evidence of westerly 
north-westerly and southerly currents. In September the north-east 
Trade Drift is strongly markedi taking a south-westerly direction 
before curving to the westward, and the October chart gives one 
observation of current to the south-westward and two to the 
westward. From December to March inclusive, the north-east 
trade wind is intermittent, and southerly and south-westerly winds 



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OUBBBlfT OBSBBTATIOMS. 131 

are not nnfrequently experienoed in the vicinity of the Hawaiian 
Islands, and to the north-eastward. The charts of December, 
January, February, and March have not the characteristic features 
referred to above, but bear traces of an interruption in the north- 
east Trade Drift, and of an occasional set to the northward. 

Following our track between the thirtieth and fortieth parallels, 
the direction of the surface currents are found to vary according 
to the direction of the wind, but they shew a southerly tendency. 
The January and December charts record north-east currents and 
the strong south-west winds which prevail between November and 
the latter end of February lead us to anticipate this. From the 
fortieth parallel to within about six miles off Cape Flattery, where 
the counter current setting to the northward obtains, the set 
experienced is always to the southward and eastward, excepting 
when checked by winds from south-west and south-east which 
blow with great violence during the winter months. During these 
months the main position of the centre of the north Pacific anti- 
cyclone is situated in about thirty degrees north and one hundred 
and thirty-eight degrees west, the pressure to the northward of 
the forty-fifth parallel is low, for the whole of the north Pacific 
and cyclonic systems traverse that ocean from west to east often 
in quick succession, and under similar conditions as are found to 
exist in the North Atlantic. In December last during a hard 
south-east gale, the mercurial (Board of Trade) barometer standing 
as low as 28-90, a strong set to the north-westward was experienced 
from a position about three hundred miles south-west by west of 
Cape Flattery to the Straits of Juan de Fuca. 

At no distant date I understand the Admiralty will publish 
eurrent charts for the Pacific Ocean for different seasons, if not 
lor each month of the year, and then these records of ocean 
eurrents, the study of which at times has seemed to me like the 
perusal of some stray fragments of a torn up document, will have 
complete contexture, and it will be known whether the theories 
adopted by me in their interpretation are correct or otherwise, 
but in the meantime I shall venture to hope they may be of some 
interest to those who are interested in such matters, and of some 
value to those whose lot it is to navigate these tracts of the North 
and South Pacific Oceans with which it deals. 



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132 H. 0. BU8SBLL. 



WATERSPOUTS on thb OOAST op NEW SOUTH WALES. 
By H. 0. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.b.s. 
[With Plates II. -IX.] 



IRBod hrfore the Royal Society ofN. S. Wales, August 3, 1898,'\ 



Those who have the best opportunity of seeing, tell us that on 
the coast of New South Wales water-spouts are seen very fre- 
quently, often in groups of three or four, but the recent display 
off Eden is by far the grandest that I can find on record, for 
here occurred in the short space of five hours, fourteen complete 
water-spouts, and six others more or less incomplete, making 
twenty in one group, or rather from one great mass of cloud. 

They were seen on May 16, 1898, and came as such displays 
generally do, quite as a surprise. For on that morning there was 
nothing remarkable in the antecedent weather ; a low pressure 
system of slight intensity was at that time over the western 
districts of Victoria; the isobars were far apart and the winds, if 
any, were light, but conformed to the isobars. At Eden and 
generally in South-east Australia, it was fine and calm in the early 
morning. At 9 a.m. Eden reported a light north-west wind with 
fine weather and smooth sea, and these conditions were general 
within a radius of one hundred miles of Eden. Very early in the 
forenoon a great heavy bank of cloud appeared on the eastern 
horizon and became more and more dense as it drifted towards 
the shore. The cloud gradually rose above the horizon, and there 
was a flickering as if electrical discharges were going on between 
the cloud and the sea, but there was still nothing to suggest, much 
less to indicate what was to follow. 

Mr. Pilot Newton saw the first of these water-spouts about 
11 a.m., it seemed to have come into existence suddenly, and was 
when first seen about a mile long and as straight as a shaft, and 



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WATBB-SP0UT8 ON THB OOAST OF N. 8. WALKS. 133 

was estimated to be thirty times as high as a clipper-ship, say 
5,000 feet. When lirst seen it was in the north-east distant about 
eight miles, and it drifted rapidly to south-west until it was only 
three or four miles from the coast) and then suddenly disappeared. 
The experience of Mr. D. R. Crichton, Mining Engineer, who 
observed these water-spouts is unique, for he, as appears in the 
following account of the occurrence, was able to watch carefully 
through the telescope of his theodolite eight of the water-spouts, 
what he saw is best described in his own words, as follows : — " I 
had the opportunity of observing this most unusual phenomenon 
of such a large number of water-spouts at one time. While look- 
ing at the first one the idea struck me of putting up my theodolite 
for observation, and by the time I had got it set up and adjusted, 
the nearest and largest water-spout disappeared. At the time 
the intention was to make measures for my own information; had 
I known that you wanted them, I would have taken more obser- 
vations. Since I received your letter I have gone carefully over 
my notes and worked out the results, which I have much pleasure 
in sending to you. 

"There were fourteen clear and distinct water-spouts, t.e., reach- 
ing from clouds to sea, commencing at 10*45 a.m. Plate 2 was 
made from an oil painting by Mr. A. J. Nicholson of Eden, and 
shews four out of the twenty water-spouts that were seen at 
Eden, New South Wales, Latitude 37° South. The first one 
was approximately eight miles off the shore, and the others came 
at intervalB afterwards, each one a little farther from the land ; 
the last one that was distinctly visible was about thirty miles 
from the shore at 3*50 p.m. There appeared a few broken 
columns for an hour afterwards, but they were hazy and indis- 
tinct. The weather all the time was calm and there was no sea. 
The one I measured with the theodolite was the second and largest 
one, and the nearest to the land. I have computed the distance 
At nearly eight nautical miles from where the theodolite was 
standing in Imley-street, Eden. The height above the sea of the 
top of the inverted cone, %,e. to top of this water-spout was 5,014 



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194 B. 0. BingKLL. 

feet The oonee at the top and bottom of the apout were aboat 
100 feet in diameter, and the length of each oone from its base to 
the points at which the spout became parallel was about 250 feet. 
The spout or coloumn when formed by the junction of the two 
cones appeared to be about ten feet in diameter and perfectly 
symmetrical from end to end. 

" Looking through my telescope I could distinctly see the com- 
mencement of each water spout. First there came a violent dis- 
turbance of the surface of the otherwise smooth sea, and I could 
see the rotary motion of the waves over a surface about one-third 
of a mile in diameter, large quantities of broken water being raised 
up ; as the rotary motion accelerated the diameter became lees, 
the spray became visibly denser and in two or three minutes the 
base of the whirlwind was formed. Then it rose gradually as a 
white misty topped column — the misty part preceding the denser 
part by one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet; this went on 
for three or four minutes, and by that time the misty topped 
column or cone had risen two-thirds ot the way up to the clouds, 
t.6., 3,300 feet. During this time the clouds had formed an inverted 
cone reaching downwards and egg-shaped at the point, then the 
point of the cloud cone seemed to be alternately dipping down 
and receding with an interval of about thirty seconds between the 
dips, but all the time it was getting longer and reaching down 
towards the misty cone that was stretching upwards from the sea, 
until finally the two cones met and suddenly all became symmetrical 
and dense without any visible rotary motion. All the misty 
matter or cloud was absorbed. The column then remained un- 
changed for ten to twelve minutes; all this time the overhanging 
cloud appeared to be getting denser and moving slowly eastward, 
the haze on the ocean perceptibly dragging until the water spout 
got out of perpendicular, about lO*", then it gradually, t.e., in three 
or four minutes, again assumed the misty form and divided in the 
middle, the top rising slowly, in one and a half to two minuteS| 
and the lower half sank to the ocean in about one minute, where 
it caused a violent disturbance and much broken water. I could 
see the rotary motion again directly the column became misty. 



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WATBE-8P0UT8 ON THB OOUtt C9 M. 8. WALB8. 135 

** I closely obeerred through the telesoope eight out of the four- 
teen water-Bpouts, and they were all colamns of broken water in 
wfaidi the rotary motion oonld be clearly seen until they met the 
doud cone, when the column or spout formed and the rotary 
motion could not be seen until the column broke; I could then see 
tAke misty matter flying round and receding. The last water-spout 
but one appeared to take its start out of the "debris " of the one 
that preceded it. 

'' I have seen many whirlwinds in the Oarcoar and Forbes 
districts, and once when travelling in the Carcoar district I arrived 
at a water hole just after a whirlwind had scooped up and carried 
away all the water, so that I was familiar with the effect of wind 
▼ortioes before I saw these whirlwinds.'' 

Mr. Francis, Signal Master, South Head, Sydney, has observed 
many water-spouts, and supplied me with many valuable observa- 
tions and sketches of them, from which PkUea 4 to 6 have been 
made. These throw much light upon the phases of water-spouts 
not reproduced in the Eden display. If we were to overlook these 
records we would miss much important evidence of the varying 
phases of water-spouts, and it is evident that the life and character 
of waterspouts cover a great amount of variation in the phenomena. 
In the small number herein reported we have the tall straight 
pipe a mile long, and the short dumpy one in Coogee Bay (Plate 4) 
less than one hundred feet long, and the completed coil of Captain 
Taplin, {Plaiea 8, 9) or, referring more to details but which are 
nevertheless remarkable, we find at Eden and in some instances 
at South Head the water-spout is formed by cones projecting 
from the sea and the clouds, the union of which completes the 
water-spout. {PlcUes 4, 5, 6.) 

Again, the first glimpse of the water-spout of March 2, 1895 
{FUUe 6) is like the one at Eden vertical and straight, but the 
South Head one developed cones of cloud and spray above and 
below, while the Eden one disappears suddenly without the retreat- 
ing stage with cones above and below. That the lower cone (Plate 
6, No. 2) was spray is evident from the fact that the spout could 



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136 H. 0. BU8SBLL. 

be seen through it down to the water, that it was a phase of 
decreasing energy is shown by the fact that it ceased to be a 
complete spout a few minutes afterwards No. 4. Again Captain 
Taplin's coil water-spout is very remarkable (Plate 8). The spout, 
although elongated to an unusual length and swaying about in the 
wind, maintained its vitality until the snake-like form swung into 
a complete coil and brought about its own destruction, by making 
its vital force of rotation meet from opposite directions at the point 
where the coil was completed, and the forces being equal and 
opposite destroyed itself. 

Still another phase is shewn in Mr. Francis' water-spout of 
June 6th, (Plate 5), where the spout comes from the cloud to the 
water without a sympathetic cone below, and another on the same 
day, a long tapering cone, which appeared without a corresponding 
disturbance below. The distance, fifteen miles, may have hidden 
a cone below, but it is noteworthy that the second one on the 
same day and only three miles distant, shews no cone below, 
although seen at 2*10 p.m. when light was abundant. 

Still another phase is seen in one of the water-spouts on March 
21st (Plate 3), which was painted by Mr. Louis Frank, an artist 
well known for his accuracy in delineating natural features. Its 
character is something like those (Plate 3) of June 6, 1894, in that 
it is a cone from cloud to water, but its width, judged by what we 
ordinarily see in water-spouts is altogether out of proportion to 
the length, but something like it was seen by Mr. Surveyor 
Campbell on Sept. 9, 1894 over the land, (see appendix) and Mr. 
Louis Frank saw the Coogee water-spout coming over the land 
before it got into Coogee Bay. On shore such a cloud of revolution 
would be called a ** tornado," and this particular one is very like 
the well known American one as pictured in booka Water-spouts 
have been seen to come on shore and gather up sand instead of 
water, and the Coogee water-spout is a tornado gone to sea. We 
have here then the extremes in water-spout lengths, Eden affording 
the maximum, a mile long, and Coogee the minimum of one 
hundred feet. 



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WATBB-BPOUTS ON THE 00A8T QF N. 8. WALBS. 137 

As evidenoe of the character of the small vortices, I may mention 
some ^ts that have come under my notice before offering any 
explanation as to the origin and character of water-spouts. 

Some years since, the driver of the mail coach from Goodooga 
to Walgett, in this colony, was very much surprised to find the 
road for a quarter of a mile alive with fish floundering about; the 
fish were such as are found in the swamps and tanks of the district. 
The ground also was very wet and the fish numerous and lively, 
but the origin of them was a mystery; a wider experience said 
that evidently a tornado had passed over a swamp or tank and 
carried up the water and the fish with it; there was no other 
possible source from which the fish could have come, unless they 
were carried from the river. 

Another instance : In a heavy rain storm, with thunder and 
lightning, on September 21st, 1888, on a station called "Gnalta," 
west of the Darling River, and one hundred miles north-west of 
Wilcannia, the rain fell in torrents, and after it was over three 
fish were discovered in one of the open iron tanks which was kept 
. for watering the garden and usually supplied with water from a 
well. The whole country was at the time suffering from a very 
serious drought, and the Darling River, distant more than one 
hundred miles, was the nearest possible source from which the 
fish could come. 

Another instance : The Burrangong Argus reported that on 
January 24th, 1881, a number of small fish were found in the 
bush after a heavy rain storm. The creeks in the neighbourhood 
were all dry, and the only water-hole was much lower down, so 
that the fish could not have come from there, and they must have 
been deposited in the bush by the heavy rain, the storm having 
taken them out of some permanent water-hole. 

FIBB FROM A TORNADO. 

An interesting proof of the velocity of the wind in a tornado 
was given to me by Mr. Richard Hodnett of Carrington Park, 
fifteen miles east from Bourke on the north side of the river, who 



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1S8 H. i 

detoribes it as fellows : — *< On Janimry S, 1889, I was ridiiig 
towards a sandhill aboat fear miles out from the homestead when 
I noticed one of the largest whiriwinds I ever saw traT^ling 
direotly across my tracks and I stopped the horse so that I could 
watdi its movements, and at the same time let it pass by, becaose 
I knew very well what these storms are capable of in timbered 
country. It was travelling down the hill at a terrible paoe. A 
good sieed dead pine tree stood in its way, and I waited to see 
the effect the tornado would have on it ; all the pines about had, 
like this one, been dead for years. The tornado at this time was 
fully twenty feet in diameter at the base, tapering upwards to a 
considerable height, and was making a loud buzzing noise, throw- 
ing out from its circle sticks, sand etc., and revolving with great 
velocity. In a few moments it was on to the dead pine, and 
almost instantly the top and branches were torn o£f, breaking up 
and grinding in the centre. After it had passed, I rode up, and 
to my surprise, found fire and smoke at the butt of the tree. I 
put it out as quickly as possible to prevent it from spreading. I 
rode away puzzled, and after thinking it over returned to the tree 
and examined it more carefully. I found no other indications of 
fire except where I put it out ; there was a good deal of broken 
wood about the tree but no sign of any previous fire, nothing in 
fact except the little fire that I put out and that was only super- 
ficial. Indeed had there been any fire at the ti*ee before the 
tornado reached it I must have seen if Perhaps no better proof 
of great velocity in the vortex could be found than this case of the 
production of fire. 

The well-known sand spirals of our western districts are akin 
to the water-spouts and throw some light on their origin, the late 
Sir G. B. Airy said he thought they must be caused by purely 
local conditions. On the ground the air was motionless under 
a blazing sun and a clear sky, the sun's rays direct and reflected 
by the earth, heated up the air near the soil and gave it an 
ascensional tendency, but it could not rise because a steady 
wind was blowing overhead at a considerable elevation ; this served 



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WATBB-8P0UT8 ON IMM OOMMT OF M. 8. WAUM. 1S9 

to ke8|^ down the heated air whioh was all the tine trjring toriae. 
Now and then some little vortex in the oyerhead eurreDt gave the 
lower heated air a ohance to aomw its way upwards and through 
the overhead current; this vent once established is maintained bj 
the great extent of heated air on the earth's surface, all of which 
is seeking an opportunity to rise. Sometimes ten or more are all 
going on at the same time, and they travel slowly eastward. They 
never exhibit any great energy, just enough to carry up fine dust 
in a spiral two or three feet in diameter. The air is very dry and 
uniformly heated, and the increase of the ascentional force by 
the condensation of moisture as it rises, which, as we shall presently 
see, is such a powerful factor in the formation of a water-spout is 
altogether wanting in sand spirals. 

A WATBR-SPOUT VIEWED FROM ABOVE AND BELOW. 

M. Kaemtz, the late able Meteorologist, in his work on Meteor- 
ology, says, page 393 : ** I was on the Rigi, and looking down I 
examined masses of fog preceding towards each other in the valley 
of Gulden, whilst around me, as I stood on the mountain, the air 
was calm and the sky serene. At the end of a few moments the 
m asses of cloud united, and I observed a gyrating movement in 
Uie midst of them ; the fog then extended upwards with incon- 
ceivable rapidity, and violent gusts of wind drew from it hail and 
rain. In the meantime the temperature had fallen, so that the 
water in the teeth of my anemometer was congealed. A friend 
of mine, who arrived in the evening, told me that * on the Lake 
(^ Quartre Cantons he had experienced a violent storm, during 
which the clouds were driven in different directions, and at the 
same time he saw a water-spout.'" Kaemtz calls particular atten- 
tion to the inconceivably rapid extension of the fog about him, 
due no doubt to the moisture-laden air carried up by the water- 
q>out below, which expanding by relief of pressure as it rose 
hi^er and higher on the mountain, and at the same time affected 
by the cold of these regions, would of necessity deposit much of 
its moiiture as fog. This conversion of the water-vapour into 
particles of water, i.e, fog, would increase the partial vacuum and 



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140 H. 0. BUSSBLL. 

thereby add energy to the water-spout, and this intensificatioii 
would go on until pressures above and below were in equilibrium, 
or the water-spout became interrupted. Thus Kaemtz's fortunate 
experience tells us the whole story of the origin and formation of 
a water-spout. 

In every. case the water-spouts on this coast, which have been 
reported to me, have come from great masses of cloud. (See details 
in Appendix). As to the extent of these enormous clouds, no 
special observations have been taken, but the observer at South 
Head records that one of them, four miles from the coast, extended 
from south-east to north-east, and therefore must have been at 
least eight miles long and of considerable breadth, otherwise there 
would not have been water-spouts under it. The cloud shown in 
the photograph here reproduced {Plate 7) was distant fully five 
miles and exceeded considerably the field of view in the camera, 
which was 80"* ; at the lowest estimate the cloud must have been 
ten miles long and fully half-a-mile in thickness or vertical deptL 
The cloud mass at Eden was large and conspicuous when it was 
thirty miles away. 

It is obvious that such masses of cloud, resting over warm water 
in calm or almost calm weather, must be in a state of unstable 
equilibrium. The want of wind allows the warm humid air to 
accumulate under the great extent of cloud, being warmer than 
the surrounding air its tendency is to rise. The cloud itself is in 
unstable equilibrium, the parts constantly readjusting themselves 
with much energy, as can be seen with aid of a telescope. This 
motion at times causes partial breaks, as seen at A PkUe 7 from a 
photograph of such a cloud, when this break makes the cloud weak 
enough for the confined, heated, and moist air below to force its 
way through, this confined air rushes up through the cloud taking 
on a vortex motion, and its moisture condenses as it rises, increas- 
ing the partial vacuum and accelerating thereby the uprush. The 
energy of the water-spout depends then upon the temperature and 
moisture of the air below, and the vertical thickness of the cloud, 
through a hole or pipe in which the heated air finds a vent into a 



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WATEB-SPOUTS ON THB 00A6T OF N. 8. WALBS. 141 

cold space. The rising air under sach an impulse would at once 
be thrown into a well-defined vortex. In illustration of this we 
refer to the water-spouts at Eden. There the cloud itself was seen 
to be in circular motion, and therefore every vent in it with 
uprushing air became a water-spout; and the experience of Kaemtz 
on the Bigi shews how rapidly comparative slight differences of 
density and temperature may develop into a most violent vortex 
or water-spout. 

Such are the simple and ordinary conditions which generate 
water-spouts; given the wide spread mass of shower cloud covering 
many square miles of a warm ocean current^ and water-spouts are 
the natural and necessary result. Many vortices originating in 
this way never run on to completion; a cone of mist descends from 
the cloud as proof of the existence of a vortex motion, but this 
must increase until the space from the sea to the clouds is spanned 
by a vortex tube, which we call a water-spout. Many get half- 
made and are seen as cones hanging down from the clouds; some 
have cones from cloud and sea, and yet die away, but when these 
upper and lower cones unite, instantly a new energy takes com- 
mand and the cones contract, leaving a tube parallel from end to 
end, and joining sea and cloud. The tube may be two or three, 
or perhaps twenty feet in diameter, and it is so light that it sways 
about like feathers and bends in curves before light winds. In 
one remarkable case as we have seen herein, it stretched and 
swayed about and formed a complete loop. So long as the tube 
maintains its uniform size its life seems assured, but if it gets 
uneven as in Plctte 5, where it got smaller at the ends, and in 
JPlale 6 it got smaller at the middle; these conditions seem always 
to indicate the approaching death of the vortex. 

The opinion that the tube when complete carries up large 
quantities of water as a metal tube carries water, seems to be 
held by many persons, but the facts here collected have convinced 
me that it is erroneous. In the first place these water-spouts are 
sometimes a mile long and vertical; if we suppose it to be full of 
water and in a metal tube; the pressure on every square inch near 



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143 H. 0. BUB8BLL. 

the sea woald be one ton ; in a water-spoat tabe the ooofining 
power is the wind which, at the greatest velocity we know, hu 
only power to lilt or press upon anything half-a-pound to the 
square inch, so that it is evident that the wind cannot confine 
and carry np such a column of water. Again, a vortex in water 
forms an empty tube round which the water rotates in its descent, 
and if we look at a sand spiral we see it whirling round with an 
empty centre, and the small tornado and the larger cyclone have 
their dead centres round which all revolve. What does happen 
is that the wind breaks the water up into spray, with the particles 
or drops small enough to be carried by the wind blowing at the 
time. There are many observations in which the water was seen 
to be broken up into spray in this way, and it is evident that 
spray would be carried by the wind round and round the tube, 
rising spirally all the time. The stronger the wind the more spray 
it will make and carry with it, and its formation at the foot of 
water-spouts is one of the most prominent parts thereof ; many 
have remarked the spray as rising abundantly before the spout 
forms ; Mr. Orichton saw the spray carried up as a cone three 
thousand feet, Mr. Francis, at South Head, records the same 
thing, but not so high, and it is a matter of common observation. 
When, therefore, a water-spout forms, the wind forces the water 
at its foot into spray, the quantity increasing very rapidly as the 
velocity rises above forty miles per hour, for when the velocity 
rises to fifty-seven miles the pressure or force of the wind is twice 
what it is at forty; and at eighty miles per hour the force is four 
times as great as it is at forty miles. This spray is carried round 
the vortex or water-spout, not into it. In a large water-spout, with 
violent winds, enormous quantities of water would be carried up 
in this way, and if a sudden break in the water-spout takes place, 
'as in the one reported by Capt. Taplin, the wind suddenly ceases 
and the spray falls in mass as if it were a continuous flow of 
water ; falling as it does from great altitudes, one can understand 
its power of destruction; what that means is indicated by the case 
in which soil to the depth of seven feet and a mile long was 
carried away by the water from a burst water-spout. 



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WATBB-SPOUTS ON ZHB 00A8T OF M. 8. WALKS. 143 

It thng appears that a water-spout of great energy may originate 
under oonditions in which little energy seems to exist; given a 
massive cload of great extent floating over warm water on a calm 
day, and a water-spoat may be formed at any moment. The 
eknid is made ap of parts of unequal density, and is necessarily 
in constant motion^ owing to the inequalities of its own parts and 
the pressure of warm air from below ; if this motion makes a vent 
or vertical hole in the cloud, the warm air flows up, gets some 
rotary impulse and a water-spout is formed at once, its size and 
energy depending upon the diflerenoe of temperature and elevation 
between the air below and above the cloud. 

Every one who has watched great masses of cumulus clouds has 
seen rounded masses rising above the general level; these are the 
natural result of a vortex in the cloud bringing up the moist air 
from its lower levels to its higher and colder regions, where it 
deposits moisture and builds up the domes that cap the cloud. 

Appendix. — List op Thirty-eight Wateb-spouts seen on the 
Coast op New South Wales. 

December 17th, 1888. — On the voyage of the s.s. Botomahana 
from Auckland to Sydney, she passed under masses of heavy rain 
clouds, sixty miles from the Port Jackson Heads. From one of 
the dark clouds a long tapering cloud descended, and a few 
minutes later another tapering cloud formed and slowly descended 
until it was the same length as the first, then both descended 
until they reached the sea, which was immediately lashed into fury 
and ascended in a cylinder form some twenty or thirty feet high. 
Then suddenly the tapering form of the clouds changed to long 
ribbon-like stripes, this lasted about ten minutes ; then a few vivid 
flashes of lightning were followed by peals of thunder and the 
water-spouts were dissipated in a heavy shower of rain. 

March 18th, 1891, South Head Signal Station, Sydney.— At 
5 a.m. a heavy bank of doud was seen ooming from the south ; 
from the cloud a large funnel shaped waterspout tapered to a 
pomt at the sea, and when it had moved northwards and was due 



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144 H. 0. BUSSBLL. 

east from the station about a mile from the observer, it appeared 
to break in the centre with a loud report (probably a thunder clap), 
and the lower jAirt fell to the sea while the upper part rose to the 
clouds. The disturbed water at the bottom of the waternspout 
seemed as wide as the signal station. Mr. Gibson, then Chirf 
Signal Master, adds, "I have seen five of these water-spouts during 
the past six months." 

"At 5 p.m. March 18, another water-spout was seen to the east, 
distant five miles and moving rapidly to north, the water-spout 
lasted about twenty minutes, became very long and swayed about 
with the wind, but kept its tube-like form ; at the junction with 
the sea the water seemed to be very much disturbed. The whole 
scene lasted twenty minutes, and in the end seemed to fade away 
and disappear, the wind was blowing (Beaufort's sccde) four to 
fiva — G. Gibson, Signal Master." 

March 21st, 1891. — A very remarkable water-spout was seen 
on this date by Mr. Louis Frank our well known artist, living on 
the shore of Coogee Bay; he had risen early with the intention of 
going for a ride, when a violent storm with thunder and lightning 
was seen coming from south-west into the southern side of Ooogee 
Bay, heavy rain began to fall and enormous hailstones, the largest 
he had ever seen, fell about him ; looking out he saw the water^ 
spout between the shore where he stood and the island in Coogee 
Bay — that is within a quarter of a mile from him. When the 
lightning flashed about the water-spout he could see it distinctly 
although it was only dawn, and a very dark one, owing to this 
storm. In a letter to me, written at my request, Mr. Frank, says: 
" I made at the time I saw the water-spout two sketches of it in 
colours; they are true representations of what occurred. I saw it 
from the beginning of the water display, it seemed to come from 
south-west over the sandhills as a whirlwind. When I saw the 
waterspout it was quite near the shore, and when the lightning 
was brightest at the back, I could see it all very distinctly ; it 
moved very quickly out to sea towards north-east. The rain then 
suddenly ceased, and I could see a second water-spout more to the 



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WATEB-BPOUTS ON THE OOAST OF N. S. WALES. 145 

north as shewn in the painting. Our place was completely flooded 
and after it was over we carted thirty loads of sand and rubbish 
ont of oar stable yard. I have lived in India for thirty years 
and have seen many water-spouts, but I never saw one with such 
a large body of water as this one." The photograph of the painting 
(PkUe 3) shews the water-spout as it appeared during a few seconds 
of a lull in the storm. 

Same day, March 21st 1891 — At Jervis Bay light House a 
large water-spout was observed at 9 '25 a.m. five miles south and 
moving to south-west. At 10 a.m. three more were seen, two 
eight miles north and one three miles east. These water-spouts 
eXl started from very heavy rain clouds ; the longest was straight 
up and down and the top seemed to be four times as high as a 
full rigged ship (say 650 feet). 

October 14th, 1891. — "At 8 a.m. this morning," writes Mr. Sur- 
veyor Sloman, "I observed a water-spout oflf the Waverley 
Cemetery distant about a quarter of a mile; the spray caused by 
its contact with the ocean rose to a considerable height. The 
water-spout descended from a dark heavy-looking cloud, which 
was high up and the long snake-like water-spout seemed to sway 
about with the wind." 

May 13th, 1894.— On this date the Signal Master, Sydney, 
reported that a very large water-spout was seen descending from 
a dark heavy mass of cloud coming towards the observer with 
the south-east wind. When it was about four miles distant,, 
he could see it distinctly by the light-house revolving light; it 
appeared to be very bulky and wide at the top and tapered down; 
to a point close to the water, it was slightly curved, directly 
under it the sea was all white foam. It was visible for nearly^ 
half an hour. Thick heavy rain fell directly after it was broken 
up. 

June 6th, 1894.-^ At 1*30 p.m. a large waterspout was seen by 
the Signal Master, South Head, Sydney, its direction was south- 
south-east, distance fifteen miles ; it appeared to be fifty feet in 

J— Ave. 8, 1806. 



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146 H. 0. BUBSBLL. 

diameter at the clouds and ten feet at the sea sarfooe, it wu 
estimated to be four times as high as a ship's masts, say 650 feet, 
and lasted fifteen minutes. At 2*10 p.m. of the same day another 
water-spoat formed under a dark cloud about three miles east of 
the point at which the earlier one was formed ; it was not so 
large and of a much lighter colour, but did not reach the water 
and lasted only ten minutes. 

August 17th, 1894. — On this date the Signal Master at Sydney 
reported a water-spout forming from a dark cloud six miles dis- 
tant to south-east, wind south, fresh. <<The water-spout wai 
travelling fast and seemed to be taking up great quantities of 
water during the whole time it was visible; it disappeared at 5 p.iiL 
twelve miles distant in north-north-east. The size and form 
ohanged as it went along, and all the way the water under it in a 
oircular spot about twenty feet in diameter was white like foam 
as if water was being sucked up or poured down. (Plate 4, figs. 
1 to 4). When it was about eight miles to north-north-east and 
close in to the land the spout got larger, and shortly after it 
extended downwards to the water and then became the same width 
from cloud to sea (Fig. 5); at this time although twelve miles 
distant, it was clearly defined. My rough estimate would make 
the greatest diameter sixty feet, and length under two hundred 
feet, but when it extended to the water (Plate 4, Figs. 1 to 6) it 
must have been four hundred feet long." 

August 18th, 1894.— Mr. Richard Taplin, Master of s.s. Burro- 
wong, writes: — "When fifteen miles south of Seal Rocks and 
going south we saw before us a waterspout in the midst of a black 
and heavy looking rain cloud; it looked like a bright funnel and 
the tube descended to the sea, which it lashed into a fierce whiri- 
pool, (Plate 9) it was travelling to north-west and passed us three- 
quarters of a mile to westward. I estimated the speed it was 
travelling forward at about twelve to fifteen miles per hour. The 
second one was not so large, but otherwise very similar, and it 
passed away in the same direction. The third and last one was very 
beautiful; it formed under the south-eastern extremity of the very 



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WATBB-BP0UT8 ON THB CX>A8T OF N. S. WALKS. 147 

dark nin doud, and it travelled in the same direction as the other 
two. Its funnel-like shape was like the first one, but it was much 
longer and closer to the ship, so that we conld see it very well. 
As it came bowling along at the rate of twenty miles per hour, we 
conld see the water spouting up in a continuous and uniform stream 
right up to the cloud. When the waterspout was about two miles 
to the north-west of our ship, it suddenly presented a very curious 
and fantastic shape; it became very long, swaying and coiling 
about like a serpent. All at once it made a complete coil, (See 
Plates 8, and 9) then bursty great quantities of water poured out 
of the lower part of the coil, and in a few seconds one of the most 
beautiful sights I have ever witnessed during my seafaring career, 
vanished as completely as if it had never been in existence." 

September 9th, 1894. — Mr. W. D. Oampbell, Surveyor, reports 
that on that date he was in the Oentennial Park, and looking 
southwards he saw a water-spout come down from the clouds ; it 
did not present the usual thin tapering cone, but was more like a 
cylinder slightly enkurged at its base, which was in the clouds, its 
length being about twice the width of the cylindrical part. It 
seemed to come down suddenly on to one of the hills of the park, 
and after touching the ground it rose rapidly in the same form 
as that in which it came down ; from first to last it did not con- 
tinue more than three minutes. 

March 2nd, 1895. — Mr. Francis, Signal Master at Sydney, 
reports that at 6*10 a. m. on March 2nd, two very large water- 
spouts descended from a very dark massive cloud extending from 
south-east to north-east; it was about four miles off the coast and 
appeared to be taking up an immense quantity of water. The 
water-spouts were about a mile apart and travelling very slowly, 
the wind south and very light, at 6*25 a.m. both disappeared. At 
6*35 a.m. another appeared in the same cloud and bearing due 
east of the Signal Station ; it was much larger than either of those 
seen just before. It was about four miles from the coast^ and the 
spout was vertical, volumes of water appeared to be going up it. 
The sea under it was all white foam, and the water seemed to 



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148 H. 0. BU8SELL. 

spray ap for one hundred feet It was a grand sight and the largest 
water-spout the observer had seen for a number of years. It was 
fully three hundred feet in length but not a great width, the 
rough sketches (PkUe 6) will give some idea of it. It lasted half 
an hour. 

The cloud was remarkably massive, dark and heavy below and 
like great white boulders above, it extended from north-east to 
south-east, and would be at least ten miles long ; the water-spouts 
came down in the centre of it when about four miles off the land; 
the estimated length of this great water-spout was four hundred 
feet, and was nearly parallel throughout, (Fig. 1), forty to fifty 
feet in diameter above and about forty feet below. In Fig. 2 
the top and base had enlarged and the water sprays about the 
base seemed to rise one hundred feet, indicating intense velocity 
of rotation, while a great roaring noise could be heard. In Fig. 3 
it was much wider at the cloud; lower down it still maintained a 
width of forty feet, which could be seen through the spray down 
to the sea, while round it the water still sprayed, but not so much 
or so high. (Fig. 4) The tubular form disappeared for the 
moment and the outline was that of a long and narrow cone 
extending rather more than half way to the sea; the continuance 
of the vortex was shewn by the water spraying about twenty feet. 
(Fig. 5) Once more the water-spout re-formed like (Fig. 1) but 
with less intensity, the tube could again be seen from the cloud 
to the ocean, and about it spray was leaping up thirty feet. 
(Fig. 6) In this we see the dying water-spout, the vortex is still 
spraying up the water, and the tube is rolling up to the clouds. 
The Signal Master states that the two earlier water-spouts seen 
at this time and of which no sketches were taken, were something 
like Figs. 1 and 2. At 7*30 a.m. another water-spout appeared 
out of the same cloud in an east-north-east direction, distant five 
miles, and like the others lashed the water under it into foam ; it 
lasted fifteen minutes and disappeared. 

March 27, 1895. — Mr. Signal Master Francis reports that at 
6*35 p.m. a water-spout appeared from a dark heavy looking cloud. 



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WATEB-SP0UT8 ON THB COAST OF N. 8, WALES. 149 

distant one mile to south-east, and travelling slowly towards the 
Signal Station ; when within one quarter of a mile it disappeared 
suddenly. It was narrow, not more than eight or ten feet in 
diameter, but of a great length from cloud to water. It was the 
same size throughout, and it seemed to be taking up water in 
great quantities ; soon after it disappeared a very heavy shower 
of rain fell {Plate 5). In Nos. 1 and 2 the water-spout was the 
same size about eight to ten feet in diameter throughout its length, 
towards the end it got thinner at the top, but its length was 
maintained until it broke. 

May 16, 1898. — Mr. Pilot Newton at Eden saw the first water- 
spout at about 11 a.m., it was very long and dark and seemed to 
be quite perpendicular {Plate 3); when first seen it was eight miles 
off the land bearing east-north-east, it travelled rapidly to west- 
south-west until it got within three or four miles of the land and 
then disappeared. There were in all between fifteen and twenty 
water-spouts, after the first one they were much smaller, lighter in 
colour and not so straight. Some of them were very much curved 
towards the south and not one lasted for more than ten minutes. 
I estimated the length of the first one as a mile or thirty times the 
height of a clipper ship. I saw one break at the water and retreat 
to the clouds, another broke in the middle, the top rose up to the 
clouds and the lower half did not make any disturbance in the 
water when it fell. 

June 30, 1898. — Captain Campbell Hepworth, Master of the 
R.M.S. Aorangi was on this date approaching Sydney at 8 a.m., 
when at a distance of eight miles east of Sydney Heads a water- 
spout was seen within one mile from the ship on the south side, 
the wind was light and fitful, shifting round the compass, at times 
blowing hard and then very light, weather thick with drizzling 
rain and occasionally short tropical showers. The water-spout 
travelled from south to north quite a short distance from the ship, 
and the splash made by the descending volume of water appeared 
like the effect produced by a continuous explosion as it struck 
the sea. 



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150 W. H. WABSSN AND B. H. BABBACLOUOH. 



SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OP NICKEL STEEL. 

By W. H. WaBBBH, WhJk., IdnstC^., M.A]ii.8oo.C^ Chftllit 

Professor of Engineering, and S. H. Babraolough, m.m.b.v 
AMoo.M.in«t.c.E., Lecturer in Engineering, University d 
Sydney. 

IBsad Wore ihe Boyal Society o/N. 8. WaUe, Augud 8, 1599.] 



1. IfUroductory. — ^Nickel steel has hitherto been chiefly used in 
the manufacture of armour plates, and, to a lesser extent, in 
forgings for certain important pcurts of machinery ; but as the 
material becomes better known it is probable that its use will be 
▼ery greatly extended. The increased cost of the steel caused by 
the addition of the nickel has been stated^ to be about £3 per ton 
per unit of nickel, so that 3% would mean an addition to the cost 
of £9 per ton. If the demand for the material became greater, it 
would no doubt be produced at a much smaller cost, as was the 
case when mild steel superseded wrought iron for purposes of con- 
struction. The use of nickel in long span bridges would allow of 
a larger increase in the safe working stress and a consequent 
reduction in the dead weight which would be an off-set to the 
increased cost in such cases. 

It appears that attention was first directed to the valuable 
properties of nickel steel by Mr. Riley of the Steel Company of 
Scotland in 1889, and in 1894 a length of shafting of nickel steel 
was constructed for the American liner Paris, 

In June 1895 the Pennsylvania Steel Company made a heat of 
about four tons of open hearth nickel steel for the purpose of 
investigating its physical qualities when rolled into plates and 
bars. The results obtained in their experiments were lower than 
those from nickel steel produced in the ordinary way, in oonsr 
quence of the small ingots obtained from the heat not allowing 
for a sufficient reduction in rolling. 

I Engineering, Vol. lziii., p. 689. 



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BOMS PHTSIOAL FSOFBBTIB8 OP MIOKBL BTISL. 151 

Last year an investigation was made on the properties of nickel 
and iron alloys by Prof. M. BadelofT, Assistant Director of the 
Boyal Prussian Testing Department^ the alloys being melted in 
small quantities. The results are interesting as showing the 
influence of varying proportions of nickel on the physical proper- 
ties of the alloys, and are briefly summarized as follows : — 

Expansion by Heat — ^The coefficient of expansion by heat was 
found to decrease with the increase in the percentage of nickel, 
but was greater with the 98% nickel alloy than with pure iron, thus 

Pure iron 1-000 

Iron and 4% nickel 0*943 

Iron and 16% nickel 0891 

Iron and 98% nickel 1-091 

Tensile Strength. — The elastic limit, yield point, and ultimate 
breaking strength increase gradually by the addition of nickel up 
to 10%, after which a gradual decrease takes place up to 30%. 
With a further increase of nickel the elastic limit and yield point 
decrease still more, while the ultimate breaking load increases being 
greater with 60% than with 30% of nickel The elongation 
decreases as the percentage of nickel increases, till at 16% it is 
almost zero; afterwards it increases up to 60% nickel and then 
again decreases. The elastic limit, yield point, and elongation of 
pure nickel are approximately 60% of those of pure iron, the 
breaking loads being about equal. 

Compressive Strength. — The results obtained in compression are 
similar to those obtained in tension, but the resistance increases 
up to 16% nickel, and then decreases. Drop tests. — ^The results 
obtained in the drop test show an increase in strength up to with 
16% nickel, and then a decrease until with 30% nickel it is the 
same as pure iron. Shearing tests gave similar results to those in 
tension. 

While the for^;oing summary may be taken to indicate relatively 
the results of varying proportions of nickel, the actual figures 
obtained in the various tests do not agree with those obtained 



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152 



W. H. WABBBN AND 8. H. BABBAOLOOGH. 



from similar alloys made on a large scale by experienced steel 
manofacturers. 

2. Testa of Nickel Steel manufactured in Great Britain, — A 
valuable paper was contributed by Mr. William Beardmore to 
the Institution of Naval Architects in April 1897, which deak 
with tests of nickel steel and its application in steel forgings, more 
especially in propeller shafts, railway cranks, axles, crank pins, 
tyres, etc., also in plates for shipbuilding. The following table 
gives the results of Mr. Beard more's tension tests on carbon and 
nickel steel showing the characteristic properties of the latter 
material relatively to carbon steel. 

Comparison of the Yield Point and Break- 
ing Strain of Nickel and Carbon Steel. 



II 

la 


Carbon 8t«el. 


Niekel SteeL 


intlnutte 
■trength. torn 
per aqiULre inch 


Yield point 
In tons per 
square Inch. 


Ultimate 
streugth. tons 
per equare Inoh. 


Yield point 
In tons per 
spoaniuoh. 


iV 


27-7 


18-5 


513 


29-5 


-At 


28-3 


13-6 


53-9 


28-7 




27-6 


13-7 


641 


286 




27-6 


18-9 


62-9 


29-2 




27-7 


14-0 


62-4 


30-4 




28-2 


14-5 


51-8 


306 




28-5 


141 


525 


290 




28-3 


14-3 


49-6 


28-9 




28-5 


140 


50-5 


28-5 




27-9 


140 


510 


28-4 




27-6 


14-6 


48-7 


28-3 



Here the yield point of nickel steel is equal to the ultimate 
strength of carbon steel. 

Mr. Beardmore states that nickel steel can be bent, punched, 
drifted and welded successfully ; he also gives some experiments 
by Mr. Whyte of Leith Docks on the behaviour of nickel steel, 
mild carbon steel, and wrought iron when exposed to the corrosive 
action of sea-water for one year, in which the loss of weight was 
as follows : — 

Nickel steel 1-36%; Carbon ste^ 1-72%; Wrought iron 1-89%. 

3. Teste of nickel steel from F, Krupp. — ^The firm of Fried. 
Krupp of Essen, manufacture substantially two kinds of nickel 



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SOHB PHTSIGAL PB0PBBTIB8 OF NIOKEL 8TBBL. 



153 



steel, difPering as regards the quantity of nickel contained therein, 
that is so say one has a comparatively small quantity of nickel 
amounting to from three to eight per cent., according to require- 
ments, and the other contains a large quantity of nickel amount- 
ing to twenty-five per cent and more. The former is made of 
various degrees of hardness, as ingot nickel iron, mild, and medium 
hard, nickel steel ; the texture is fine and fibrous, not merely in 
consequence of the nickel it contains, but of the careful and special 
treatment to which it is subjected while working in a hot state. 

Nickel steel, especially the softer qualities, somewhat resembles 
the best wrought iron in regard to its fibrous texture, and if any 
damage is done to its surface such as a crack, or a sharp cut, it 
win not be rendered liable to sudden fracture like steel, but if 
subjected to excessive strain it will gradually yield like the best 
wrought iron. This important property was tested by subjecting 
axles of nickel and crucible steel to the drop test after first cutting 
them in the middle by means of a sharp turning tool to a certain 
depth, thus artificially damaging them. The crucible steel axle 
was fractured with the first blow falling from a height of 3*3 feet^ 
the fracture being dense, finely granulated and serrated. The 
nickel steel axle required thirteen blows from heights of 3*3 to 
21*3 feet to produce fracture, the axle deflecting 7*3 inches and 
gradually tearing away on the underside of the nick. A hollow 
nickel steel axle damaged in a similar manner sustained fifty-four 
blows, of which thirty-four took place from a height of thirty-six 
feet (that is with a momentum drop of 80,000 foot pounds). 

The figures denoting the strength of the three axles were, aftw 
the test, ascertained to be as follows : — 





TansUe Strragth 
pw wq. In.. poiuuU. 


Pereml 


Contwotlon. 
P«ro«Bt. 


BlMtlo Llmll 
Ponndc 


1. Crucible steel axle 

'2.' Nickel steel axle 

8. Hollow nickel steel azle ... 


82,800 
90,900 
94.600 


20-8 
22-4 
18-6 


57-8 
671 
59-7 


46,600 
68,800 
66,000 



These results show the characteristic property of nickel steel, 
namely a high elastic limit 



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154 



W. H. WABBBM AMD 8. H. BABBMSAUaS. 



In regard to nickel steel ocmtaining 25% of niolDel and nieces— 
This material has been proposed for those parts of 
machinery which are specially liable to rust; it ] 
strength and ductility, but has a somewhat low limit of tAamdoAf 
hence it is not so suitable for parts liable to great strains. It haa 
been proposed for the construction of locomotive fire boxes, for 
which purpose it appears to be eminently suitable. 

4. mekd Steel fnmi the Bethlehem Iron Warks.^ln the Beth- 
lehem Iron Works, U.S. A., nickel steel forgings are made from 
fluid compressed, acid open-hearth steel, and are carefully annealed 
after forging. To get the best results it is necessary to use an 
ingot twice the diameter of the finished forging to be made from 
it, in order that the proper amount of work shall enter into the 
metal during the time of its reduction in size under the press. 
The ingot also should have from 30 to 50% extra metal at the top 
which is cut off, as only the lower portion of the ingot is solid and 
suitable for forging purposes. Whenever the form and size of the 
forgings will allow of such treatment^ they should be made hollow 
by boriDg, and they may also be oil tempered. Presses should 
always be used in preference to hammers, and should produce a 
pressure penetrating to the centre and causing a flow throughout 
the mass. 

The ste^ used in the field magnet rings of the lai^ Niagara 
electric generators was made at the Bethlehem works. Each 
ring was forged in one piece without welding, from an ingot of 
nickel steel, 54 inches in diameter and 197 inches long. The ingot 
was cast solid and compressed by hydraulic pressure in the fluid 
state and during solidification. A hole was bored in the ingot 
which was subsequently expanded on a mandrel under a 14,000 
ton hydraulic forging press. The material was tested after forg- 
ing to obtain the physical qualities desired, the results being ss 
follows : — 



BunptoVo. 


TM>U«8tr«ifth 1 nastte Limit. 


IneSailNreMit. 


1 

2 

8 

Average 


82,915 
81.110 
82.140 
82.055 


58,660 
47,280 
40,280 
50,028 


27-05 
2575 
22-60 
2610 



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BOMS PHTBiaAL FSOPmBTIBB OF IHOKSL 8TBSL. 155 

5. Preseni Series ofTeeta. — The anthon oonsidered that a more 
Qsefal and.exaofcJuiowledge of the properties of nickel steel could 
be obtained li # ui -<^^»rieB of careful tests of material supplied by 
steel manufacturers of acknowledged reputation, as so much 
cl^>ends on the cautious treatment during the heating and forging, 
more especially with the alloys containing from 3 to 8% of nickel 
which are ci^ble of being hardened. The following tests were 
made from specimens selected by one of the authors during a 
recent visit to the firm of Fried. Krupp of Essen, Oermany. Three 
kinds of steel were tested which are denoted in the test sheets as 
follows : — 

F — Mild, containing approximately 3% nickel 

T^^Medium hard, „ „ 8 „ 

E — Non-rusting „ „ 25 „ 

The tests made by the authors were somewhat restricted in con- 
sequence of the limited number of specimens available, but they 
are sufficient to bring out clearly the physical properties of the 
material 

6. Tensile TesU. — ^These consisted in the first place in the deter- 
mination of the elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity, the 
extensions being measured by Marten's mirror extensometer.^ The 
test piece was afterwards divided between the reference points 
into spaces of one^uarter of an inch, and connected to the auto- 
graphic apparatus and tested to destruction. The yield point 
recorded on the diagram is consequently higher than would have 
been the case if the test piece had not been previously strained 
in obtaining the true elastic limit The results of these tests 
are shown in Tables I. to V., and in the summary Tables X. 
and XT. 

The results of testing specimens cut from a railway axle made 
by Messrs. 'Vickers of Sheffield are also recorded, as showing the 
results of testing good steel of the ordinary kind, for the sake of 
eomparing the results with those obtained from nickel steel 

1 See Jouni. Boy. 8oc. Vol xxxi., pp. 89-111. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



156 W. H. WABBBN AND 8. H. BABRAOLOUaH. 

7. Compressive Tests, — These consisted of the determination ol 
the elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity as in the tensile tests, 
the compressions being observed with the Marten's mirror extenso- 
meter, the length of the specimens was ten inches, and diameter 
one inch; one set of readings was taken on a specimen two inches 
long. The compressive strength was determined by using cylinders 
one inch in diameter, and one and two inches long respectively. 
The compressive strength was taken as the yield point of the 
test piece. See Tables VL to IX. and summary of results 
Table XII. 

8. Torsion Tests. — These consisted of the determination of the 
value of /in the equation — 

/= ^ 
•^ 0-196 (^» 

and the measurement of the total angle of twist in degrees. See 

Table XIII. 

9. Shearing Tests. — These consisted of the determination of the 
load necessary to shear the specimen on two planes, i.e. in double 
shear ; the results are summarized in Table XIY. 

10. Corrosion Tests. — To obtain an indication of the relative 
values of the nickel steels as regards their resistance to corrosion, 
specimen discs of various irons and steels were prepared as shown 
in the accompanying table. These were first weighed and placed 
in a large beaker containing about a gallon of a weak^ solution of 
sulphuric acid, which was maintained at a temperature of from 
170** - 180' F. for twenty-four hours. The discs were then 
removed, thoroughly cleaned, and re-weighed. 

It is necessary to draw attention to the elastic limits obtained 
both in tension and compression, as the results may appear low 
when compared with similar results obtained from autographic 
apparatus. The large multiplication obtained by the Mart^i's 
mirror apparatus shows a deviation from the straight line much 
earlier than could be seen in any autographic diagram. Oarefol 

^ One part by weight of strong sulphuric acid to one hundred parts of 
water. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SOHB PHT8I0AL PfiOPBBTIBS OF NIOEBL STEEL. 



157 



tests of Yicker's axle-steel made with KennedT's extensometer 
gave an elastic limit of sixteen tons per squre inch, whereas the 
Marten's apparatus gave 14*5 tons per sqaare inch. Until a 
standard method for determining this point is agreed upon, it will 
always be difficult to compare the results obtained by experimenters 
using different extensometers. 

Table I. 

Determination of the elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity in 
tension of nickel steel " F ** (mild). 

Length upon which, elongations were measured = 160 mm. (6 in.) 
Diameter = 6085" Area = 0*2908 square inches. 



Load in 
1,000 0)8. 




Mean 
Extension^ 


Differences per 
1,000 lbs. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


»"iote"^ 





812 


2-19 


531 


1-56 


2-6 


470 


4-60 


9-20 


1-70 


8 


510 


4-96 


10-05 


1-86 


4 


600 


6-91 


11-91 


1-81 


6 


6-9) 


6-82 


13-72 


1-89 


6 


7-82 


7-79 


15-61 


1-82 


7 


8-75 


8-70 


17-48 


1-87 


8 


9-66 


9-64 


19-30 


1-86 


9 


10-68 


10-67 


2115 


1-87 


10 


11-61 


11-61 


28-02 


1-88 


11 


12-44 


12-41 


24-85 


1-98 


12 


18-41 


18-87 


26-78 


t Limit of 
204 Elasticity 


18 


14-48 


14-89 


28-82 


2-60 


U 


16-70 


15-78 


81-42 





t Limit of Elasticity s 12,600 fts. or jrior^ = 48,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

OZWb (19-2 tons) 

Coefficient of Elasticity = 27,7800,000 fiSs. per sq. in. 

= 12,875 tons per sq. in. 

X Obtained b j addi&ir the flgnxea in the preceding two oolnmns. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



168 



AHD 8. H. BABBAOLOUGH. 



Table n. 
Determination of the elastio limit and coefBcient of 
tension of nickel ateel "T" (mediam). 
Length upon which the elongation! were meatnied s 160mm. (6111.) 
Diameter = 0*600" Area = 0-2911 equate inohee. 



Loud in- 
1»000 lbs. 


Readiniri-in sJjymro 


Mean 
Extension 


DifferanoM per 


Top. 


Bottom. 





0-00 


7-00 


7-00 


1-18 


1 


0-48 


7-65 


8-18 


1-87 


2 


1-30 


8-70 


10-00 


1-91 


8 


2-18 


9-78 


11-91 


1-90 


4 


810 


10-70 


18-81 


1-92 


5 


408 


11-70 


15-78 


1-74 


6 


4-85 


12-62 


17-47 


1-87 


7 


5-78 


18-56 


19-84 


1-88 


8 


6-80 


14*42 


21-22 


1-87 


9 


779 


1580 


2809 


1-89 


10 


8-78 


16-20 


24-98 


1-64 


11 


9-62 


1700 


26-62 


1-88 


12 


10-60 


17-90 


28-50 


1-80 


18 


11-52 


18-78 


80-80 


1-90 


14 


12-50 


19-70 


82-20 


1-90 


15 


18-48 


20-62 


8410 


t Limit of 
2-16 Ehutidty 


16 


14-48 


21-78 


86-26 


211 


17 


15-62 


22-75 


88-87 


2-19 


18 


16-66 


28-90 


40-56 


2-46 


19 


18-00 


26-20 


4802 


4-28 


20 


2000 


2725 


4726 





15.500 



t Limit of Elaeticity = 15,500 lbs. or ^~{ = 58.200 fiSe. per Bii. in. 
r. ^. , (28-75 tone) 

Coefficient of Elasticity = 27,120,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

= 12,110 tons per sq. in. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SOKE PHTBICAL FSOFBBTDn OF mOEML SimBlM 



159 



Table UI. 

Determination of the elastio limit and coefficient of elasticitj in 
tendon of nickel steel "E" (non-rasting). 

Length upon which the elongations were measured = 160 mm. (6 in.) 

Diameter = 0*6076" Area = 0*2899 square inches. 



! Loadin 


K«ftdinff8inT.4«r™n> 


Mean 
Bxtcnsioo 


DifferenoM per 
1,000 lbs. 


1,000 Ibi. 


Top. 


Bottom. 





0*00 


600 


600 


0-08 


1 


-0*02 


6*10 


6*08 


2-02 


2 


+ 072 


6-88 


710 


216 


8 


1-76 


7-60 


9*26 


1 
2*04 


4 


2-82 


8*48 


11*80 


2-08 


6 


8-92 


9*46 


18-88 


218 


6 


606 


10*48 


15*61 


211 


7 


6-22 


11*40 


17*62 


211 


8 


7-84 


12-89 


19-78 


2-26 t Limit of 


9 


8-62 


18*47 


21*99 


Elasticity 
2*78 


10 


9*89 


14*88 


24*77 










4*08 


11 


11*86 


16*96 


28-80 





8,600 



t Limit of Elasticity » 8,600 lbs. or ,1^^ = 29,860 lbs. per sq. in. 

^^^ (18-1 tons) 

Coefficient of Elasticity = 26,840,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

= 11,760 tons per sq. in. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



160 



W. H. WABRBN AND 8. H. BABBAOLOUaH. 



Table IV. 

Determination of elastio limit and coefficient of elasticity of Yicker's 
axle steel No. "5'' in tension. 

Length upon which extensions were measured = 150 mm. (6 in.) 

Diameter s 0*610" Area = 0*2922 square inches. 



Loftdin 


BeadingB in j^^mm. 


- Mean 
Bxtenflion 


Bifferonoes per 
1,000 aw. 


1 1.000 DM. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


«»ioi»"«- 


1 


1*89 


7*62 


8*91 


1-75 


2 


216 


8-51 


10-66 


1*88 


3 


2-99 


9-50 


12*49 


1-81 


4 


8*89 


10-41 


14-30 


1-78 


5 


4*77 


11*31 


1608 


1-82 


6 


6-66 


12-24 


17-90 


1-78 


7 


6-61 


18-12 


19-63 


1-78 


8 


7-89 


1403 


21-42 


1-84 


9 


8*29 


14-97 


28*26 


1-87 t Limit of 


10 


9-20 


15-93 


25-18 


ElasUcity 
1-86 


11 


10-09 


16-90 


26-99 


2-74 


11-5 


10-78 


17*68 


28*86 





t Limit of Elasticity = 9,500 lbs. or 



9,500 ^ 

0^ ^afzS)^'^- 



Coefficient of Elasticity = 28,680»000 fts. per sq. in. 
= 32,805 tons per sq. in. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BOMB PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NIOKEL STEEL. 



161 



Table V. 
Determination of the elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity in 
tenaion of Vicker's axle steel No. "6." 
Length upon which elongations were measured = 150 mm. (6 in.) 
Diameter = 0*610" Area = 02922 square inches. 



Loadiir 


lEeadinjfj* in gjoymin. 


Mean 
Extension 


DifFerenoes ver 1 


1.000 lbs. 


! Top. 


Bottom. 


*»ro:W"»«- 




1,000 IbB. 


2-6 


2-41 


7 69 


10-10 


1-66 




3 


2-79 


814 


10-93 


1-78 




4 


8-60 


911 


12-71 


1-68 




5 


4-40 


9-99 


14-39 


1-75 




6 


5-26 


10-89 


16-14 


1-74 




7 


610 


11-78 


17-88 


1-76 




8 


6-97 


12-66 


19-63 


1-84 




9 


787 


13-60 


21-47 


1-92 


t Limit of 


10 


8-82 


14-67 


23-39 


2-61 


Elasticity 


11 


1010 


15-90 


26-00 






lit of El 


asticity = 


9.5001b 


9.500 
B. or - 


= .<12 


Wl \ha Tkar en 



(14-6 tons) 
Coefficient of Elasticity = 29,000.000 lbs. per sq. in. 
= 12,950 tons per sq. in. 

Table VI. 
Determination of elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity in com- 
pression of nickel steel •' F " (mild). 

Length upon which contractions were measured = 10" 
Diameter = 1^' Area = 07854 square inches. 



Load in 
1.000 fi>8. 


Beading*! in -g^^iiomm. 
Top. Bottom. 


Mean 
Compression 


Diiferences per 
l.OOO lbs. 


1 


000 


40U 


4-OU 


1 


2-6 


1-20 


4-32 


6-52 


101 


3 


1-27 


4-48 


6-75 


0-46 


i 4 


1-81 


4-79 


6-60 


0-86 


! 5 


235 


611 


7-46 


0-86 

1 


, 6 


290 


5-49 


8-39 


0-93 


7 


• 839 


685 


9-24 


85 


8 


385 


625 


10-10 


0-86 
089 



K^Ang. 3, 1898 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 







Table VI 


. — c« ntinued. 


Load in 


Headings iQ-g.yooinna. 


MeMn 
CompressioD 


Differences per 
1.000 ftt. 


1,000 lb8. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


9 


4-30 


6-69 


lU-99 


0-91 


10 


4-79 


711 


11-CO 


089 


11 


6-29 


7-54 


12 79 


0-91 


12 


5-69 


801 


13-TO 


0-80 


18 


611 


8 45 


14 56 


087 


U 


6-65 


8 89 


15 43 


0-90 


16 


6-98 


935 


16 33 


0-87 


16 


7-40 


y-80 


17-20 


090 


17 


7-80 


1030 


1810 


0-80 


18 


818 


10 78 


18-96 


0-92 


19 


8-60 


1128 


19 88 


086 


20 


8-98 


11-76 


20 74 


0-88 


21 


9 37 


1225 


2162 


0-90 


22 


9-75 


12-77 


22-52 


001 


23 


1013 


13-29 


2343 


0-88 


24 


10-61 


1380 


24-31 


0-89 


25 


10-88 


14-25 


25-20 


0-80 


26 


11-30 


14-70 


26-00 


0-87 


27 


11-67 


1620 


26-87 


t Limit of 
99 Elasticity 


28 


12-08 


1578 


27-86 


0-94 


29 


12-40 


16-40 


28 60 


092 


80 


12-70 


16-98 


29-72 


100 


81 


1816 


17-57 


80-72 


1-05 


82 


13-65 


18-22 


81-77 


1-07 


83 


1402 


18-92 


32-94 


1-30 


84 


14-60 


10-64 


34 24 





27 000 

t Limit of Elasticity = 27,000 lbs. or „ * -, = 31,400 lbs. per sq. in. 

U 7864, ^jg.35 ^^jjgj 

Coefficient of Elabtidty = 28.770.0CO lbs p)r pq. in. 
= 12,H50 tons per sq. inch. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SOME PHTSIOAL PBOPBRTIES OP NICKEL STEEL. 



163 



Table VII. 

Determination of elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity in oom- 
piession of nickel steel «' P." 

Length upon which contractions were measured = 2". 
I>iameter = 1^' Area = 0-7854 square inches. 



Load in 
1.000 fts. 


Readings in -5;Jo^min 


1 Meaa 
.'jCompressioi 

1 *** roisQ ""• 


I Differences per 
2,000 H>s. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


6 


0-40 


4 39 


4-79 




6 


0-65 


4-41 


4-96 


0-34 


8 


069 


4-69 


5-28 


032 


10 


0-86 


4-69 


6-54 


0'26 


12 


102 


4-81 


6-88 


0-29 


14 


119 


4-97 


616 


0-83 


16 


1-34 


512 


6-46 


0-30 


18 


1-60 


5-81 


6-81 


035 


20 


1-67 


550 


717 


0-36 


22 


1-82 


6-70 


7-52 


0-36 


24 

26 


£01 
2^2 


590 
616 


7-91 
8-37 


0-39 t Limit of 
Elasticity 
0-46 


28 


2-48 


6-42 


8-90 


063 


80 


2 86 


6-72 


9-57 


0-67 


82 


802 


699 


1001 


0-44 


84 


3 40 


7-40 


10-80 


0-79 


it of Elas 


rticity = 


23,000 Ibi 


28.000 
!. or ^r— — -. 


= an iCflA tt;a ,vA. -^ 



U/004 /10.1 1 r 

(13*1 tons) 
Coefficient of Elasticity = 28.140,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
= 12,560 tons per sq. in. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



164 



W. H. WABBBN AND 8. H. BABBAOLOUGH. 



Table VHI. 

Determination of the elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity in 
oompression of nickel steel " T." 

Length upon which contractions were measured = 10" 
Diameter =1" Area = 7854. 



Load in 
1,000 fi>B. 


Readings in g J^ mm. 


Mean 
CompreBsion 

'» io:uob "»'«• 


Di£Ferences per 
2,000 lbs. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


5 


210 


6-74 


7-84 


1-77 


7 


810 


651 


9-61 


169 


9 


401 


7-29 


11-30 


175 


11 


4-96 


809 


1305 


1-74 


18 


5-89 


8-90 


14-79 


1-76 


15 


6-83 


9-72 


1655 


1-79 


17 


7-76 


10-58 


1834 


1-72 


19 


8-61 


11-46 


20-06 


1-78 


21 


9-52 


12-32 


21-84 


1-76 


23 


1041 


1319 


23-60 


t Limit of 
1-80 Elasticity 


25 


11-81 


1409 


25 40 


1-78 


27 


1218 


15-00 


2718 


1-80 


29 


1308 


1590 


28-98 


1-82 


31 


1400 


1680 


30-80 


1-83 


83 


1491 


17-72 


32-63 


1-92 


35 


15-8S 


1867 


84-55 


1-86 


87 


16-81 


19-60 


86-41 


1-98 


89 


17-79 


2055 


38 34 


2-02 


41 


18-76 


21-60 


40-36 


218 


48 


19-85 


22-69 


42-54 


2-18 


45 


20-96 


23-76 


44 72 





23 000 
t Limit of Elasticity = 23000 lbs. or Tci^r. = 29.800 fcs. per sq. 

U7tt&4 (13.1 tons) 

Coefficient of Elasticity = 28,170,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
= 12,570 tons per sq. in. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Table IX. 
Determination of elastic limit and coefficient of elasticity in oom- 
preedon of nickel steel " E." 
Length npon which contractions were measured =10" 
Diameter =1" Area = 0*7854 square inches. 



TiOftdin 
1,000 U>8. 


Beadings in s^tata. 


Mean 
Compression 


1,000 lbs. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


1 


000 


000 


000 


100 


2 


0-60 


0-50 


100 


0-98 


3 


0-98 


100 


1-98 


102 


4 


1-50 


1-50 


300 


100 


5 


200 


200 


400 


100 


6 


2-50 


2-50 


600 


100 


7 


800 


8-00 


600 


100 


8 


8-50 


350 


700 


1-00 


9 


398 


4-02 


8-00 


0-92 


10 


4-40 


4-52 


892 


0-94 


11 


4-86 


5-00 


9-86 


101 


12 


535 


5-52 


10-87 


102 


13 


585 


6-04 


11-89 


095 


14 


6-32 


6-52 


12-84 


0-98 


15 


6-80 


702 


1382 


0-99 


16 


7-30 


7-51 


14-81 


1-00 


17 


7-80 


801 


15-81 


0-98 


18 


8-29 


8-50 


16-79 


101 


19 


8-80 


900 


17-80 


100 


20 


9-27 


9-53 


18-80 


0-96 


21 


9-78 


1003 


19-76 


t Limit of 
106 Elasticity 


22 


10-26 


10-66 


20-82 


104 


23 


10-78 


11-08 


21-86 


108 


24 


11-30 


n-64 


22-94 


1-03 Specimen was 


25 


11-81 


1216 


28-97 


permanently bent 



21 000 
t Limit of Elasticity = 21,000 lbs. or at^^KI = 26,750 lbs. per sq. 

U78Mr (ii.99tons) 
Coefficient of Elasticity = 25,460,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
= 11,860 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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I 

o 
S3 

I 





■i 



s 



^ 00 

lb ^ 



o o 
lb -^ 



CO o o 

to <D '^ 



00 op 00 00 

09 do t« •^ 



Q J>. 09 »0 CO «P 

^ eo 00 CO o ^ 
6 6 o 6 6 6 



6 6 g*^ ^ ^ ^ 



-H Q CO 00 ^ »o 

CO ^ to lO O 09 

09 C9 CO '^ >Q lO 

•^7^ T 7 ^ ^ 

6 6 6 6 6 6 



-H -H S09 


09 


•<M 


^ 




CO 

lb 

lO 


lO 


^ 

s 



go CO o Q »o J^ 

O Q J>. O CO CO 

Tf ^ t> l> lO lO 

6 6 6 6 6 6 



% & 



a 
a 


OQ 



« « 


«^^?! 


1? 

09 04 


§8 ■ " 



lO lO 



lO lO lO U3 
•* "* "^ "* 



S 5 5 S g § 

-if. "^ ^ « rp T*i 
OO 00 CO CO CO 00 



8 



s 



00 

lO ^ . 

fH ^ 09 04 

l> »0 CO CO 

«> r* t^ j> 



ii 



^ lO S3 M 

l> t«* -^ "* 



09 04 
09 0» 



14 



lO lO 



o 


o 


o 


6 


o 


o 


o 

CO 


o 

CO 


i 


F-4 






o 


o 


fH 


fH 


o 


o 



•M <v V 8 a 



to CO ^ «-l rH 09 



ij 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



80MB PHYSICAL PE0PEBTIE8 OF NICKEL STEEL. 



167 



Table XII. 
Summary of Besults obtained in CompressiTe Tests of Nickel Steel. 

Diameter of test piece 1 inch, area 07854. 



B«fesaic« 

Letter. 




Leuffthor 
t4MtpIec« 
iu Inohea. 


' BlMtic Umit 
In tons per 
•qoAre luch. 


Co«fflcl«ntof Comprewiv* 
•iMtlcUy iu itrength in 

tou» par tons per 
BquAre luch. iquAr« luch. 


MAximam 
loMl appUed 

in tons per 
•quarv inch. 


Pla/Btic com. 
preMlonwitb 

lo»dper 
Uuealinch. 






1000 


14-50 


12705 








P 


Mild 


2-00 
1-62 

iOOO 


1310 


24-2 
12670 


44-5 
68-6 


Oil 
0-26 


T 


Medium ... 


2-00 
1-48 

1000 


1199 


420 
11360 


69 
78 


0187 
10172 


£ 


Kon-rusting 


200 




... 1 25-3 


55-5 


0115 




1-49 




... 1 25-3 


70-0 


0175 



Table XIII. 
Torsional Tests of Nickel Steel. 




U15->\ 



Refer- 

enoe 

Letter. 


IMameter 
oftaet 
piece in 
inches. 


Length of 
test piece 
in inches. 


Tot*l 
twisting 
moment 
in inch 
pounds. 


Value of/ 
in equation 

f- '^ 

in pounds 
per sq. in. 


Total 
angle of 
twist in 
degrees. 


Length of 
test piece 
after frac- 
ture in 
inches. 


Percent- 
age of 
elongation 

or snort- 
ening. 


E 
P 
T 


0-715 
0714 
0-714 


1-125 
1125 
1126 


10931'3 
6809-6 
8960-0 


152678 

95448 

125591 


900 
405 
180 


1-140 
1-120 
1125 


+ 1-3 

- 0-44 





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168 



W. H. WARREN AND F. H. BARRACLOUOH. 






'^-LS- 



Table XIV. 
Shearing Tests. 



0.B, 



-2 



-/.S-M 



Reference 
Letter. 



Diameter 
in inches. 



Area in 
square ins. 



Total load in Double shear 

double shear, per square 

in pounds, i u. in pounds. 



Single shear] 

per sonare I 

inch. 



E 
F 
T 



0-780 
0783 
0-783 



0-4778 
0-4815 
0-4815 



99456 
71568 
952CO 



208096 
148624 
197568 



104048 
74312 
98784 



Table XV. 



Description of Specimen 


Original 
Weight, 
grain"*. 


Final 
Weight 
grains. 


Loss in 
Weight. 


Loss in 
Weight 
percent. 


Nickel steel, E (non-rusting) ... 


No loss 


could be 


detected. 




„ F(mild) 


743-0 


731-8 


11-2 


1-51 


Ernpp, Essen, E 


7551 


786-4 


18-7 


2-48 


IT F 
*» Yi (special ingot iron) 


7475 


726 8 


20-7 


277 


Dalziell's Steel 


738-6 


715-9 


22-6 


306 


Patent Shaft and Axle Co. 


738-3 


7053 


330 


4-47 


Lowmoor Boiler Plate 


7310 


694-0 


37-0 


5-06 


Monkbridge Boiler Plate 


733-2 


690-2 


430 


5-80 


Nickel Steel T (medium) 


764-5 


705-0 


49-5 


6-56 



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KET TO TBIBES AND GENERA OF MELAN08PEBME£. 169 



KEY TO TRIBES and GENERA op MELANOSPERME^. 

(Olive-oreen Seaweeds.) 

By Richard A. Bastow, Fitzroy, Victoria. 

(Communicated by J. H. Maiden, p.l.s.) 

[With Plate I] 



IRead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, September 7, 1898.2 



The study of Seaweeds found in the seas surrounding the Aus- 
tralian Continent and adjacent islands is, at the present time, 
beset with many difficulties. However invigorating and pleasant 
it may be to stroll along the beach on a sunny day, and to collect 
some beautiful species as they float to one's feet, it is unsatisfactory 
to find that there are few books accessible in the libraries whereby 
the plants may be identified. There does not appear to be a 
complete copy of Harvey's " Nereis Australis," either in Victoria, 
South Australia, or West Australia, at any rate the writer has 
searched the public libraries in those three colonies in vain for 
that work, unless the book which contains fifty plates only is to 
be considered the complete work. Agardh's and Kuetzing's works 
are in Latin and are therefore not as useful as if they were in 
English. Consequently, it was thought advisable by the writer 
(who has collected a fairly complete set of notes on the subject 
from authorities far and wide), to construct a key whereby the 
young student may find information in a very much easier manner 
than hitherto possible. The result is the accompanying key which 
presents the salient points of the genera of the Melanospermeas 
on one sheet ; it must be borne in mind however, that Melanos- 
permese are only one of the three great divisions of Seaweeds. 
The FloridesB or Red Seaweeds, and the Chlorosperroese or Grass- 
green Seaweeds are not included in this key. The Melanospermese 
are usually olive-brown or olive-green in colour, and sometimes 
almost black, many of them being very large and coarse. The 



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170 B. A.. BA8T0W, 

fruit is on the surface of the frond, or in proper cavities in its 
substance, and consists of four-parted spores enclosed in a hyaline 
membrane, oblong antheridia terminating jointed filaments, and 
buds or leaflets capable of becoming new plants. 

The key is intended to assist the collector in identifying a genus; 
it may assist him in finding the species as well, and to use it the 
plants must of course first be collected, then dried, and afterwards 
sections must be cut. Let us therefore imagine that we are at 
the sea side, the waves are rolling in majestically, yet there are 
a few rocks uncovered by the tide, to these we hasten, and find in 
a dark corner of a little pool a small tuf C as though it had been 
eaten down by fishes; it is nothing to look at by unassisted vision, 
but an ordinary pocket lens displays its irregular symmetry and 
exquisite areola tion. It is Amansia marcharUioides^ one of the 
Floridese, we see that by the faint pink tinge, consequently it is 
not on our key. Almost covering the bottom of the pool are some 
Algse resembling lettuce plants; a few transparent shrimps dart in 
and out from the fronds, which are Ulva; they are light grass-green 
and belong to the ChlorospermesB, we therefore place them aside, 
for they also are not in the k^y. Laying across one of the tufts 
of Ulva is a curious string of beads, washed into the pool and 
left there by the ebbing tide ; these are Melanospermese for they 
are olive-green, and we find that they are Hormosira Banksia^ for 
they are figured on the key at No. 15 square. We will look 
closer at this plant immediately. On the beach close by we 
collect a frond of thin texture, about half an inch wide, dichoto- 
mously divided, and with a midrib, this is also light olive-green ; 
we glance at the key and find it is figured on square 17, we also 
notice that it is covered with minute prominences as shewn on the 
drawing; it is Myriodesmaquercifolia, Here is a mass of ^cA^Zonta 
and Sargassuni, as much as a man can lift, they are figured on 
the key at Fig. 29, and Figs. 1.1 to 1.12. Making a mental 
note of these, we notice a few pellicles of gelatine on the Sargas- 
sum, about as large as peas. They are figured at the 48th square 
and are called Leathesia. These we take home and submit to the 



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KEY TO TRIBES AND GENERA OF MELANOSPERMEf. 171 

drying process, just as we should with any ordinary plant, that is, 
after they have been washed and properly displayed. 

The washing and displaying should be done by means of two 
large white flat dishes, in the one the specimens should be washed, 
pruned, and freed from parasites ; they should then be introduced 
into the other dish singly. When the specimen is floated in the 
second dish, a neatly cut square of white cartridge paper is to be 
placed under it, then, with some pointed instrument, the fronds 
arranged as carefully and naturally as possible; it must then be 
gently withdrawn from the water, a piece of muslin placed over 
it to prevent it sticking to the drying paper, and the whole sub- 
mitted to slight pressure. The specimens will generally be dry in 
a day or two, and should have the date and locality written on 
them at once. 

We will now suppose that the plants are dry or nearly dry, 
and we proceed to examine the frond and fruit. We will take 
the Harmosira first. The beads of which the plant is composed 
are now flattened, and may be cut with a pair of draper's scissors; 
these scissors are broad at the points and therefore answer our 
purpose best. Provide a glass slip with a drop of water on it on 
a sheet of white paper, then take one of the beads between the 
thumb and forefinger of the left hand, hold it directly over the 
drop of water on the slip, and cut it into as fine shreds as possible, 
taking care to 'use the left thumb nail as a fence or stay for the 
actaaors blade. Out about a score of sections as small as possible, 
».«., thin, then look at them through the microscope, there are 
sore to be four or five beautifully thin sections already swelling 
oat and showing the medullary and cortical layers of the frond, 
and most probably there will also be found some sections of the 
fruit or conceptacle, as shown in Fig. 15, an excellent specimen 
of Fncoid fruit. If a quarter inch objective be now used, the 
spores will be shown as figured. Now turn to the generic descrip- 
tion at No. 15. We there read that the frond of Hormosira is 
moniliform, that is, beaded; that the internodes are inflated; so 
these are, very much ; also that it has a distinct stem and branches. 



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172 B. A. BA6T0W. 

Then follows a reference to Hooker's " Handbook of the New 
Zealand Flora," at page 652, where much further information con- 
cerning the plant can be obtained. 

Myriodeama quercifolia can be examined exactly in the same 
manner, or easier still by placing the point of a lancet or sharp 
knife against one of the prominences, thus lifting the cuticle as 
shown at Fig. 17. It can then be seen as an opaque object, of 
course with the aid of a good bull's eye condenser. The gelatinous 
pellicle, Leathesia^ must be cut with the scissors as before directed, 
and immediately the surface of the water on the slip will be filled 
with spores and filaments as shown at Fig. 48. It will be noticed 
by the key that this plant belongs to the tribe Chordariese, whilst 
the two previously examined belong to the Fucete. 

It is a great help to have the series of genera before one, for a 
tremendous amount of time is consumed in turning over leaf after 
leaf of many volumes in the sometimes vain hope of finding the 
plant illustrated, especially is this the case in regard to Harve/s 
Phycologia Australis, a truly magnificent work, but not paged. 

It is necessary to inform the reader that the classification is 
according to Dr. Sender's catalogue, contained as a supplement 
in Vol. XI. of Baron von Mueller's Fragmentce Phytographw 
Australice. The numbers of the genera are the same in the key 
as they are in the catalogue, so that reference can be readily made. 
Some of the genera have been divided in recent years, but under 
the old names most of them will be found in the catalogue. The 
illustrations are made in every case from specimens in the National 
Herbarium, Melbourne ; some were mere fragments, yet they were 
sufficient for dissection and section cutting required for the figures; 
and, I must here express my thanks to the authorities at the 
Herbarium for specimens not otherwise obtainable. 

The following books have been used in the compilation of the 
key : — Harvey's — Nereis Australis, Parts 1, 2, with plates 1 - 50; 
Phycologia Britannica; Phycologia Australis; Nereis Borealis 
Americanus ; Hooker's — Antarctic, New Zealand and Tasmanian 



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irUDB 8UB LBS D1ALBGTB8 DB LA NOUyBLLB-€ALBiX>NIB. 173 

Floras; Handbook to Flora of New Zealand; Agardh's Species 
Gknera et Ordines Algarum; Kuetzing's Species Algarum; Raben- 
borst's Species Algarum ; D'Urville's Voyage Astrolabe ; Murray's 
Introduction to Study of Seaweeds; London Journal of Botany; 
American Science Nat.; De Toni's Sylloge Algarum. 



ETUDE SUR LES DIALECTES DE LA NOUVELLE- 
CALEDONIE. 

Par JuLiEN Bernier. 
(Communicated by C. Hedley, f.l.s.) 



[lUad before the Boyal Society of N, 8. Wales, September 7, 189S.] 



Multiplicity des dialectes Neo-Calddoniens. 

On compte en g^n^ral une vingtaine de dialectes employ^ par les 
indig^n^ de la Nouvelle-Caledonie. 

Les premiers Europ^ens ^tablis dans le pays, ont ^te frappes de 
cette confusion qui ressemble un peu k celle de la Tour de Babel ; 
mais il suffit de quelque attention pour reconnaitre que cette 
diversity n' est qu' apparente, et que tous ces dialectes, au fond, 
se rattachent k une souche commune. On a chercbe k expliquer 
ce ph^nom^ne de difierentes mani^res, notamment par les migra- 
tions,^ qui ont, en efiet, introduit dans le pays quelques mots d' 
origine ^trang^re, comme le polyn^sien **ika" (poisson) qui devient 
a Wagap ^'ikoua^'; ^^toaka^^' (pirogue) qu'on retrouve dans *'<t- 
t€akay^^ (riviere-pirogues), deux mots essentiellement polyn^siens. 

I On retrouve encore aujourd 'hui des traces certaines de ces migra- 
tions, dans le Kord et aux Loyalty. Elles sont 6galemeat attest^s par 
r existence de deux langues dans un grand nombre de tribus : la langae 
du people, c'est-2k-dire des vaincus, et la langne des Chefs, c'est-k-dire 
des vainqneurs. 



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174 julien bebnier. 

Oependant, ces apports de mots Strangers, si iniportants qu 'ils 
aient pu ^tre, ne sauraient expliquer d' une fa9on suffisante cette 
multiplicity de dialectes qu'on remarque, non seulement chez les 
Ne6-Cal^oniens, mais chez toutes les peuplades de la m^me race 
et on peut dire, d'une fa^on g^nerale, chez toutes les races primi* 
tiyes. Nous sommes ici en presence, non pas d'un fait accidentel, 
mais d'un ph^nom^ne anthropologique, si je puis m'exprimer ainsi, 
et dont il faut chercher la cause dans la nature m§me de V homme. 

Cette cause, c'est Textr^me mobility du son, c'est-^-dire de la 
parole, chez toutes ces races. Le langage, qui n'est qu'un agence- 
ment de sons, dvolue ind^finiment, m6me chez les nations les plus 
civilis^es. Le fran9ais que nous parlous aujourd 'hui, ne ressemble 
pas k celui que parlaient no3 p^res, du temps de Saint Louis, et 
I'anglais moderne n'est plus le m^me que celui du roi Richard. 
Les langues se sont modifi^es et se modifient tons les jours. 

A plus forte raison en est-il de mSme pour des races qui n'ont 
ni Tecriture, ni aucun autre moyen de fixer leur langue, et dont 
Fintelligence ne con9oit mSme pas les differences qui existent pour 
nous, entre certains sons. La pens^e etant obscure, la parole, qui 
n'est que la forme de la pens6e, est olle-m^me incertaine et confuse. 
Les racines n'ont aucune fixite. 

Le R^vd. Macdonald,^mi8sionnaire k Efate,(Nouvelles Hebrides), 
dit que les indigenes de cette ile prononcent indifferemment: "bo" 
"/o," "two," "wo," "o," pour exprimer le m^me mot. Cette obser- 
vation, prise sur le vif par un homme qui connait parfaitement la 
langue du pays, peut s'appliquer k toutes les races de TOceanie. 

A Tahiti, «tw," (eau) devient '*mi," ''pape,'' "roL" A Madar 
gascar, ^*a/o" (feu), devient **anrou^" et "androu," Le Maori de 
la Nouvelle Z61ande dit : ''tvaka" (faire); k Tonga, "/oka"; k 
Madagascar, ^^maha" "mctng" ^^man,** pour "tnaka" 

En Nouvelle Cal^onie, "«»," (eau), devient ''Wen," ''Kuuen," 
''Ktva," ''po," "fo," "foa," "moua." La forme redouble "tvatoe," 

1 The Asiatic Origia of the Oceanic Languages, Melbourne 1894. 



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£tIIDB StTB LIS DIALBCTS8 !>■ LA NOTJTBLLB-CAL^DONIB. 



175 



devient ''ya we,'' "awHJ," "(jwc," "diatoe," 'Hia re.'' ''Wen," 
(bouche) devient ^^mouen," ''p<men," etc., etc. 

En d'autres termes, c'est l'instabilit6 de la parole qui am^ne la 
diversity des dialectes, et cette instability provient elle-ro^me du 
deyeloppement insuffisant de la pens^e. Des hommes qui ne 
savent pas distinguer le bras de la main, le pied de la jambe, pour 
qui les cheveux et les plumes ne sent pas autre chose que des 
feuilles et des herbes, ne sauraient saisir les nuances qui existent 
entre un son et un autre, pas plus qu'ils ne saisissent les nuances 
qui existent entre les couleurs. II y a 1^ une r^gle fondamentale, 
une loi dont on doit absolument tenir compte, si Ton veut p^n^trer 
le secret de la formation des mots dans les langues primitives. 

Graupement dee Dialectes — Premier Groupe, ou groups Sud. 

Si Ton examine dans leur ensemble les dialectes de la Nouvelle- 
Cal^onie, on remarque qu'ils peuvent se rattacher k trois groupes 
principaux. 

En commen^ant par le Sud, nous avons un premier groupe qui 
comprend : Tile des Fins, Goro, Touaourou, Tile Wen, la Dumbea, 
Saint-Vincent, sur la c6te Quest ; Yate et Ounia sur la o6te Est 
La limite g^graphique dans laquelle cette langue est employ^, 
paratt 6tre la Tontouta d'une part, et Port-Bouquet de Tautre. 
Toutes les tribus de cette region s'expriment de la m^me mani^re, 
sauf quelques differences locales de prononciation qui ne les em- 
p^hent pas de se comprendre. 

Eoceniple: 





He de Pins. 


Goro. 


Tooaouron. 


nnia. 


Wen. 


Arbre 


N gohe 


N-gwe 


N-goeu 


N-goeu 


Ngoe 


Fl«cbe 


Pata 


Pata 


Pata 


Pata 


Pata 


Blanc 


Baa 


Mbaa 


M boua 


M boua 


Poua 


Casse-tSte 


Maua 


Moua 


Maua 


Moua 


Moua 


CoQteau 


iVou 


Nou 


Nou 


Nou 


Nou 


Mourir 


Mi 


Mere 


Moure 


Mere 


Mere 


Main 


Me 


Me 


Me 


Me 


Me 


M^re 


Nene 


Nene 


Gnih 


Gnih 


Nene 


Fen 


TaU 


Tati 


Tati 


Tati 


Tati 



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17G JULIBN BBBNIER. 

Groupe Central, 
Le deuxieme groupe, que j' appellerai groupe central, comprend 
toute la rt'gion moyenne de Tile; pour la cote Est: Thio, Nakety, 
Canala, Houailou et Fonerihouen. La liinite sur ce point est le 
Cap Baye. Pour la c6te Quest : la Wenghi, Bouloupari, La Foa, 
Moindou, Bourail, Poya. 

Bien que ce groupe presente moins d'homog^n^it^ que le premier 
et que souvent les indigenes ne se comprennent pas entre eax 
d'une tribu k une autre, on peut remarquer, par une courte analyse, 
que les divers dialectes qui le composent ont entre eux des liens 
^troits. A Canala, par exemple, Teau s'appelle ^^Kwe"; k Houai- 
lou, ^*Cha"; a la Foa, ^^aloua." II n' y a, en apparence, aucan 
rapport entre ces trois termes ; mais si Ton se rappelle ce qui vient 
d' dtre dit au sujet de V extreme mobilite du son dans les langues 
primitives, et si V on suit, dans ces langues, les difierentes mani^res 
de designer Teau, on voit que ^^kwe^^ est pour ^^kwa^^' qui n'est 
qu'un semi-durcissement de **«^a." De son cot^ "tc;a" devient ^^ka^^ 
qui fait ^^cha^' par aspiration. Quant k ^^aloua^^ il a pour forme 
premiere ''^awa^^^ redoublement de "t^a.** 

A Canala, la pierre s*appelle ^^ghe"\ a Houailou, ^^peicL*^ II 
n'y a certainement aucun rapport entre ces deux mots; mais si vous 
prenez les autres termes qui, dans ces m^mes dialectes, renferment 
le sens de **pierre," vous trouvez a Canala *^ pen-tven^^' (dent), 
litteralement **pierre-bouche." '^Pen" de Canala, est T^uivalent 
de ^*peia" Houailou. De mSme k Houailou, vous trouvez "^Ai," 
(hache), c'est-4-dire "pierre," r6pondant k ^^ghe,^ de Canala. 

A Canala, les cheveux s'appellent ^^poum boua,^^ (poil-tSte); k 
Houailou, ^^proro-gv^en^^^ m^me signification. Maintenant, cherchez 
dans le dialecte de Canala, les mots qui ont le sens de " feuille " 
ou de "fleur," toutes choses que les indigenes confondent avec les 
cheveux. Vous trouverez **/?OM?'a" (fleur), Equivalent de "^wro" 
(poil), Houailou. 

A Canala, Toeil s'appelle " kara mc," (peau-lumi^re); a Houailou 
^^piemSy" m^me signification. ^^Kara" et ^*pie" ne se ressem- 



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trVDM STTB LBS DIALBGTBS DB LA NOUTBLLB CAL^DONIB. 



177 



blent gu^re ; mais on retrouve k Houailou la "langue,'' "karo-mS" 
(pean-bouche); "koro" de Houailou, r^pondant k ^-kara," de 
Canala. 



n y a, entre le 


premier et le deuxi^me 


groupe, de nombreuses 


ressemblances de mots, 


comme on peut < 


3n juger par le tableau 


Buivant : 












Groupe Sad. 


Groupe central. 


Terre 




nda^ ta 


ndo^ to 


Sagai'e 




ndji 


ndie 


Roussette 




hu 


hu 


Nez 




koun 


kou 


Yeux 




e mS 


pie me 


Langue 




kour<m-me 


kouUm-ms 


Main 




me 


me 


Ventre 




ou-he 


p<m-he 


Vent 




kouie 


kwende 


Arbre 




ngovs, ngive 


hwen 


Je, moi 




ngo 


ngou 


Lune 




m hoe 


houe 


Feu 




ni 


ne 



U exiflte encore, entre ces deux groupes, d'autres points de 
rapprochement : ils ne font pas usage de Particle; lis n'ont aucune 
forme particuli^re de conjugaison. Enfin, sauf de tr^ rares 
exceptions, tous les mots se terminent par des voyelles. Lea 
d^inences consonnales sont k peu pr^ inconnues. Outre les mota 
dt^ plus haut, on peut prendre comme exemples les noms de lieux: 
"ITcmatZow," "Zttw^tm," '' Nakety,'* " Tio," '' Cio," '' Baurendi,'' 
"Ounia,'' ''KunU^' ''Goro;' '' TotuMurou," "Ma," ''Mara," ''Mato,*'^ 
''Ngo," "Boulari," "Wameni," etc., etc. 

Ces partdcnlarit^ suffisent, k mon avis, pour s^parer ces deux 
premiers groupes du troisi^me, qui comprend tout le Nord de Flle^ 
et qui pr^nte plusieurs caract^res int^ressants. 

Troisi^me Groupe ou Groupe Nord. 
Oe trois^me groupe est d'abord d'une determination trte difficile. 
On sent qu'il 7 a eu 14 un melange provenant peut4tre de plusieura 

L-8ept.7,188e. 



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178 JUUBN BSBNIBB. 

migrations diff&renteB, qui out d^troit rbannonie de la langia 
primitiye, en j introduisant des ^l^ments nonveaux. 

Les racines sont identiques k oelles des deux premiers groupea, 
et la ressemblance entre les mots subsiste qaelquefois enti^rement. 
Ainsi, dans beaacoap de dialectes da Centre, Teau s'appelle **«»''; 
i Pouebo, qui appartient an groupe Nord, elle s'appelle "unh," 
forme qu'on retroave en Nouvelle Guinea et chez les Polynesieos. 

A Hienghen, groupe Nord, le bois s'appelle ^*tii*'; k Oanala, 
groupe central, le casse-tdte, qui est bois, s'appelle "did" 

A Balade, boire: "oundou**; k Canala, "wetidid," 

A Hienghen, pierre : " pae^'y k Houailou, pierre, *'peid" 

Mais ce qni s^pare surtout ce groupe des deux autres, c'est 
d'abord, comme je Tai dit plus haut, la prononciation. Lee 
desinences consonnales sont nombreuses et se remarquent jusque 
dans les noms de lieux : ^'Hienghen," " Wagap," ^Oubatch," ''Pam,"* 
*'£elep," ^'Balad,'' ''Eoumac,'' "Gatop," "Gomen,'' 

A Wagap, le bois s'appelle: *^tiotU"; k Pouebo, "tielz"; k 
Balade, "ycAj"; chez les W^biAs, "it^Aj"; la canne 4 sucre — "katus" 
''kaunz"; V&rc—" djingheh," " tingheh,'* ''digher''; le filet— "pot* 
€88,'* *'poui hat"; le feu— «*y«p," ''yak"; la terre— "rfiZw," ''gan 
gau88"; etc., etc. 

Ces denominations semblent n'avoir plus rien de commun avec 
celles dont se servent les indigenes da Centre et da Sud. 

Les dialectes du Nord possklent Tarticle, qui manque dans les 
autres. A Wagap, "a" pour le singulier, " ni" pour le pluriel : 
"a tiout " — le bois ; "a baucmi " — la bouche ; ** a him " — le bras; 
" ni pe tchouam " — les dents; " ni meni " — les oiseaux ; "m wen" 
— le sable. 

Je crois devoir ^galement signaler, dans ces dialectes, une forms 
particuli^re de conjugaison qui n'existe pas dans les deux premiers 
groupes. Cette conjugaison s'applique k tous les mots, aussi bien 
aux adjectifs et aux substantifs qu'aux verbes. Mais c'est un 



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frUDS BUX LX8 DIALXCTU BS LA NOUTBLLB-CALlUDOim. 179 

point sur lequel je m'^tendrai davantage qaand je parlerai dee 
dialeotes des ilea Loyalty. 

Oroupe des ilea Loyalty, 
On pent, en effet, consid^rer comme formant an quatri^e 
groupe, les dialectes de oes ilee, qui offrent de nombrenz rapproche- 
ments avec ceux du Nord de la Nouvelle-Oal^onie. Je ne parle 
ici qne de Mar6, lifoa, et de la partie d'Ouvei comprenant les 
tribos de Fayawi et OnioU. L'autre partie, qui doit porter le 
nom d'Ouvei proprement dit, est occupee par des Emigrants poly- 
D^iens qui sont venus k la fin da sik^le dernier oa aa commence- 
msnt de celui-ci, de llle d'Ouved, da groupe des Wallis. Oes 
Emigrants ont conserve leur langae maternelle, qui se rattacbe an 
polyn^ien de Samoa. 

Dans ce nouveau groupe, les desinences consonnales sont fr4- 
quentes, comme dans les dialectes da Nord de la Noavelle-Cale- 
donie. A lifou, — barbe, "pene tmz"; main, **tm"; nager, "hctz^*; 
sang, ^^khel"; tares, *^inangat"; voir, "kww^"; yeux, **alamek" 

Les indigenes de ces lies se servent aussi de Particle. A Lifou, 
"/a" pour le singulier ; "^»^" oa simplement "i^" pour le 
plariel. ''Za ouma," la maison ; ^^la ite ouma" ou "Ue ouma/* 
les maisons. 

Enfin ces dialectes poss^dent une forme conjugative d'un carac- 
t^re particulier, que j'ai signal^ plus haut dans les dialectes da 
Nord de la Nouvelle-Oaledonie, et qui m6rite d'attirer particuli^re- 
ment notre attention. 

Oette conjugaison se compose d'un radical, qui est le mot k 
oonjuguer, et d'une terminaison qui est un veritable pronom per- 
sonnel. La terminaison fait corps avec le radical, comme dans les 
conjugaisons grecque et latine. 

Oette conjugaison ne s'applique pas sealement aux verbes. Elle 
peat s'employer, d'une fa9on gen^rale, pour toutes les parties da 
disoours, m^me pour les ad verbes et les propositions, ce qui revient 
i dire que, dans les dialectes de cette cat^orie, le discours ne se 
divise pas, oomme dans les langues plus avanc^, en dififl^rentes 



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180 JULIKN BBBNIEB. 

parties. H n' 7 a, & propremeDt parler, que deux sortes de motB*. 
oeux qui se conjuguent, et ceux qui ne se oonjuguent pas. 

Dans les dialeotes da Centre, oil cette forme n'existe pas, le 
pronom personnel, qui sort en m6me temps d'adjectif possessif, le 
placera k c6t6 du mot auquel il se rapporte, mais sans perdre son 
individuality. A Canala, par exemple : " botui-nen " veut dire : 
ma t6te, ou plut6t : — t6te-moi ; " boiui^o" t^te toi ; " boaa-re," 
t6te-lui. Les mots "twn," ^^ro" "re" sent des pronoms personnels 
qui font office de pronoms possessifs, sans faire corps avec le sub- 
stantif " baua." H y a bien conjugaison, mais sans agglutination 
du pronom et du mot conjagu6. 

II n'en est pas de m§me aux Loyalty et dans les dialectes da 
Nord. L&, le pronom s'agglutine quelquefois, sous forme de 
terminaison, au mot auquel il se rapporte, et fait enti^rement 
corps avec lui. 

Le mot " bo" t^te, se conjugue de la mani^re suivants : — 

Ure personne Bo k, t^te-moi ; 
SinguUer^ 26me „ Bom, t^te-toi; 
3dme „ Bo n, tdte-lui ; 



DueM 



[ l^re personne : BoUm, t^tes nous deux, 4 toi et ^ moi ; 

I le „ Bohmou, tites nous deux, k lui et k moi; 

1 2e „ Bohbou, t^tes vous deux ; 

\3e „ Borou, t^tes eux deux. 

/l^re personne: Bota ou boutin, t^tes nous — (y compris 

celui k qui Ton parle). 
Ure „ Bohmoitn, tfites nous — (non compris celui 

k qui Ton parle). 
„ Bohboun, t^tes vous ; 

\3e „ Bo rin ou bora, t^tes eux. 

J'ai dit que cette conjugaison s'appliquait k diff^rentes sortes de 
mots. Ainsi, dans le m^me dialecte d'Ouvek, district de Fayaw^ 
le verbe "ebetve," ou plus simplement '*etve" — aimer — se conjagae 
de la mani^re suivante : — 



Pluriel 



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^TUDB SUB LS8 DIALICTX8 DB LA NOnYBLLB-€AI.^OONIS. IBl 



Ebewek — Moi aimer 



Singulier 



Duel 



Singulier 



Duel 



Huriel 



Ebewem — ^Toi aimer 
JStoan — Lui aimer. 

Etoetou — Nous deux, (toi et moi) aimer 
Ewehmou — Nous deux, (lui et moi) aimer 
Ewehbou — Yous deux aimer 
Bwerou — Eux deux aimer. 

(Ewetin — Nous aimer, (y oompris celui k qui Ton parle) 
Ewehmfyim — Nous aimer(non compris celui ^quiron parle) 
Ewehboun — Yous aimer 
Ewerifij ou etoera — Eux aimer. 

Toici main tenant un exemple de proposition conjugu^ d' apr^ 
le mdme syst^me : — 

Ben — avant (Ouv^). 
Beibk — Moi avant 
Beum — Toi avant 
Beim — Lui avant 

V 

Beu tau — Nous deux (toi ot moi) avant 
Beuhmou — Nous deux (lui et moi) avant 
Beuhbau — Yous deux avant 
Beurou — Eux deux avant 

BetUin — Nous avant (y compris celui k qui Ton parle) 
Bevhmowh — Nous avant (non compris celui &qui I'on parle) 
Beuhboun — Yous avant 
,Beurin — Eux avant 

Bien que cette forme de conjugaison soit d'un emploi fr^uent 
dans les dialectes des Loyalty et du Nord de la Nouvelle-Cal^onie^ 
je ne crois pas qu'elle leur appartienne en propre, car elle me 
parait exister Ogalement dans plusieurs dialectes des Nouvellea 
Hebrides, des lies Salomon, des Santa-Cruz, etc., etc. 

A Paama, (Nouvelles Hebrides), on dit : '^ h<Uauk,** t^te-moi ; 
**haiaum." tdte-toi ; ''batoun," t^te-lui ; aux ties Torres, "koutouk,'' 
t6te-moi; "katUoum,^^ t6te-toi; "Ajcm^ouw," tdte-lui, etc., etc. 



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182 JULHH BEBMDEB. 

Les terminaiBons sont toujoon Im mdmes : koa^ poor la pre- 
miere personne da singalier, m poar la deuzieme, n pcraF la 
troid^me. 

Autant que j'ai pa en joger, oette oonjogaiaon n'existerait pai 
dans les dialectes polyndsiens. Je ne Fai renoontr^ dans aacane 
de lears grammaires. Elle serait done propre aax dialectes papoas 
dont elle oonstituerait an des caraot^res les pins saillants. Elle 
oonvient d'aillears si bien k la mani^re de penser des indigenes, 
qu'il lear est di£Bicile de oonoevoir an objet sans Tattribuer im- 
m^diatement k ane personne queloonqae. Demandeos lear, par 
exemple, comment ils appellent la t^te, prise dans an sens abstrait: 
lis ne voas oomprendront pas, et voas demanderont: *'De quelle 
tdte veax-ta parler 1 de la tienne, de la mienne, oa de celle d'ane 
aatre personnel' 

Ils sont absolament d^poarvas da sens de Tabstraction. 

Grammaire, 
Malgr6 les partioalarit^ qae je viens de signaler, les dialectes 
de la Nouvelle-Cal^donie et oeax des Loyalty, ont entre eaz an 
caraot^re incontestable de parents, non sealement poar les racines 
et pour les mots, mais pour Torganisme rudimentaire de lear 
grammaire. 

Genres, 
Les genres n'existent pas. La distinction entre le mascuJin et 
le f eminin, se fait au moyen de mots qui ont le sens de m&le oa de 
femelle. A Oanala, on se sert des mots: "oto" — homme — et 
^^aien," — femme. A Lifou, on emploie les mots : *^taman" et 
"/0ti," qui ont la mdme signification: ^*gotUou taman" — ooq; 
^*gaiUau/eu" poule. 

Nambres. 
II y a trois nombres : le singulier, le duel et le pluriel. Oes 
nombres sont g6n^ralement determines par des pronoms personnels; 
les autres mots sont invariables, k Texception de Particle, qoi, 
comme on Ta va plus haut, comprend quelquefois deux formes : 
one pour le singulier et une autre pour le plurieL 



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irUDB BU& LIS DIALVOTSS 0B LA NOtTYSLLB-OALfDONIS. < M 

A Ctanala, ^^non" dedgne indurtinctemeiit le pdssofi on les 
polwons. Four exprimer la plurality on se sert des mots ^hkM^ 
oa *' chamouen non^^ — ^beaaooup-poiBsons. La rin^re, " tmn re^i 
— ha rivi6re% "wen re** '^ — beauconp riyi^res, ^* bicho wen re" 

A Out^ on dira : — la maison, <* ouma"; — ^lea maiaons, "ouma") 
-^beaiMOup maiaotiB, "iaie ou^na,** 

Adjectife, substantiff ei verbee, 
Les adjeotifs et les verbes se ram^nent tons k des snbstazitifo. 

Les adjectife : ohaud^ olair^ blanc, roage, etc.; sont exprim^ 
par des mots qui ont le sens de fen. 

An grand Moindou : — blanc, "we**; k Houailon, le jonr, "wa**; 
k lUe des Pins, blanc, "baa**; aux Loyalty, le jour, "laa** "la.** 

Toutes ces formes : "we" "wa" "baa," "laa" sont identiqaes, 
par suite da changement constant^ que j'ai d^jk signaU, de "w** 
en "m," "b** "p," "/," "I," "r." 

A la Wameni : "me" blano ; " ma," rouge ; k Oanala : " men " 
chaud; "mien" soleil, dans "ka mien," chose-feu. Dans les 
mdmes dialeetes, Toeil s'appelle : " me," " mei" o'est k dire-lumi^re. 

Dans les dialeetes du Nord, " wa" devient " yet," feu ; k Gomen, 
'' a," soleil. Dans le groupe central, k Oanala, la Foa, Moindou, 
Bourail, "a" prend le sens de jour dans "a chi," "a chou," "a cheu," 
*^ajd" soleil, litt^ralement : jour- feu. Le soleil estle feu du jour, 
comme la lune : '^ boje,** est le feu de la nuit 

Le vert et le bleu se designent par des mots qui ont le sens de 
feuille: "paun" 

Ce qui est chaud ^tant "feu," ce qui est froid, par opposition, est 
« eau," A HoumIou : "ja," " eha," eau ; "jaon," " ehaan," froid. 

D'autre part> "feu" ^tant T^quivalent de "blanc," "eau* 
devient T^uivalent de " noir," et je trouve un exemple frappant 
de cette mani^re de parler dans les dialeetes australiens : 

A Vtle Moreton : " kuppee,*^ nuit ; " kuppee" sombre, noir — 
"kwppeng" eau. 

1 Tou8 les mots aofitraliens sont extraits de I'ouvrage de M. Edward 
Cur, The AtutraUaia Baee, Melbourne 1886. 



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184 JUUEN BEBMIBB. 

En NouveUe-Oaledonie, Teau s'appelle: "jw)," "/o," "/oa"; la 
nuit> c'est k dire ce qui est noir, s'appelle "60," "potta" "poe^" 
etc., etc. 

Voir, c'eat ceil, c'est k dire feu ; dormir, c'eat nuit, c'est k dire 
eau. "TTo," "ya," feu— devient k Lifou, "toang," voir. "Jl^e," 
feu — devient k Hienghene "JT* n«," voir — litt6ralement faire 
lumi^re, faire feu. 

A Ouv6a : voir, " maha mw," " meu wa^^ faire feu. 

A Aoba, (Nou velles-H^brides) " Umrov, " — nuit et noir — *' ma 
tourou" dormir, faire nuit. La m^me racine : " tor** " tour," 
d^Bigne Teau dans un grand nombre de dialectes. 

A Houailou : "A»tt^," dormir, racine " A:o^" **^omZ," d^ignant 
— I'eau, la pluie, la nuit — tout ce qui est f roid, humide et sombre. 

Boire, c'est encore "eau." A Canala, eau, "^uw"; boire, "^mw»"; 
Lifou, boire, "kwa" semi-durcissement de"uxn" eau. Marcher, 
c'est terre — "Ware" terre; devient "vara" et "faro," marcher. 

Parler, c'est bouche. " Wa" bouche, devient "me," " mea" parler. 

" Faire " et " travailler " sont des id^ ^uivalentes qui s'ex- 
priment par des mots ayant le sons de " main." C'estlamain qui 
fait, qui travaille. " Faire," dans un grand nombre de dialectes, 
se dit: "ma," "me," "meu," "maha," pour "maka," A Canala, 
et dans tous les dialectes du Sud, la main, "me" Oanala : tra- 
vailler, " wake," equivalant k " m^ika," faire. Les Polyn6siens 
disent: "waka," "faka" et "maka," faire. 

Mar6 : faire, "roue"-, travailler, "rouat" 

Par suite de cet organisme, les racines verbales, que Ton signale 
en si grand nombre, k tort ou k raison, dans les langues Indo- 
europ^nnes, n'existent pas dans les dialectes Ne6-caledonieii8. 
Dans ces dialectes, ce sont les substantifs qui forment les verbes, 
et il doit en 6tre de mdme pour les dialectes australiens et poly- 
n^iens. 

Les adjectifs sont in variables, com me les noms. 



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irUDI BUB LS8 DIAIiXOTBS DB LA NOlTVBLIiB CAiJdONIK. 1 B5 

Les verbes n'ont qa'un mode : rinfinitif, et qa'un temps : le 
present. Le passe et le futur s'expriment par dos mots qui 
signifient : finir, ou — " tout-ii-rheure." 

A Ouvea : " oubden^" pour le pass^, et " duxw " pour le futur : 
j'ai mange — **o ghe oubden hann^^ moi finir manger. Je mangerai, 
"inie hann dioao" — moi manger tout k Fheure. 

A Oanala : j'ai roang6, " nen da nwnron " — moi manger finir ; 
je mangerai, " me rume da ra," — tout k Theure, moi manger tout 
k Theure. 

Le verbe avoir existe, mais non comme auxiliaire ; Tobi a una 
canne k sucre — (Ouvea): " ehou Tobi aaku," — avoir Tobi canne k 
Sucre. 

Le verbe ^tre n'existe nulle part. Je suis bon (Canala). " nen 

owrou " — moi bon. Je suis malade (Ouvea), " ya mmok" — moi 

malade. 

Pranoms. 

Les pronoms et adjectifs possessifs sont, comme on T a vu plus 

haut^ remplac^s par des pronoms personnels. A Canala: *^b<ma 

nen*' — tite-moi, pour : ma tdte, etc., etc. 

Je ne serais pas eloigne de croire qu'il en est de m§me pour les 
pronoms et adjectifs demonstratifs. mais c'est une question que je 
n'ai pas suffisamment elucidee. 

A Canala : celui-ci, ceux-ci, celle-ci — " toe^a," " toen-ya" 

I Dans le mdme dialecte, *^toe'' devient "a," et se place avant et 
apr^ le mot auquel il se rapporte. Dans ce cas, il prend plus 
particuli^rement le sens de Fadverbe " 1^": Ce coco — "a not* a" — 
\k coco \k ; ce coq, ^* a do a," — ^1^ coq Ik. 

^ A Ouvea, celui-ci, celle-ci : " ang,'* qui est F^quivalent de ** a " 
(Oanala): Cet oiseau — " meno cmg " — oisean \k ; ce caillou, ^^ueto 
om/g^ caillou \k. 

Numeration. 
La numeration, dans tons ces dialectes, est k base de cinq, et, 
malgre les alterations prof ondes qu'ont subies les noms de nombres, 
on pent encore reconnattre de quelle mani^re elle s'est form6e. 



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186 JULOtN BBSNIBB* 

£lle a pour point de depart le nombre ^ un," qui a'ajonte siio- 
oeaeivement k lui — mftme : — **deux," c'est ''un-un**; trois, c'est 
*• an-deux "; quatre, c'est ** un-trois. 

Oanala: " cAa "-un; Bourail, **cAa *«n,*'-un, par redoablementi 
^^cha** n'etant que la forme aspir4e de "Jbo,'' qui 6quivaut k "ken,** 

Puis la s4rie continue reguli^rement : *^ken ourouy** ou ^^ken raw" 
«un-un," c'est k dire " deux." 

" Ken rli " — un-deux, c'est k dire trois. 

'< Ken re " — un-trois, c'est k dire quatre. 

Le nombre cinq s'exprime par des mots qui ont le sens de main. 
Dans les dialectes du Nord, *< nem*^ ^^nim^^* cinq, k rapprocher dtt 
polynSsien " nima^* main, et cinq. 

A Saint-Vincent, groupe Sud : "toti^an^a,"cinq — & rapprocher 
du Malais " tcmgcmgy^ main. 

A partir du nombre de cinq, on dit : " main-un" six; <'main- 
deux," sept ; " main-trois," huit ; *' main-quatre," neuf. 

A Bourail : " kenni^^* cinq, c'est k dire une main ; ^^kenni daken^^ 
six; **kenni ken ourou" sept; ^^kenni kenrlij" huit; *^k&nn% 
kenve," neuf. 

Le nombre dix s'exprime par des mots qui veulent dire : deux 
mains. 

Dans le groupe Sud, par exemple : " <«s"-ud, et '' boeu "-deax ; 
" ta kuen," cinq, c'est-iniire une main ; et " bo hoenf" dix. c'eat-ii- 
dire deux mains. 

Les dialectes ned-Oaledoni^ns different sur ce point des dialeotea 
polynMens, oh les mots qui d^signent le nombre " dix," ont le 
sens de " tdte." Tonga : ^^ongo oulaUf" une tdte — o'est4-dire "dix." 

Mais il 7 a lieu de remarquer, d'autre part, que cette mani^re 
de compter des n6o-cal6donien8, est absolument semblab'le k celle 
des Aryens. Le latin '^qiMter*' veut dire: un-trois. Le Sanscrit 
dit: "jwmAon," cinq, c'est-^-dire une main, et "cfaten," dix, 
c'est-^-dire deux mains. 



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frXTDB 9UR hEB DIALSOTSt DS LA HOtTYBLLS-OAIifoOMIB. 1S7 

ManayUabisme, 

La plopart dm mots dont 86 servent les n^o-oalMomens sont d«s 
monosyllabes. 

Oe aoiit des dialeetei qui aortent k peine da monosyllabiBiiie^ et, 
i oet (gard, ils different aensiblement dea autres dialectes papona, 
ainsi que da polynMen. 

La main, "«m"; le pied *'pa"; la bonche "too,'' "pa," "/b"; 
la t6te, "6oua "; la terra, "to"; le fea, "m"; etc., etc. 

Fbar les mots qai paraissent formes de deax ou plosieara syllabes 
le plas soayent I'agglotinatioD n'existe pas. Le monosyllabisme 
est persiatant : — "a;;V" — soleil, jour-feu ; "bojS" lune, nuit-feu; 
"pe-MWi" — dent, pierre-bouche; *^ poum-boua" — cheveuz, poils- 
tfite; "ttwn rtf" — riviere, eaa couler; *^pie mi" — ceil, peau-lumi6ro; 
"Ko kan^ — ^la mer, eau grande; ^*toa tin** — lait, eau-seins; **po 
ne-ri-toen " — ^bouche-rivi^re-oouler-eau ; I'embouohure de la rividre. 

Cependant, k cot^ de ces formes qui sont les plus primitives et 
les plus nombreuses, il en existe d'autres qui provienneat^ sans 
aucmn doute, du redoublement de la racine monosyllabique. " Wa ^ 
-terre— devient "mo," et par redoublement: ^^maroj" **mere,** 
" mare"; mdme signification (chaugement du "u;" en "m'' et en 
"r.") "Ware^** "tiwrai," "6ottrai," sont 6galement des formes 
redoubl^es de la racine "t€W("-terre. 

"TTa " devient encore ^^papiif" le sol, le sec, le dur ; "6a, pa," 
montagne(6a ktmncU, kwind6-la-montagne); "pa "-pied; ^^vara" 
*^fitra^** marcher. 

lyaatre part, "IT" se durcit en "JT," et foumit une nouvelle 
sArie de formes redouble: "i«i-«?a," devieat "«w.l»," " wa-kOf" 
*'ma to," "utf to/' "tii toe\*' "vata*'; etc., etc. 

n est n^oessaire de se rappeler ici oe qui a £t£ dit plus haut de 
Pextrdme mobility des racines, et de la n^cesdt^ de les suivre trte 
attentivement sous leurs diverses formes, pour saisir leur Evolution. 
ManUre de parUr des If^CaUdoniena, 

On peat maintenant se rraidro compte, par les exemples citiB 
plus haut, de la manidre de parler des N6o-Oal6donieii8 et da 



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188 JIXLIEN BBBNIEB. 

foDCtioDnement de la pens^ chez ces peuplades. U lear soffit de 
quelques mots, exprimant des id^es ^minemment concretes, pour 
designer un grand nombre de choses. 

Tont oe qui brille, tout ce qui br^le, tout oe qui est blanc, rouge, 
clair : — les yeux, le soleil, le jour, la lumi^re ; tout oela s'exprime 
par des mots qui ont le sens -de " feu." 

Tout ce qui est mou, f roid, humide : — ^le nuage, la nuit, la brume, 
la fum^, les parties molles du oorps, tout cela s'exprime par des 
mots qui servent k d^gner Teau. II y a, dans les dialectes n^ 
cal6donienSf une confusion de mots qui paratt tr^ embarrassante 
au premier abord : ce sont les mdmes expressions — **wa" ^^bouoj^ 
"paua," "motM," ''bo," ''po," "/o";etc., etc., qui d6signent : Teau, 
le nuage, la nuit, la fum6e, et la bouche. Mais d^ qu'on p6n6tre 
le veritable sens de ces mots, on s'aper9oit que cette assimilation 
n'est pas due au hasard, et qu'elle est au contraire, bas6e snr la 
nature m^me des choses. La nuit, qui est froide et humide, qui 
produit la rosee, a dt 6tre, dans les premiers ftges de Thumanit^ 
identifi6e k Feau, de m6me que le nuage, qui est 6galement froid, 
humide et qui produit la pluie, de mime que la bouche, qui est 
toujours humide. 

Tons les objets en bois sont d6sign^ par des mots qui ont le 
sens de bois. C'est k peine si, de temps k autre, on y ajoute un 
autre mot, toujours monosyllabique, indiquant la destination de 
ce bois. 

Dans les dialectes du Nord, le bois s'appelle: ''ke," ''kie" 'Hie^- 
le panier: "A»^," "Akj"; Taviron: *'kat"; lanavette: "(«"; le 
b&ton: " die" A Pouebo, "die-gan" — b&ton, litt6ralement : bois- 
marcher. 

Dans les dialectes du Centre, le bois : " ken," " ke"; le bftton : 
*'ke," on ''dio"; le casse-t6te : "Jia"; la canne «l sucre : "de," ''H"; 
le panier : "ke"; la sagaie : "n^dio" "n^diou" 

Aux Loyalty, le bois : "gioi"; lasague: "«o"; lapioche: "ze"; 
laflate: ''ziz"; le casse-tSte : "vzia"; T^cuelle: ''tie"; dans "sine- 
tie," eau-bois. 



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±rm}m auu lib dialeotbs db la nottysllb-oal^donis. 189 

L'oB s'appelle comme lapierre: ^*gh%"; ^ Ouv6a, **dieu,** root 
qui, dans d'autres dialectes, a le sens de bois. Je remarque, dans 
les dialectes australiens, la m^me identification entre I'os et la bois: 

Mount Gambier : " Jaa "-os ; * * 5aa-bois ; 

Hamilton River : '^bunda-OB; ** &tf n(ia "-bois ; 

Western River: **toola"-oa; "toola"-ho\a ; 

London River: "A;aa/^ "-os; "^aoZ^"-bois ; etc. 

J'ai pu m'assurer, par de nombreux exemples, que la rndme 
mani^re de parler existe dans tous le dialectes m61an6siens et 
polyn^siens. Nous sommes ici en presence d'une loi g6n6rale 
d'apr^ laquelle Thomme, dans le principe, a confondu Tos avec la 
pierre ou le bois. 

La terre, c'est ce qui est solide, dur, sec, (ces trois adjectifs sont 
^uivalents) par opposition a Teau, qui est molle et liquide. Nous 
connaissons d^j^la racine "tra" — terre — qui devient: "^a," "Jo," 
"pa"; pour designer les caps, les montagnes, les lieux elev6s. A 
Mar6, **papa" — sec, solide, dur — et terre. Dans Tinterieur de 
cette ile, qui est de formation madr6porique, il existe un endroit 
ou le sol primitif a fait 6ruption au dessus du corail. Get endroit 
s'appelle **rawa" terre, forme redoublee de *^wa" 

Gn m'objectera que la qualification de *'dur" pent s'appliquer 
aossi bien an bois et a la pierre, qn'^ la terre. Mais c'est precise- 
ment ce qui a lieu. Les dialectes neo-caledoniens, comme d'ailleurs 
ceux des groupes australien et polynesien, conservent les traces 
d'un 6tat primitif, dans lequel Thomme n'avait pas encore la con- 
ception exacte des objets qui Tentouraient, et confondait entre 
elles toutes les choses dures. 

A Canala : ** kt4}en " bois ; dans d'autres dialectes du mSme 
groupe : "^mw " — rint^rieur du pays, la terre. 

A rile des Pins : ** jtwwa," bois ; " 6<m«," — place, endroit — c'est- 
ik-dire "terro"; et ^*poue" — ^hame9on, c'est-^-dire bois ou pierre; 
dans les dialectes du Nord, ^^boua,** ^^ paua" ^-hkton, t^asse-tdte- 
c'est-f^ire " bois." 

. A Poya, la terre : "twfo"; a Balade, Fos : "cfcm." 



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190 JUUBN BBBHIBR. 

Dans plodeurs dialeotes, " a wi^" fordt — ^litter&lement : — chose 
bob; radne **un" qa'on retroave h CanaU, areo le sens de *' pierre^" 
dans " me un," — ^pierre de fronde — litteralement : faire-pierre ; i 
Houailou, avec le sens de '^bois," dans, ^^den wi/* feuille: cheven 
bois ; k Mar6 : *' gtoi " — bois, et dans presqae tons les autres 
dialectes, "ghi" — pierre. 

Les dialeotes australiens offrent de nombreux exemples de la 
m^roe confusion entre le bois, la terre et la pierre : Roxburgh 
Downs, bois, **fnukka**; pierre, '^mukka"; de Port-Denison au Cap 
Gloucester: bois, ** baree"; pierrft, **paree"; Beylando : bois, 
"baii**; pierre, "pae"; (la m^me forme que dans les dialectes 
n^o-cal^oniens). Tenterfield (New England): terre, " tarri "; 
pierre, ** iarro" 

II est h, remarquer qu'une confusion exactement semblable a dtt 
exister chez les races aryennes, car le Sanscrit nous offre les rap- 
prochements suivants : " Dara" dur ; " dhara,** terre ; " daru^" 
bois; ^^dardara,** montagne, c'est-lkrdire "terre" ou "pierre"; 
" danta,'* dent, c'est-l^ire " pierre " ou " os "; et " danda," bftton, 
c'e8t-&-dire "bois." 

Le Breton dit : " kaled,** dur ; le latin : " calus" darillon ; 
" calculus,** caillou ; et " cala, " biiche. 

On est en droit de se demander, en presence de ces exemplea, 
si les Aryens, nos p^res, n'ont pas pass^ par les m^mes Stapes que 
les Papons et les Australiens, et s'ils n'ont pas commoner par 
embrasser d'abord, dans une synth^ g6n6rale, tout ce qui est dur, 
pour arriver ensuite graduellement, d'analyse en analyse, a dis- 
tinguer, par des formes sp6ciales, des substances qui different 
essentiellement les unes des autres, et qui n'ont entre elles qn'nn 
rapport commun : la duret6. 

L'air s'appelle comme I'eau. A Mare, air, " nonOy** forme qui 
dans un grand nombre de dialectes, dSsigne Teau. 

Les animaux sont d^signes d'apr^ le milieu dans lequel ik 
vivent: le poisson, "no,"eau; le moustiqoe, "no," ''nan," air. 
L'oiseau, " ma-no " — " me-nou " — " nui-nau," animal — air ; ou biea 
"me-u>e," racine "uw," designant Teau, et par suite, I'air. 



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irUDB BUB LBS DIALBCTB8 DB LA. MOUVBLLB-OALfoONIB. 191 

Ia "roaaaette" (flying-fox) s'appelle : **6V "p«u,'' formes 
dtfgnant igalement Peau et Tair, et se retrouvant dans le poly- 
DMen *^pe ka^** rooBsette — ^litt^ralement : air-animal. 

L'homme s'appelle : ka mourou," " a mboro" **ourou" " ore "; 
" ka," animal ; " mourou^'* " ourouy" courir — ou plus exactement : 
animal-terre. "Ourou*' est h rapprocher du malais **oranff/* 
bomme — et cette forme n'est elle-mdme qu'une mutilation de la 
radne ^^gour" " kour,^ qui, dans tons les dialectos malayo-poly- 
nMens, d^signe les animaux terrestres. 

Les Australiens appellent Topossum, *' tu ngar" " fha ngaroo " 
le kangurou : " ho ngoora '^ — " yungar,^* L'homme lui-mdme, dans 
certains dialectes, s'appelle **gungar,** comme le kangurou. Toutea 
oes formes ont le sens de : terre-animal, et les racines "gar" ^^goor" 
aont 6quivalente8 du Malay o-polyn6sien "gour" *^ kour," '^or" 
ainsi que du n6o-caledonien " our J* 

La femme est au contraire " animal-eau," ou " animal-lait," le 
lait 6tant identifie avec Teau. A Hienghen, la femme, "nok" ou 
**no," comme le poisson. A Pou6bo : " tea^bo" "te-bo" — litt6rale- 
ment: ** homme-lait," V homme qui a du lait. 

A Canala : *' iien^" racine " 8%" " t%" qui d6signe I'eau, le lait 
et les seins. 

En Nouvelle-Zelande, " femme," " o loa" racine ** wa" eau ; h 
Madagascar, " voce" femme ; h Tahiti : " vai" eau. 

Tahiti: mSre, "tei"; Tonga et Nouvelle-Z61ande : mer, "^at."^ 

En Australie, I'assimilation est encore plus complete. La femme 
s'appelle comme le sein; le sein, comme le lait; et le lait^c'est "eau." 

Shark's Bay : eau, " baba "; seins, " baba "; Nichol Bay : lait, 
"JiW," seins, "W6«"; femme, **5iAt"; etc., etc. 

Ailleura, I'eau s'appelle "ngammoo"; le lait," "ngammon"; la 
femme, " ngammia," 

Id encore les Aryens paraissent avoir parl6 comme les Austra- 
Hensetles Melan6siens. Le Latin dit : "Jupifer" — Dieu-p^re; 

^TooB 1«8 mote polyn^siens tout eztraits du Voyage de VAstrolahe, 
par Dumont d'UrviUe, Paris 1882. 



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192 JUIilBN BERNIBB. 

et " Ji# fw." Dieu-mSref racine "no," qui d^signe Teau, et qui se 
retrouve dans "nuit" *^nue" " nua^e" c'est-drdire ce qui est froid, 
ce qui est humide, ce qui est " eau.'' 

Noins de lietMc. 

Les noms de lieux ont g^neralement ie sens de terre ou de 
riviere. Quelquefois ils designent une particularite physique ou 
geographique : "-if/i," "mara" *'mere" ''mare" "ware," ^'tDaral,*' 
*'bouaraz" terre; "mato," ''vata," "uito," rocher; "kone" "AjMnie," 
''Ounia," terre; ''A we," ''ewe," "diawe," "yavo^," riviere; "Foa^' 
"ti""tio," "do," riviere; " Bo ghen," "bona ken," "yenghen," 
eau-grande. " Dia hot," nom de fleuve, eau-grande ; " Ti kan,^ 
la mer, eau-grande ; " Ti waka," riviere-pirogues ; " Wa-merd,^ 
rivi^re-oiseaux ; " Witeh-ambo," montagne haute ; ** Boul art," 
" Bouloup ari," terre rouge ; " BSlep," terre ; " Wen," terre ; ile ; 
" Nou," "nani," ile ; etc., etc. 

Certains noms de lieux semblent rappeler des souvenirs etrangers 
" Go meni," et " Kou maki," (Gomen et Koumac) se retrouvent en 
Nouvelle-Guinee " Tati " se retrouve a Torr^ ; " Ouoia " vient 
des lies Wallis. 

Conclu8ion» 

En resum6, les dialectes neo-caledoniens ont une phjrsionomie 
particuli^re, qui se fait surtout remarquer par son extrdme sim- 
plioite. La langue n'a aucune precision ; les racines sont dans un 
6tat perpetuel de fluctuation, et afleotent les formes les plus varices. 
Les difiSrentes parties du discours n'existent pas. Le m§me mot 
pent 6tre pris successivement comme substantif, comme adjectif 
ou comme verbe. Le monosyllabisme est dominant, et les racines 
ont conserve une signification synth6tique qui ne se rencontre 
peut-§tre au mdme degr6 dans aucune autre langue. Ce sont les 
plus primitifs des dialectes " papous." 

Maintenant, qu'il me soit permis de poser une question : Oh 
commence le " papou "? ou finissent Faustralien et le polynesien f 
Un examen approfondi de cette question nous entrainerait trop 
loin, dependant, voici ce que je crois 6tre la v6rit6. 



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^TITDS SUB LS8 DIALBCTIS DM LA NOTTYILLB-CALiDONIS. 193 

D'abord, pour ce qui conceme le groupe " papou/' il n' y a pas 
de langue proprement dite. Nod seulement ces dialectes pr6- 
aentent la mdme confusioa que ceux de la Nouvelle Cal6doiiie, 
mais ils ont subi, en outre, Tinfluence du Malais a une si forte 
dose, qu'ils ont perdu toute leur originality premiere. Ils sont 
bien inferieurs, sous ce rapport, aux dialectes n6o-cal6doniens. 
Si, d'autre part, je compare les dialectes " papous " h ceux de 
I'Australie ou au polynesien, je remarque entre eux, il est vrai, de 
grandes difl[<^rences de prononciation provenant, comme je Tai dit 
plus haut, de la grande mobilite du langage, qui n'est pas encore 
fix6. Je vois aussi des formes locales, des differences grammati- 
cales qui, au premier abord, semblent devoir ^carter toute id^e de 
rapprochement ; mais au fond les racines sont les mdmes. O'est 
ce qu'un exemple fera encore mieux ressortir. 

Les N6o-Caledoniens, les Papous en g6n6ral et les Polyn^enSy 
se servent^ pour designer I'eau, de la racine "wa," ^^hti^" **/>«i" 
''tMi," etc.; qui prend encore les formes les plus varices. 

Dans les dialectes australiens, cette racine n'apparait qu'acciden- 
tellement, comme dans les dialectes de " Nickol Bay " et " Shaw 
River," oh Feau s'appelle — " babba/' " babba" — tandis que dans la 
plupart des autres dialectes, elle s'appelle ^^hauwee^^ ^^kaba" "ka- 
moo" "a moo" etc., etc.; Mais si Ton examine ces formes avec 
attention, on ne tarde pas & reconnaitre que la veritable racine est 
«tr<wf," "fto," "i»oo," tandis que la premiere syllabe :— -"Aro," "a," 
n'est qu'un pr^fixe, ayant probablement le sens de chose " ka bo,*' 
''kamoo'* "chose-eau." La racine ''wee'' (pour "wa"), "fta," 
" moo," 6volue exactement comme chez les n6o-Oaledoniens. Les 
formes sont identiques de part et d'autre. 

Les Australiens disent : " he ni," ** ka ri/* " ko la" soleil. Les 
v6ritables racines sont : " ni" " n*," " la"; qu'on retrouve dans le 
n6o-cal6donien : "ni" feu ; dans le polyn6sien : ''lay" lumi^re ; et 
dans ** ariy" forme mutil6e de " ka ri" 

Quant aux ressemblances de mots, elles abondent entre tons ces 
dialectes. La forme "m(" qui sert aux N6o-Oal6doniens pour 

M-8ept. 7. 1896. 



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194 JUIiIBN BBBNISB. 

dMgner I'oeil, se retronve k chaqae instant dans les dialeotes 
anstraliens, avec le mdme sens : 

PolynSsien : " Wira," " Wila,** 6clair ; 

Australien : <' Wira" soleil, feu ; 

Polyn68ien : " Mira" brillant ; " mtri," regarder ; 

Anstralien : ^^Mir" ceil. 

N6o-Cal6donien : " Me" main ; " ma" faire ; 

Anstralien : '< Ma," main ; etc., etc. 

Qu'on prenne tons les dialectes malayo-polyn6siens, depois 
Madagascar jasqu'& Hawaii, depuis le malais proprement dit 
josqu'aa langage si doux de Tahiti ; depuis les Carolines et les 
Mariannes jusqu'lk la Nouvelle-Z^lande. Qu'on les compare auz 
dialectes papous et australiens ; le mdme ph6nomdne se reproduira 
toujours. II 7 aura des diflR^rences locales de prononciation et des 
formes gprammaticales particuli^res h chaque dialecte ou h chaqne 
groupe ; mais au fond, Tidentit^ des racines est absolue. La dis- 
semination des families et I'influence des milieux, ont cr66 des 
diffi^rences de types et de races ; mais le langage, malgr^ sa grande 
diversity apparente, est reste immuable, pour attestor I'origine 
commune de toutes ces races. 



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PINXNB8 OF THB OILS OF THB OENU8 BUCALYPTUS. 195 



Ok THB PINENES of the OILS of the GENUS 
EUCALYPTUS.— Part I. 

By Hbnbt G. Smith, f.cs., Technological Museum, Sydney. 



[fiaod hrfore the Boyal 8oeis^ of N. 8. Wales, October 6, 1898.'} 



The following paper deals with the investigation of both dextro- 
rotatory and Iffivorotatory pinenes found existing in the oik of 
two new species of Eucalyptus growing in New South Wales.^ 

The occurrence of Eucalyptus oils consisting almost entirely of 
the terpene pinene, is remarkable, and will assist to a very large 
extent, in enabling us to trace the origin and formation of the 
several constituents found existing in Eucalyptus oils. That a 
connection does exist, running through the whole series, seems 
probable, and it is only by carrying out investigations on oils of 
undoubted material, that a correct scientific knowledge can be 
obtained in this direction. 

The group of Eucalyptus trees to which these two species belong 
is known vernacularly as the 'Stringy barks,' and both the species 
form part of a chemical sub-group of the botanical class of the 
Eucalypts known as the Renantherse, or those having kidney- 
shaped anthers. 

We can derive no further help from the investigation of the 
kinos of this group, because the exudations from all the Eucalypts 
belonging to the Renantherse appear to be identical in compo- 
sition; but the constituents of the oils indicate a sharp distinction. 
The terpene composing the oils of these two species is principally 
pinene; not a trace of phellandrene could be detected in them, 
and so we are enabled to differentiate them from the oils obtained 
from those trees belonging to the RenanthersB, such as E, amyg^ 

1 Vide R. T. Baker » f.l.s., on two New EnoalyptB — Proc Linn. Soc., 
N.8.W., September 1896. 



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196 H. O. SMITH. 

dalina, E, piperita^ E, coriacea^ etc., the oils of which consist 
more or less largely of the terpene phellandrene, and those that 
contain only a small quantity of pinene, or perhaps none at all 
Although the two species from which these pinenes were obtained 
are types, both botanically and chemically, yet it is not to be sop- 
posed that oils containing pinene are all devoid of phellandrene, 
such not being the case. A variety of the Rylstone species (E. 
Uevopinea/ was obtained from Barber's Creek, the oil of which 
was found to contain a small quantity of phellandrene, although 
consisting almost entirely of the Isevorotatory pinene identical with 
the pinene obtained from the type species. It is worth notice that 
oils containing phellandrene are generally light coloured in their 
crude state, while those not containing phellandrene are often 
reddish in colour. This colour is readily removed by agitating with 
potash, and it is of an acid character. Tt is not derived from the 
eucalyptol (?cineol), as about the same minute quantity of eucaljrptol 
was found in the higher boiling portions of the Rylstone oil (a red 
oil) as was found in that of its variety (oil almost colourless, being 
light yellowish with a tinge of green). We cannot at present 
derive much information from the colour of the crude Eucalyptos 
oils, although it may be found eventually to have some bearing 
on their constitution. 

The almost entire absence of eucalyptol in the oils of certain 
members of this group, is also very characteristic, and it seems 
possible that we may eventually be able to decide how this con- 
stituent of Eucalyptus oils increases in quantity, as we go up or 
down the series. 

This investigation was carried out on material obtained from 
Barber's Creek ; from Currawang Creek near Braid wood ; and 
from Nullo Mountain near Rylstone, all in this Colony. 

The material from Barber's Creek, from which the dextroro- 
tatory pinene was obtained, was botanically identical with that 
of the species forwarded by the Museum collector from Currawang 



1 Named E, Icsvopinea var. minor by Mr. Baker, loo. cit. 



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PINBNBB OF THE OILS OF THE GBNUS SaOALTPTUS. 197 

Greek. This species was described by my colleague Mr. R. T. 
Baker, floe, cit,) under the name Eucalyptus dextropinea, a 
recognition to the science of chemistry for assistance rendered in 
the determination of species of this important and difficult genus. 

From the results of the determinations of the oils from the 
leaves of E, dextropinea^ from both Barber's Creek and Curra- 
wang Creek, localities over one hundred miles apart, it might be 
inferred that the oils were obtained from identical material, and 
the results again emphasize the fact that the same sp)ecies of 
Eucalyptus gives an oil identical in composition, no matter where 
grown, if collected at the same time of the year. We have other 
evidence that this is true, and the determination of the oil, together 
with that of the other chemical constituents of the tree, will be of 
great assistance in the determination of unknown species. The 
genus is so prolific in chemical constituents, both crystallised and 
liquid, that possibly many of the difficulties experienced in the 
study of the Eucalypts may be effectually removed when the 
several products of individual trees shall have been systematically 
investigated by the chemist. The results brought forward in this 
paper are an instance in point, as the oils of the type species from 
the three localities possess great similarity ; they all consist prin- 
cipally of pinene, and in colour, odour, specific gravity, etc., 
resemble each other most markedly, yet ^hile the pinene from 
both the Barber's and Currawang Creeks material rotates the ray 
of light to the right, the pinene from the Rylstone Eucalypt 
rotates the ray to the left. The Rylstone material was collected 
under the personal supervision of Mr. Baker. We cannot admit 
that a tree giving an oil consisting principally of a dextrorotatory 
pinene having a specific rotation = [a]„ + 4r2'' is identical with 
one giving an oil, also consisting principally of a pinene, that is 
kevorotatory to even a greater degree, although the difierences in 
Borne of the botanical material may not be very marked. Mr. 
Baker, however, informs me that the timber of E. IcBvopinea is 
excellent, while that of E. dextrapinea is a comparatively worth- 
less timber. 



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198 H. a. SMITH. 

The late Baron von Mueller, whose knowledge of the Eaoslypti 
of Australia was unique, recognised years ago, the possible asnst- 
ance the botanist might derive in determining differences in specteB 
by the results of chemieal investigation of their constituents. The 
reference is so important in connection with the results brought 
forward in this paper, that I indicate the paragraph, published 
by the Baron in 1879.^ 

" E. obliqua is distinguiBhed from M, piperita by . . .and 
perhaps by anatomic, histologic, and chemieal peetUiarieties of 
the bark cmd wood which characteristics remain yet mare eom- 
prehensively to be studied" The italics are mine. 

Since that time much has been done in determining the chemical 
characteristics of several of the species. The results of the 
present research not only assisted in finally determining the 
species, but present possibilities of commercial value in det6^ 
mining the utility or otherwise of the products of the tree by the 
determination of its chemical constituents. According to Mr. 
Baker, the Rylstone specimen (K Icevopinea) has certain botanical 
affinities with those of E, maerorhyncha^ but chemically these 
two trees are quite distinct, and the importance of this Lb apparent 
when it is stated that the leaves of E. Icevopinea do not contain 
myrticolorin like those of E. macrorhyncha, nor does the oil con- 
tain eudesmol and other constituents found in the oil of E» mac- 
rorhyncha. 

The presence of a pinene in the oil from E, globultts was detected 
some time ago. M. Cloez in 1870' published the first detailed 
observations relative to the oil of E, globulin. This research is 
now of historic interest from the fact that heobtained a hydrocarbon 
CioHj, boiling at 165* C, by distilling his so-called eucalyptol with 
P^Ofl. This terpens he called eucalyptene. Afterwards Faost 
and Homeyer^ gave the same name to a terpene from EucalyptoB 
oil which according to them is a terebenthene, being readily poly- 
merised by sulphuric acid. Later, Wallach and Gildmeistei^ 

1 Eacalyptographia, Decade iii.. Art. Euedlyptits piperita, 

« Compt. rend. 1870, 687 and Journ. de Pharm. and Chimie 1870, xii. 201. 

s Ber. 7, 68, 1429. 4 Ann. 246, 266 - 284. Abst. Chem. Soc. 1888, 64, 120S. 



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PINBNB8 OF THB OILS OF THE 6BNUB EUOALTPTUB. 199 

Btated that the hydrocarbon, eucalyptene, from Euealyptus 
globulus, is identical with dextropinene. 

In 1895 Boarchardat and Tardy^ carried oat experiments with 
ihe hydrocarbon found occurring in small quantity in the oil of 
BucaJypiuM globulus, and arrived at the conclusion that it has the 
properties of lievorotatory terebinthene found in French oil of 
turpentine, but with an almost equal opposite rotation. They 
give its boiling point as 156 - 157^ C; its density as 0*870 at 0** 0. 
and 0-865 at 18*" C; and its specific rotation at 15^ 0. as [a]^ + 39*. 
They give Riban's determination* for the specific rotation of lievo- 
rotatory terebenthene as - 40*3''. It appears, therefore, from the 
results obtained by these authors on this hydrocarbon from the 
oil of E, globulus, and those obtained in this research on the same 
hydrocarbon from the oil from E. dextrapinea, that these dextro- 
rotatory pinenes obtainable from members of two distinct groups 
of Eucalypts are identical, and that the dextrorotatory pinene 
from the whole genus Eucalyptus, is a physical isomeride of the 
Isevorotatory pinene (terebinthene) obtained from French oil of 
turpentine, and possibly also of the Isevorotatory pinene of the 
Eucalypts, although this Ubvo form has, so far as observed, a higher 
specific rotation. 

As phellandrene has not yet been detected in an Eucalyptus 
oil containing a highly dextrorotatory pinene, and as the opposite 
highly lievorotatory pinene has been found existing with phellan- 
drene in several members of the Stringybark group of Eucalypts, 
it appears that we must arrive at the conclusion that the dextro- 
rotatory pinene is present in greater abundance in Eucalyptus oils 
of the globulus type, and that are rich in eucalyptol, particularly 
as those oils are usually dextrorotatory, and eucalyptol having no 
rotation, the activity must necessarily be due to the terpenes. 
Although it had been assumed that terpenes having right and left 
rotation were probably present in these oils, yet, no proof had 
previously been forthcoming that this was so, and the isolation of 



1 Compt. rend. 1896, 120, 1417-1420. 
« Comp. rend. 78, 788 ; 79, 814. 



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200 H. O. SMITH. 

the corresponding laevorotatory pinene appears now to conclusivelj 
show that such is the case, and that we have existing in the oils 
of the Eucalypts two pinenes, one of which is probably the physical 
isomeride of the other. 

By obtaining the nitrosochloride I have been able to detect the 
presence of pinene in nearly all the oils of the class of Eucalypts 
to which E, globulus belongs, such as E, Bridgesiana, E, gonio- 
calyx etc., but it is only present in these oils in very small quantity, 
the greater portion of their constituents being terpenes other than 
pinene, and eucalyptol. The two species of Eucalyptus from which 
these present pinenes were obtained form part of a different group 
altogether from that to which E, globulus belongs. The Stringy- 
barks are a group the investigation of whose oils has been of great 
assistance in extending our knowledge of the constituents of the 
oils of the genus. 

Eucalyptol is almost entirely absent from the oils of the two 
species now under consideration, as it was only possible to detect 
its presence in the higher boiling portions, and even then it could 
not be detected by phosphoric acid, its presence in minute quantity 
being df^termined by iodol and also by bromine. Whether at 
other times of the year eucalyptol would be found to be present 
in greater quantity is of course a matter for future investigation. 

On redistilling the oil from the Currawang Creek sample 63 per 
cent, was obtained between 166** and 162** C* and 25 per cent 
more distilled between 162" and 172** 0. On distilling the oil 
from Barber's Creek under exactly the same conditions, 62 per 
cent, was obtained between 156* and 162** and 25 per cent, more 
between 162" and 172° C. These oils were practically identical, 
although the oil from the Barber's Creek sample was rather more 
dextrorotatory than that from Currawang Creek, but this differ- 
ence might be expected, because our experiments show that the 
oils obtained from the trees of the same species growing together 
under exactly similar conditions have not the same rotation, bat 

1 The temperatures given in this paper are all corrected, and stated to 
the nearest whole degree. 



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PINSNB8 OF THE OILS OF THB OBNUB EUOALTPTUS. 201 

differ at times to a few degrees; constancy in optical rotation is 
not experienced in these oils. The oil from the Rylstone sample, 
rectified under exactly similar conditions, gave 60 per cent, 
between 157* and 164° C, and 28 per cent, more between 164" 
and 172* C, so that the temperature required to distil the l»vo- 
rotatory pinene is a little higher than that necessary to distil the 
dextrorotatory form. 

These oils, from the type species, are red in colour, which from 
their general appearance might indicate the presence of eucalyptol; 
it was a surprise to find an almost entire absence of that con- 
stituent. 

The dextrorotatory pinene. 
The leaves and terminal branchlets of JEuccUyptus dextropinea^ 
from Currawang Creek, collected and distilled early in August 
1898, gave .0825 per cent, of oil, or 100 lbs. of leaves gave 13i 
ounces. On rectification (after discarding the first two per cent, 
which came over below 156" C, and which contained but a minute 
quantity of aldehydes) the following results were obtained : — 
63 per cent, distilled between 156 - 162* C. = first fraction 
25 „ „ „ 162-172' 0.= second fraction 

Specific gravity, first fraction, at 17* C. =0 8655 
„ „ second „ „ =0'8710 

,, „ crude oil „ =0*8743 

„ rotation, first fraction + 38-18* 
„ „ second „ + 36-34* 

The leaves and branchlets of JS. dextropinea from Barber's 
Creek, collected and distilled at end of July 1898, gave 0-850 
per cent of oil, or 100 lbs. gave 13^ ounces. On rectification 
(after discarding the first two per cent, distilling below 156* C.) 
this sample of oil gave : — 

62 per cent, distilling between 156* - 162* C. = first fraction 
25 „ „ „ 162* - 172* C. = second fraction 

Spedfic gravity, first fraction, at 17* C. =0*8676 
„ „ second „ „ =0-8744 

„ „ crude oil „ * 0-8763 

„ rotation, first fraction, = +39*59* 
„ second „ = +3706* 



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202 H. a. SMITH. 

From the above resultB it was apparent that the two samples 
might be considered identical oils, only varying to the same 
extent as is usually found with oils of the same species of 
Eucalyptus, at the same time of the year ; the further investiga- 
tion was, therefore, continued on the oil from the Barber's Creek 
sample alone. On again rectifying the first fraction of the oil 
from Barber's Creek (that portion boiling between 156** - 162* G.) 
the following results were obtained : — 

28 per cent, distilled between 156** - 157*" C. » first fraction 
30 „ „ „ 157" - 158' C. - second fraction 

23 „ „ „ 158* - 160" C. = third fraction 

Remainder not distilled. 

Specific gravity, first fraction at 18** C. »= 0*8632 
„ second „ „ — 0*8644 

„ third „ „ = 0-8660 

rotation, first fraction, » +40*43** 
„ second „ =» +40*08* 
„ third „ = +3903** 

The third and final rectification, taking the fraction 156** - 
158** C, gave 50 per cent, of an oil boiling between 156** ~ 157** C. 
This gave results as follows : — 

Specific gravity at t* 0. = 0*8750 
„ «• C = 0-8629 
Specific rotation, using the specific gravity obtained at 18** C. = 
+ 41*2** 

The boiling point of this dextrorotatory pinene may be stated 
at 156** C. and to have a specific rotation for sodium light +41*2^ 

A sample of commercial dextrorotatory oil of turpentine con- 
taining the pinene Australene was rectified in the same apparatus 
and under exactly similar conditions, and using the same correction; 
35 per cent, distilled between 156** ~ 157** C. This fraction had 
a specific gravity at 20* C. - 0*8624 and a specific rotation + 13*8'. 

The loBvoroUUory pinene. 
The leaves and branchlets of Bucalyptue loevopinea^ collected by 
my colleague, Mr. R. T. Baker, at Rylstone in Aug. 1898, distilled 



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miBHSS OF THB OILS OF THS OBNUB SUOALTPTUB. 203 

a few i^jB AftOTwmU, gave 0*66 per cent, of oil,^ or 100 lbs. gave 
10^ onnoes. ..On rectification (after discarding two per cent, that 
came over below 157** G^) the following results were obtained : — 
60 per cent, distilled between 157* ~ 164* 0. =^ first fraction 
28 „ „ „ 1 64* -1 72* C. =* second fraction 

Specific gravity, first fraction, at 18* C. » 0-8676 
„ „ second „ „ =0*8725 

„ „ crude oQ „ =0*8732 

„ rotation, first fraction, - 46*74* 
„ „ second „ - 44*3* 

On again rectifying the first fraction (that portion distilling 
between 157* - 164* C.) the following results were obtained : — 
42 per cent, distilled between 157* - 160* C. = first fraction 
35 „ „ „ 160* - 164* C. = second fraction 

Remainder not distilled. 

Specific gravity first fraction at 19* 0. =0*8630 
„ „ second „ „ =0*8641 

„ rotation, first fraction - 47*86 
„ „ second „ - 47*38 

The third and final rectification, again taking the first fraction, 
gave 50 per cent, of an oil boiling between 157* - 158* 0. This 
gave results as follows : — 

Specific gravity at t* C. =0*8755 
«*C. =0-8626 
Specific rotation taking density at 19* C. - 48*63. 

The boiling point of this lievorotatory pinene may be stated to 
be 157* 0. and the specific rotation for sodium light - 48*63*. 
This IflBvorotatory pinene thus boils at one degree higher temper- 
ature than the dextrorotatory form, and has a higher reverse 
rotation. 

The same apparatus was used for the whole of the redistillations, 
and the results were obtained under exactly similar conditions, 
and upon the same quantity of oil. The redistillations were not 

1 This Eucalypt is known locally as " Silver Top Stringybark." 



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204 H. G. SMITH. 

oarried out under reduced pressure, so that they are strictly com- 
parative. The temperatures given are those of the oil at the time 
the specific gravities were taken, and all are given against water 
at 16** C, except of course the .determination of the pinenes at 4"* 0. 
The rotations were taken in a 200 mm. tube, the specific rotations 
being calculated from ^ the temperatures of (d) being those stated 
in the paper. 

On mixing equal volumes of the two pinenes, the rotation in the 
200 mm. tube was - 6*2'' showing that the dextrototatory pinene 
had neutralised exactly the same amount of rotation of the 
laevorotatory form. 

By referring to the results it will be seen that the specific 
gravities of the several fractions of the two oils, their rates of 
distillation and the percentage amounts distilling below 172'* C. 
are fairly concordant, with the exception that the oil from Ei 
IcBvopinea boils at a slightly higher temperature than that from 
E. deoctropitiea. The real difference between these Eucalyptus 
pinenes is their extreme opposite rotation, and while the specific 
rotation of the dextrorotatory Eucalyptus pinene is twice as great 
as that observed in the pinene (australene) from dextrorotatory 
oil of turpentine, the specific rotation of the Isvorotatory 
Eucalyptus pinene is greater than that of the pinene (terebinthene) 
from IfiBvorotatory oil of turpentine. 

The Eucalyptus pinenes are identical in appearance, being 
colourless, mobile liquids, having an odour with a slight resem- 
blance to ordinary oil of turpentine ; the dextropinene has more 
markedly the odour of ordinary oil of turpentine than has the 
laevorotatory form. 

The nitroaoehlorides. 

One volume of the pinene was added to one volume of amy! 
nitrite and the mixture dissolved in two volumes of glacial acetic 
acid ; this was cooled in a freezing mixture of ice and salt^ and 
concentrated hydrochloric acid and glacial acetic acid, in equal 
parts, slowly added while the blue colour remained ; it was then 



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PINBNE8 OF THS OILS OF THE OBNUS BU0ALYPTU8. 205 

allowed to crystallise in the freezing mixture. The crystals from 
both forms were identical in every respect and melted quite 
sharply at lOS*" 0. The product from the dextropinene was 
heated with alcoholic soda and the nitrosoterpene thus formed, 
when crystallised from alcohol, melted at 128" - 129'* 0. 

The hydrates. 

About four or five volumes of the pinenes were agitated for two 
or three days with one volume of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1 *25) added 
to half its quantity of alcohol ; the solutions were then allowed 
to slowly evaporate in open vessels. After some days fine crystals 
were formed in some quantity with both forms. These were 
rhombic crystals, and when purified by recrystallisation from 
alcohol, melted at 116** ~ 117'' C. with elimination of water. On 
melting these terpene hydrates and taking the melting point of the 
terpenes thus formed, it was found that they both melted at 102** 
- 103' C. and that they both sublimed in crystals. The terpene 
hydrate from either form was soluble in boiling water, in alcohol 
and in ether; both behaved chemically in exactly the same manner 
in every respect. 

A vapour density determination gave almost the identical 
figures required for the molecule CioHij. 

The monohydrochloride was prepared from the dextropinene, 
this had the odour and appearance of ordinary camphor and melted 
at 123" -12^0. 

Crystalline tetrabromides could not be obtained by ordinary 
methods. 

Foh/meriscUion of the OiL 

A portion of the crude oil, E. dextropinea from Barber's Creek 
was treated with a very small quantity of sulphuric acid ; much 
heat was generated, and the oil was much darkened. After the 
action was thought to be complete the product was well washed, 
dried, and distilled. It was then found that polymerisation had 
taken place, the. boiling point of the oil being raised considerably. 
In the original crude oil from Barber's Creek there was obtained 



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206 H. G. SMITH. 

on redistillatioD, no lets than 77 per oent. below 165* 0., (see 
table), whereas in the polymerised oil only 7 per cent, was obtained 
below 165** C, or tabulating the results : — 



160* 


0. 


to 


162* 


0. 


- 3 


162 




» 


166 




- 7 


165 




>i 


167 




= 25 


167 




>i 


172 




-58 


172 




n 


178 




.64 



The fraction obtained between 165** 0. and US'" C. was found 
to have been reduced in rotatory power by about half. Originally 
the rotation for the whole fraction on the first distillation was 
+ 66*5° in a 200 mm. tube. After polymerisation of the oil the 
rotation in the same tube was + 32*3". Evidently the polymeri- 
sation had not been complete. 

From the results of the above determinations it is apparent 
that these Eucalyptus pinenes are chemically identical with tere- 
benthene and australene, and only differ from them by having 
greater rotation. We thus arrive at the conclusion that the 
pinenes from the oils of the Eucalypts (N.O. Myrtacese), appear 
identical with those obtained from Pinus (N.O. Conifersd). 

As the Eucalyptus pinenes lend themselves so readily to poly- 
merisation by acid, and as the crude oils from all the Eucalypts 
contain organic acids in some form, it is probable that certain 
constituents found in Eucalyptus oils are the result of a prooess 
of natural polymerisation of these pinenes in the oil cells of the 
leaf. It may be that eventually structural differences in the 
molecule may be determined between the Eucalyptus pinenes and 
those obtained from the Coniferae, as indicated by the natural 
alteration products. Further research may decide this, but it 
does not appear that we shsll receive much' assistance from the 
preparation from these pinenes of known chemical compounds, 
because they, so far, have proved themselves identical with those 
obtained from the pinenes from the OonifersB. 



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FIMKNSS OF THS OILS OF THB GSNUB BUOALTPTUS. 207 

It may be weU for the purpose of identificatioii to retain specific 
names for these Eacalyptas pinenes, and as Muxdyptene stands for 
the dextropinene, I suggest the name ^udumene for the kevo- 
rotatory pinena 

The diaoovery of Eacalyptas oils consisting principally of 
pbenes prevents the determination of sophistication of Eacalyptas 
oils with commercial oil of turpentine ; if its presence was proved 
there is do reason why it should not have been obtained directly 
from Eacalyptas leaves, and need not have been the effect of 
•dalteratioQ. The necessity of determining the constitaents of 
Encalyptos oils to be used medicinally is thus again emphasized. 

I wish to express my thanks to my colleague Mr. R. T. Baker, 
for botanical assistance in the preparation of this paper. 



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SOABINO UACmNES. 209 



SOARING MACHINES. 
By L. Hargraye. 



[Bead before the Boyal Society of N. 8, Wales, November 2, 1898.] 



It is loDg since my diary contained sufficient matter to submit 
two papers in one year for publication in our Journal, but 
some late observations are of such a convincing nature as to the 
truth of the propositions enunciated here on August 4, 1897, 
that I trust you will permit me to advance the art of soaring 
another step. 

Figures 1, 2, 3, show side and end elevations and plan of two 
soaring kites that are called M. and N. The following table is 




I I 



Fig. 1. 
N— Oct. 2. 1898. 



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Fig. 2. 



Fig. 8. 



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M. 


N. 


4'ir 


4'li' 


S'Sf 


S'O" 


371 


243 


144 


128 


3-58 


2-58 


5-625 


4 09 


1-57 


1-59 


-H" 


-3' 



SOARING MACHINES. 211 

the type of the inscription that is plainly legible on the photo- 
^graphs but may be indistinct on the zincotypes : — 

Soaring Kites. 
Length 

Width 

Projected area of propeller, square inches 

„ „ end surfaces „ 

Total area, square feet ... 
Weight, pounds 

Weight per square foot, pounds... 
Angle of propeller 

Both kites have repeatedly soared in wind with a velocity of 
ten to fifteen miles. 

M and N differ in several ways from the vulcanite soaring kite 
described in the paper of June 1, 1898. The long tin tubes are 
much stiffer and the propellers are made of redwood. M also has 
a spring screwed to the front of its propeller so that a trial could 
be made with the propeller rigid followed immediately by one 
with the propeller springy. This showed the rigid propeller to 
be the best. 

It is found that vulcanite immersed in boiling water and then 
bent does not retain permanently the curve imparted to it ; 
neither does steamed wood unless nailed to numerous objectionable 
ribs. Bent metal plate is worse than bent wood and weight for 
weight is more flexible. There appeared no alternative but to 
work the curve of the propeller out of solid wood ; this course 
produces with some patience the desired article. When the best 
curve has been decided on, curved wooden propellers will be pro- 
duced by modem wood working machinery with as much facility 
as any form of moulding used in architecture. 

A further consideration of the horizontal projection of a soaring 
bird's wing shows that the tip or flat part is approximately half 
ihe area of the soaring part. 

When the wing is rigidly extended and the soaring part lifting 
properly; the tip, when in the plane of the true wind, will have 



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212 L. HABOBAYE. 

the relative wind acting on its upper surface, and be in effect a 
kite wrong side up. 

The position of the tip, that is, whether it incline up or droop 
when viewed from front or rear, is a clear indication of whether 
the bird is soaring in a horizontal or downward blowing wind^ 
or merely being supported by an upward trend of wind. 

The albatross and frigate bird show the drooping tip to per- 
fection. Hawks and eagles frequently show the upward bent tip, 
and when they do so we may safely conclude that any flat object 
would be up-borne by the wind in their neighbourhood. Binls 
that circle in calm or nearly calm air, have the wing tips turned 
up ; and if the performance takes place over a hot and dusty plai% 
the conditions are favourable for the formation of a sand column 
or *< whirley." The bird that soars in a gale has a deeper concavity 
of wing than the one that soars in a moderate breeze, from which 
I deduce that the velocity of rotation of the vortex must have 
some point of maximum efficiency. In other words, the small 
vortex cannot attain an infinite velocity, and the large vortex 
loses its efficiency when its speed of revolution is reduced below a 
certain point. Each form of soaring wing is evolved by the 
average velocity of wind in the latitudes frequented by the bird. 

A kite (O.) was made four feet wide and seven inches in a fore 
and aft direction. Two feet six inches of the middle was shaped 
to a soaring curve and the rest left flat. The inclination of the 
flat part to the chord of the soaring part was 5° and unadjustable. 
A rod with weighted ends and small tail was added. This kite 
soared several times but was crank athwartships. 

It was thought desirable to reject all horizontal surfaces as it 
appeared that their only use to a bird was to enable it to fly when 
there was no wind; and as these soaring kites had no motor but 
the soaring curve, the flat surfaces only increased the drift At 
this point the soaring machine develops into a form that has no 
counterpart in nature. The rod now having no horizontal surface 
at the ends ; could not, by the inertia of the lead weights alone,. 



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SOABINO MAOHINBS. 213 

long retain the propeller at the proper soaring angle. The 
machine must sooner or later tip either up or down. The rod 
with loaded ends and cells can but retard the end tipping long 
•enough to show that the propeller is soaring. For these reasons 
the weight was transferred to a point below the propeller, thus 
reverting to the method of maintaining the equilibrium of the 
balloon or parachute, and which is used by the experimenters with 
gliding machines. 

The situation and aspect of the tail or weather-cock came under 
•consideration, and it was seen that the nearer it was placed to the 
after etlge of the propeller the more instantaneously would gravity 
adjust the propeller to the proper angle. It was also recognized 
that whatever area is given to the weathercock, its longest dimen- 
sion should be vertical. The meteorologists will think this rank 
heresy. 

Lancaster points out that the weather-cock should be vertical 
only; and as far as I know every aeronautical construction ever 
made but his, has horizontal tail surface. A moment's considera- 
tion should have shown us that when we wish to preserve the 
angle of incidence by the action of gravity, as all gliding machines 
do, any horizontal tail must act as a check to the necessary rapid 
adjustment. 

Kites M. and N. were therefore remade as shown in Figs. 4, 5, 
6, 7, and assume a strong likeness to Lancaster's ** effigy" described 
in the Engineer 1882, and which I have endeavoured to reproduce 
in Fig. 8, from his dimensions given in Chanute's "Progress in 
Flying Machines," page 199. I can well believe that many of 
Lancaster'^ " hundreds of effigies " soared in spite of their flat 
cardboard surfaces, if the stick that extended the wings had some 
considerable depth and was fastened to the under side of the front 
edge ; which point is not made clear. 

It is also recorded in the same work at page 197, that his 
explanation in the American iVaturalist was so plainly erroneous 
that he was harshly criticised. 



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214 L. HABORAYE. 





Fig. 4. 





w 



Fig. 5. 



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SOARING MACHINES. 



215 




Fig. 9. 



I think that Le Bris in 1867, Mouillard (date unknown), and 
Lancaster in 1882 all made soaring machines that worked by 
means of the soaring vortex, although there is no record of their 
having known or shown that the air in contact with the rear side 
of the leading edge was at a higher pressure than that on the 
windward side. 

Phillips in 1884 and Montgomery (date unknown) showed that 
the air at the rear of the front edge of a similar curve to a soar- 
ing bird's wing was moving downwards, but both of them just 
stopped short of finding out the high pressure of tlie vortex. 

Lilienthal found that arched surfaces produced a lift slightly to 
windward of the zenith, my work published in 1893 being identical 
with this. 

If there are others who have made soaring machines and showed 
why they soared, I have omitted to mention them through ignor- 
ance, but in a matter concerning claim to priority of discovery 
the credit must go to the man who first publishes his knowledge, 
and none at all to the one who knew and withheld his information 
with a view to exploiting humanity. 



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216 



L. HABORAVE. 



I have noticed that soaring is easier in a wind velocity that is 
increasing than when it is decreasing, and attribute this to 
volumes of air of high density and velocity driving in under 
volumes of lower density and velocity : the contiguous surfaces 
will then cause eddies in the combined mass rotating in the same 
direction that the soaring vortex does : that is, the upper part of 
the eddy moving to windward and the lower part to leeward, one 
of these would be more readily caught and held by the propeller 
than when the contrary conditions prevail. 

Every detail of Kites M and N as remodelled are shown in 
Figs. 6, 7, and they now contain all the necessary parts of a 
practicable soaring machine to carry one man, and J expect to 
hear ere this is in print, that some of the gliding machines on the 
shore of Lake Michigan have been fitted with soaring curves, the 
trials of which are certain to be successful. 

The observations made on August 31, 1898 are as follows: — 
Kites M and N to the beach. Very steady east wind, twelve to 




Fig. 6. 



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80ABING MAOHIMES. 



217 




Sctnmf tiiti If. 



Pig. 7. 
fourteen miles. No sea to speak of or that might cause large 
pulsations in the wind. Poles placed close to the water. The 
waves washed round the two windward pegs. Sand almost level. 
Btdn beating the models down. 

Kite M hung by thirteen feet of cord *15" diameter = 23 sq. ins. 
of cord for head resistance. 



Kite weighs without ballast 1 &>. 12 oz. 
Ballast 3 S>. 1 oz. 



Total weight 4 Bbs. 13 oz. =4-81 ft)s. 

Projected area of propeller 2*58 square feet. 

Load = 1-86 fi)s. per square foot. 

When M was loaded with 3 lbs. 1 oz. of lead she hung persis- 
tently 7** to windward of a plumb line passing through the after 
end of the tail and the knot that attaches the hanging cord to the 
horizontal one at the top of the poles. Sometimes she would 
swing back till the hanging cord was from one to two degrees out 
of plumb. The plumb line and weight were sheltered as much as 
possible from the wind by my arm. 

When the kite is drawn about four feet back from the vertical 
jxwition and released, the banging cord slacks when the kite has 



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218 L. HABGBAYE. 

swung about two feet forward, and M soars with a deep bight in 
the cord to position B (Fig. 9), and then turns and rushes round 
like a conical pendulum, jerking savagely at the hanging cord in 
all directions. It then has to be caught as it is impossible to tell 
what is real soaring and what is impulse derived from elasticity 
of the poles and cords. 

Kite N was then attached to the horizontal cord by a piece of 
fishing line and loaded with 2 fi)s. of lead. 

The area of N's propeller is 243 square inches = 1 -69 square feet 
N's weight without lead 1 Sb. 0^ oz. 
Lead weights ... ... 2fi)s. Ooz. 



Sfts. 0ioz. = 3016ft»s. 



Weight per square foot = 1-78 lbs. 

Kite N starts from a plumb position and ascends slowly at aik 
angle of about 45" to windward, it did it five or six times in spite 
of the rain beating it down, and the drift of the hanging string 
and a light line tied to the weight to keep it from dashing about. ' 
Fig. 9 shows a side view of the experiments with M. 

It may be thought that it would be more conclusive if th& 
models were allowed perfect freedom. This matter has not escaped 
consideration, and the reasons for not working with free apparatus 
at present still hold good. By using the captive method, any 
amount of skill and patience expended in the manufacture of the 
soaring machine is amply repaid by its possession and the know- 
ledge that the experiment can be repeated under similar conditions. 
Whereas if the free method is used, a form that merely wanted a 
little adjustment to be perfect, would frequently be smashed or 
lost in the sea without anything remaining to show its defects or 
lead to rapid improvement. 

Of course if I lived in the centre of a sandy plain, with numerous 
assistants to make and repair constructions of my design, certain 
advantages would accrue, but at present I try to make the utmost 
use of the facilities at my disposal. 



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SOASINa UACHINS8. 



219 




BA 


VcrrtK. 


C 


Ract. . 


D. 


Cuiafc . 


£. 


J)ir/e/€, 


/'. 


Kite surface. 


//. 


Vcrtejc //est. 


J. 


Heck. 


/v. 


Dead Air. 


5. 


Discharge. 



Pig. 10. 
Fig. 10 shows the condition of 
the air in the neighbourhood of the 
soaring curve and the following 
statements may help us to arrive at 
the exact power developed : — 

1. The hook originates the vortex. 

2. The diameter of the vortex is determined by the radius of 
the race. 

3. The velocity of rotation is something less than the velocity 
of the wind or relative wind, and is maintained thereby. If the 
wind is thirteen miles and the curve advances into the wind at 
one mile, the relative wind is fourteen miles and the velocity of 
rotation about 2,600 revolutions per minute. 

4. The air drawn in from the rear of the vortex rises in pressure 
as the race contracts. 

5. The high pressure air in the race acts on the soaring machine 
by thrust on the vortex nest. 

6. The vortex cannot increase in diameter or burst because the 
vacuum at the centre is of the exact tenuity that balances the 
centrifugal force of the particles of air forming the vortex. 

7. If the head resistance of the soaring machine is decreased 
by a lull in the wind, the air in the race expands leaving the 
vortex slightly to leeward, that is practically increasing the radius 
of the vortex nest, the vortex then increases in diameter and 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



220 L. HABGBAVE. 

rotates slower, draws in less air past the guide and . restores the 
equilibrium. 

8. Some of the discharge from the race may pass into the dead 
air to windward of the hook and so over the top of the soaring 
curve, or if the dead air space is filled up solid with part of the 
material of the soaring curve the whole discharge is carried under 
the vortex and may or may not be drawn in again between the 
vortex and the guide. The discharge cannot mingle with the 
air of the vortex, as every circumferential particle of its air is held 
at a fixed distance from the centre by the tenuity of the vacuum. 

9. The lower front quadrant does not add to the head resistance 
as it is rotating to leeward nearly as fast as the relative wind. 

10. The after part of the soaring curve if it extends to leeward 
of the divide acts as an aero-curve. 

On October 20, 1898, the wind was about seventeen miles per 
hour, and it was found that Kite N could be loaded with lead to 
a total weight of 3*6 fi)8. on 1*69 square feet = 2*13 lbs, per square 
foot, and that when so loaded it would rise at an angle of 70** or 
80"* to windward until it was fifteen feet from the sand, it then 
got into wind of greater velocity and drifted to leeward. Here I 
am confronted with a difficulty that at present is unsurmountable. 
Either the soaring machine must be started from such a height 
that the weight can be approximately adjusted to the existing 
wind; or, the weight must automatically adjust the negative angle 
of the propeller as the wind increases. 

Kites O (Figs. 11, 12), P (Fig. 13), Q (Fig. 14) have a different 
system of adjustment and suspension of the weight. A piece of 
f * tube is secured rigidly to the propeller and nearly parallel to 
its chord. The connection between the tube and propeller in O 
and Q is a steel plate i J" x tV" and long enough to keep the weight 
at the required distance below the propeller. The weights are 
lead cylinders f diameter and about 1^" long. A sufficient 
number are strung on a i" wire. The adjustment of the position 
of the weight is effected by pushing the string of weights in or 



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SOABING MACHINES. 



221 



out of the tube. The head resistance is thus reduced to that of 
the edge of the plate plus the end area of the tube. 



Fig. 11. 



Pig. 12. 

Kite O has the weather cock attached to the after end of the 
tube, and is the kite previously mentioned, now remade. 

Kite P has the upper side quite flat, the hook is 3" abaft the 
sharp leading edge of the propeller. The space between the hook 
and the leading edge of the propeller is solid wood slightly concave, 
so that there can be no dead air to windward of the hook. 



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222 



L. HARGRAVE. 




Fig. 13. 



A fringe of silk is glued to the concave side of the propeller on 
O and'P so that it is possible to see that the "divide" is approxi- 
mately in the position shown in the diagram (Fig. 10). 







Fig. 14. 



Kite Q has two propellers superposed at a distance of 8''. The 
ballast tube is 3^'' below the under one. This kite shows that a 
double propeller soaring machine can be balanced in a fore and 
aft direction as well as, or better than, the single form. 



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NATIVE VOOABUULRY OF MISCELLANEOUS N.S.W. OBJECTS. 223 



NATIVE VOCABULARY op MISCELLANEOUS NEW 
SOUTH WALES OBJECTS. 

By Mr. Surybtor Larmbr. 

^Communicated by Professor T. P. Anderson Stuart, m.d., by 
permission of the Honourable the Secretary for Lands.) 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, November 2, 1898.'] 



The following letter is explanatory of the paper : — 

" 2l8t October, 1898. 
Sir, 

In compliance with the request contained in your letter of 
the 8th instant, I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of "Larmer's 
Native Vocabulary," and to inform you that there is no objection to its 
being printed in the Society's Proceedings, as proposed. 

"It may be of interest to learn that the late Mr. J. Larmer was 
employed by the Government of New South Wales in the capacity of 
Surveyor, and bore a very high reputation as an efficient and reliable 
officer, as evidenced by his long term of over thirty years service, ranging 
from 1829 to 1860, and the importance of the surveys entrusted to him, 
some of which are enumerated hereunder. Although, during the period 
mentioned, Mr. Larmer carried out many surveys in the Counties of 
Camberland and Northumberland, he was chiefly engaged in the vicinity 
of Sydney. 

*' Surveys of the Coast between Sydney and Botany, portion of George's 
River, Botany Bay and adjacent country, the Hawkesbury Biver, the 
Dividing Bange. Surveys around Parramatta, Lane Cove, Willoughby, 
-Gordon, Neutral Bay, etc." 

I have the honour to be Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
W. Houston, 

Under Secretary. 
Trofeesor T. P. Anderson Stuart, m.d.. 
University of Sydney." 



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224 



JAUES LABMBB. 



(1834) 



Larmbr's Natiyb Yocabulart. 
(Transmitted 24th November, 1853.) 

Briabcme Water and Tttggera Beach Lakes. 

Jebug.gall.orGoen. The Devil 



Nurroo. 


Black 


Burning. 


White 


Ber. ral. 


Hard 


Kin. yut. 


Soft 


Na.ba 


Tomahawk 


Bab. ba. loo. 


Tobacco pipe 


Gerri. barra. 


Musket 


Tudera 


Kill 


Kurrawan 


Smoke 


Win. di. gi. 


Messmate 


Bur. ri. bi. 


Husband 


Nugung. 


Wife 


Kooranung 


Honey 


Yurragun. 


Hungry 


Pott.00 


Water 


Kurrawa.yong.ah. Smooth sea 


Kurrawa.tulgan. Rough sea 


Ooorey. 


Blackfellow 


Indore. wea 


You tell 


GirrumbuUong 


Whitefellow 


Yandee. andee. 


Run 


Wannung. garri 




bee 


. Where are you 


Tugga. 


Eat it 


Narra. becha. 


Drink more 


Muttong. 


Courageous 



ChuUora. 


Flour 


Jungal. maboo 


Shout again 


Bung. hi. 


To-day 


Warra. 


Yesterday 


Indore. 


You 


Attore. 


Me 




Sugar 


Oud.yel. 


Tobacco 


Warrah. 


Start — go 


Ki. 


Come 


Guyong. 


Fire 


Ba-rdo. 


Water 


Bolbi. 


Wood 


Coo. je. la. 


Knife 


Mar. ra. 


Take it 


Attore weha 


I gave 


Attore. wine. bung. 


nine 


) I want it 


Cundoo. 


Bread 


Muggoo. ruggoo. 


Fish 


Ki. balee. 


Come along 


Burril. 


Money 


Wanderingabee. 


Where are you 


hoowine 


going 



Hunter^ 8 River, 
Urroong. ah. Run, make haste | You. ring. 



Go 



Hunter's Eiver, Brisbane Water and Newcastle. 



Wog. wool. 


One 


Gow. way. 


Throw it away 


Pul warra. 


Two 


Manna. 


Take it 


Ur. roo. 


Three 


Bonna. 


South 


Cow. woy. 


Four 


Sonda. 


North 


Warrangal 


Five 


Joog. a. ra. 


North-east wind 


Gum. mi. 


Spear 


Beambolong. 


Large 


Mutting 


Fish-spear 


Cullan. gulong. Long way off 


Gin. ga. 


Frightened 


Yerring. 


Whiskers 


Ki. kupa. 


Come along 


Wongul. 


Deaf 


Mir.ree. 


Dog 


Kuriwa 


The sea 


Murroon 


Good 


* ^^ 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NATIVE YOGABULART OF MI80BLLANE0US N.S.W. OBJECTS. 



225 



Nye 
Be. ung. 
Bung. hi. 
Hurreen. 
Oowan. 
Nurning. yan. 



Mother 

Father 

Brother 

Sister 

Uncle 

Old woman 



Cow. wow. 
Cow. way. 
Coo. ning 
Ur. roong. 
Thirty. 
Murroon 
Nullural. 
Boo. rurra. 
Minning 
Burre. ung. 
Mimmi 
Coolla. 
Yumree. 
Mundow. ay. 
Neu. gro. 



Yes 

No 

Small 

Large 

Dead 

Living 

Wet 

Dry 

Night 

Daylight 

To-morrow 

Mouth 

Hand 

Foot 

Nose 



Binna 
Pun. yal. 
Yun. a. ga. 
Worree. worrung. 
Murroong. 
Wejung 
Gow. lang. 
Tug. ge. ra. 
Mur. ro. ree. 
Nungara. 
Tulgan 
Nung. ha. 
Wib. bee. 
Eu. dra. 
Murree. 
Warral. 
Oobbo. 
Muttama 
Gurra. gurran. 
Indore. we. ah. 
Bunnung. ga. ree. 



Bateman^s Bay. 



Go.enorCobboba The Devil 
Bug. green. The sun 



Towara. 
Gin. gee. 
Mungaroo. 
Boo. mo. ah. 
Thundala. 
Kooroo. gama. 
Bunna. 
Tuckite 
Wad thung 
Boora. 
Kuna. ma. 
Burleen. 
Nad. jung 
Mud ja ree 
Tugga 
KuUa. 
Mangara. 
Tugga. e. lee. 
Nai. 
Fajoworoo. 



The moon 

Stars 

Clouds 

Thunder 

Lightning 

Wind 

Rain 

Frost 

Grass 

Hock 

Snow 

Salt-water 

Fresh-water 

Canoe 

Cold 

Warm 

Bark 

No 

Yes 

Hair 



Koondoo. 

Era. 

Ta (or) Tha. 

Wil. lee. 

Binjee 

Munna. 

Kooree. 

Thun. na. 

Mubbara 

Narree, 

Boo. roo. 

Birre. bine 

Mugga. 

Tag-ula. 

Murrera. 

Warang. 
Muln. a. 
Bejea 

Moolootha. 
Eurong. a. 



Ear 

The sun 

The moon 

Stupid fellow 

Good 

Bad 

The stars 

Cold 

Warm 

Sleep 

Heavy swell 

Smooth water 

Wind 

Clouds 

Wolobi 

Sit down 

Stop 

Take it 

Grog 

Yo(u) tell 

Boat 



Head 

Tooth 

Mouth 

Lip 

Belly 

Hand 

Ear 

Foot 

Eyes 

Leg 

Kangaroo 

Emu 

Snake 

Pheasant 

Whale 



Boy 
Girl 

Old man 
Old woman 
Young man 



O— Nov. 2. 1898. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



226 



JAMBS LABHEB. 



Booraja 


Morning 


Ullung. brotha 


Five 


Boo. goo. ya. 


Sun set 


Muno. al. 


Ten 


Tub. ba. ra. 


Night 


Mundaja 


Meat 


Mena. 


What 


Tung. ah. 


Bread 


W.abine 


Go 


Mirrega 


Dog 


Ya. woi. 


Come here 


Burral 


Wolloby 


Boo. ee. 


Make haste 


Murraba. 


Kangaroo 


Miare 


Sit down 


Koong. a. ra. 


Opossum 


Purdoo. 


Foot path 


Mar. rah. 


Fish 


Mundaba. 


Tomahawk 


Nadjara 


Canoe 


Tugon. 


Hut 


Yarramun 


Horse 


Currung. adeta 


Grog 


Bid. doo. 


High range 


Moorh 


Tobacco 


Innull-nurrowan. Flat Country 


Tundulla. 


Small 


Bud. da. 


Creek 


Birrega 


Large 


Duro. ya. 


River 


You. een. 


Blackfellow 


Cog. goo. 


Gully 


Jirrung. gala. 


Whitefellow 


Kurraloo. 


Monkey 


Win. gun. 


Black Gin 


Jag. goola. 


Pheasant 


Mitta. la. lee. 


One 


Bun-goo. 


Squirrell 


Mung. UDg. dara 


. Two 


Woom. barra 


Duck 


Toorung.gow.aree. Three 


Jumaga. 


Good 


Muna. linga. 


Four 


Cor.ne.na. 


Bad 




Ulladulla, 




Tug. gi 


No 


Koona. 


Duck 


Nawa. 


Yes 


Ka. an. dee. 


Tobacco 


Yi. 


Come 


Yan. yee. 


Fire 


Wob. a. ra. 


Go 


Boonbal. 


Wood 


Wonaga-wey. ou. 


What is your 


Warrang. 


Child 




name 


Niara 


Look there 


Tung. ah. 


Bread 


Tookun(or)Coonjee Hut 


Mondagai 


Meat 


Cumboo. gullock Bullock 


Mar. rah. 


Fish 


Eu. roka. 


The sun 


Burroo. 


Kangaroo 

Braid 


Judcho. 


The moon 


Yarra. bunye. 


Go away 


Murring 


Blackfellow 


Jou. woi. 


Come here 


Kooralala. 


Whitefellow 


Mun. numalee. 


Make haste 


Kooroo.bun. 


Rock 


Nulla (or) Bimba 


I Wood 


Bullon 


Black Gin 


Nadjung 


Fresh-water 


Nung. lee 


Beef 


Cadthung. 


Salt-water 


Tithijung 


Bread 


Woodthung 


Grass 


BuUinjan 


Grog 


Bondung. 


Rain 







Kooroo.gama. 


Wind 


Mittung 


One 


Koolumbroo. 


Cloud 


Bullalla 


Two 


JerruDg. 


Star 


Bullamatung 


Three 


Jad. jung 


Moon 


Nerang. 


Four 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HATIVB YOOABULABT OF MISOEIXANSOUB M.B.W. OBJIOTB. 



227 



Tea Teo and Narraburra, 



Mnrmmbang. 


Good 


Bo.gin 


Grass 


Ingil 


Bad 


Towara. 


Wind 


Oonbi 


One 


Me. ma. 


Star 


Bulla 


Two 


Dowin 


Tomahawk 


BalloDganbee 


Three 


Doo. loo. 


Spear 


Moddoo. 


Four 


Burgan. 


Boomerang 


Oog. goo. e 


Five 


Mulyan. 


Eagle Hawk 


Gib. bre. bang 
Wallang. 


Tati 






Rock 


Jin.nung 


Foot 


£a.rang. 


Rain 


Murra. 


Hand 


Ge. wong. 


Moon 


Mill 


Eye 


Kree 


Sun 


Nun. 


Mouth 


Pudthanbung. 


Duck 


Bullong. 


Head 


Moonda. 


Native Dog 


Boorabin 


Belly 


Earong. 


Emu 


Wood. da. 


Ear 


Ooraboll. 


Turkey 


Mo. roo. 


Nose 


Gaya. 


Fish 


Dal line 


Tougue 


Tambaree 


Water mole 


Moo. nil 


Old 


Mi. eeu 


Blackfellow 


Boo. bi. 


Young 


la. nur. 


Gin 


Dundong. 


Cold 


Boo. ri 


Boy 


Woo.gil 


Warm 


Wee. in 


Fire 








Upper Calcic 


% or Lachlan, 




O.giU 


Warm 


Dundoo. 


Swan 


Mambo. a. 


Hot 


Booralgal 


Native Com- 


Tog. ge. ra. 


Cold 




panic 


Calleen 


Fresh-water 


Toon, gool 


Bear 


Boog. woo. in 


Grass 


Wirreet 


Wind 


Ur. roong. 


Emu 


Weri 


No 


Wamboo. een 


Kangaroo 


Now. a. 


Yes 


Ka. ya. 


Fish 


Yantagee 


Go 


Coom. bull 


Turkey 


We.ja 


Stop 


Junction of Lachlan 


and Murrumbidgee, 


Maccara 


Rain 


Bick. nunna 


Old man 


Wilya 


Hot 


Brung. ine 


Emu 


Tillal 


Cold 


Boolooka. 


Kangaroo 


Ittha 


No 


Ka. en. 


Dog 


Yaa. 


Yes 


Toolombee. 


Duck 


Nicka 


Go 


Burri. muUy 


Good 


Go. woi 


Come 


Mum mothin thj 


r Bad 


Nan. na. 


Blackfellow 


Mow.a 


One 


Bimip 


Gin 


Eu. rowal 


Two 


Ballite 


Boy 


Thur. a. lu. a. 


Three 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



228 



JAMES LABMEB. 



Dinnewa 
Ourra. 



Four 
Five 



Menino. Make haste 

Nau. ga. mo. Stop 
Wine, got. by Moon 



Na. eng. hee. 
Too. rt-tee 
Willong. he 
Mug. ga. ree 
Tenangee 
Kel. lal. lee 



Sun 

Star 

Wind 

Rain 

Gold 

Warm 



Transmitted to the Surveyor General, November 24th, 1853. 

Jas. Larmbr. 

A small plain at the crossing of the road from Murringo to 
Bathurst on the Lachlan is called " Mulyan/' in consequence of 
Eagle Hawks frequenting it formerly. 

At all the stations, the names ending in "ong" — Jallong, 
Ouriong, lUalong, Bogolong, Bennelong, there are ponds and 
springs of permanent water. 

At Dumondril large weeds grew previous to its occupation by 
the whites from which the natives made spears. 

At Mr. Brough ton's Station on the Burrowa River, is a large 
and very deep water hole called "Binjenine.'' Binge in that 
neighbourhood is a word applied to the stomach' by the natives. 

Jas. L. 
Native ncmies of Points of Land in Fort Jackson (South Shore). 

Long Nose Point Yerroulbin 

Goat Island Milmil 

Jack the Millers Point Coodye 

Slaughter House Point Tdrrd 

Bennelong Point Jubughalee 

Mrs. Macquarie's Point Yourong. 

Elizabeth Point Jerrowan 

Mr. McLeay's Point Yarrandab 

Point Piper Willdrrd 
Rocky Point (South of Vaucluse) Burrowwo. 

Vaucluse Point M6ring 

Siddons and Watsons Kutti. 

Lang's Point Ku-bung hdrra 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NATIVE YOOABULABT OF MIS0BLLANB0U8 N.S.W. 0BJE0T8. 229 



Sow and Figs 


Birrur bir-^ 


Shark Island 


Boam bilP 


Clark Island 


Billong-ololah. 


Native names of Points of Land, North Shore of Port Jackson. 


Billy Blues Point 


Warung dr44. 


Hulk Bay 


Quib^re^ 


Milson's Point 


Kiarabilli 


Point East of Milsons 


Wudyong. 


McLarens Store 


Wurru-birri 


Careening Cove Head 


W6y6 W4y6 


Point West of Robertsons 


Kurrd U 


Robertson's Point 


WulworrA-jeung 


Mossmans Whaling Establishment | ^^^^^ bulla^onR. 


Sirius Cove 


1 ~ ~ 


Bradley's Head 


Burroggy 


Chowder Bay 


Kore^ 


West Head 


Gurugal. 


Middle Harbour 


Warrin gk 


North Harbour 


Kun'-nd 


Uncham's, North Harbour or 


j- Jilling 


Balgowlah Township 


Darling Harbour 


Tumbulong. 


The Spit, Middle Harbour 


Burra-bni 


Point East of Spit 


Parriwi 




J. Labmbb, 




September, 1832, 



1 Word incomplete, mutilated in binding. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



230 H. C. BUSBBLL. 



CURRENT PAPERS No. 3. 

By H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.o., f.r.s. 

[With Plates X., XI.] 



[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Walet, October 6, 25PS.] 



In two previous papers, I have recorded two hundred current papers 
and this paper adds another ohe hundred and sixty-seven to my 
list. The first list contained forty-three papers which had come 
to me direct. The second list contained one hundred and fift7-> 
seven, of which ninety-three had come to me direct, and sixty- 
four were given to me for publication. Since the publication of 
the second list, the papers which follow have come in, and many 
of them are of great interest. These three essays have been 
published at intervals of two years ; the first on October 9, 1894, 
the second on September 2, 1896, and this one on October 5, 1898. 
Daring the past two years north-west winds have been very pre- 
valent, and they are always a hindrance to the receipt of current 
papers, because they blow them away from the south ooast of 
Australia. 

Reference was made in No. 2 pamphlet to the rapid drift 16*8 
miles per day in the Indian Ocean of current paper No. 56. This 
time we have seven papers in that sea, and their average rate of 
drift is 12*2 miles per day, and one No. 258 made 16*9 miles per 
day ; probably with all these papers there was considerable delay 
in reporting the finding of them. 

It may be mentioned here, that in the Indian Ocean the rate 
of drift falls off rapidly going north to the equator ; and north of 
the equator the drift is towards the west. 

In the following charts each current paper track has in addition 
to its number the daily rate of drift which the paper made, and 
the experienoe gained with this lot of papers bears out that of 
No. 2 essay, viz., that the rate of drift increases as you go south 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OUBBBNT PAPBBS. 



231 



from Lat. 30** S., and No. 217 inLat. 47*16 S., made the greatest 
on record there, 12*4 miles per day. 

Taking the dates at which they were found as the order of 
arrangement, it appears that the papers received were not evenly 
distributed over the months, but generally there are more in the 
winter months when southerly winds prevail than in other times 
in the year; see the following table showing the number received 

Months in which Cubbbnt Papbbs wbbb tound. 
1896 



Jan. F»b. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


Jmie 


JjOj 


Aug. 


8«pt 


Oct. 


Not. 


IJ.O. 


—Total 26 

—Total 81 
— Tot>.l 63 


/ 


... 




... 


/ 


/ 






/ 

1 

1897 


/ 

1 


8 


7 
9 


11 

/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

6 


1 


... 


... 




1 


1 














I 


/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 


i 

/ 

/ 


/ 

/ 

! 




... 






/ 
/ 
/ 


6 7 


4 


6 


10 


7 


9 


9 


3 


8 










8 


1898 










/ 

] 


i 

/ 

! 




i 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 




! 


///// 


[ 


• •« 


4 6 


6 


2 


7 


5 8| 


4 


12 


2 


... 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



232 H. 0. BUSSBLL. 

each month. In October 1896 the number was small, it increased 
in November and December, fell off in January 1897, increased 
in February, fell off again to another minimum in March, when, 
only four were received. In May, June, July and August there 
were many current papers, ranging from seven to ten in the 
month. In September the number again fell away and only three 
were received, October brought an increase, and November nine 
papers, again they fell off with the north-west winds. May 1898 
brought ten papers, and in June, July, and August we had many- 
papers. In September they again fell off with north-west winds. 
The foregoing tabular statement shews this more in detail. 

It is of course impossible to see which way these papers cross 
the sea, and it has been pointed out before that the line given is 
the shortest way convenient for the draftsman, and the speed is 
calculated along that line. As the ocean current south of Lat. 30** 
sets nearly due east, and the average direction of the papers is 
east-north-east, there can, I think, be no question that they are 
carried northward by the prevalent winds, and if the winds came 
from north-west they are carried away from the coast instead of 
towards it. Hence the receipt of current papers decreases with 
north-west winds. 

I have been often asked, what percentage of the papers thrown 
over come back to me 1 At present it is impossible to give a 
definite answer to that question, for several reasons : first, although 
I know how many papers I send out, I do not get any return of 
the number set afloat ; and second, probably some vessels do not 
set any afloat. It is obvious therefore, that no definite answer 
can be given to the question. 

There is a good prospect for any paper reaching the coasts of 
Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, or New South 
Wales, and the North Island of New Zealand, coming back to 
me, but very little for one landing on the west of Tasmania, or the 
west coast of Middle Island of New Zealand, because the coasts are 
rugged and have few inhabitants, and many other places such as 



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OUBBBNT PAPBBS. 233 

the south coast of Asia generally, and west coast of Africa, from 
which the return of the papers which may he cast on the shore is 
improhahla I get papers from these places only occasionally. 
One of the dangers which beset current papers has become evident 
recently and that is, sometimes the finder of the bottle thinks 
it of more value than the paper inside of it. 

Although a definite answer to the question what percentage of 
the papers come back cannot be given, my impression is that 
five or six per cent, of those thrown over in Australian waters 
came back to me, and probably eight or ten per cent, go on shore 
outside Australia and are never heard of. 

Twenty-four per cent, of the papers that do come back have 
been thrown over when the vessels were only a few miles from the 
shore, and there is good reason to believe that they go on shore at 
once, because there is such a short interval between the throwing 
over and the finding. Since the land is generally much warmer 
than the water, it produces an indraught from the sea which is 
most effective close in shore and probably has much to do with 
taking the bottle-papers on shore. 

It is very unusual for a paper thrown over close in shore to be 
carried away to a distance, but I do get a few that have drifted 
into the open ocean to find a resting place on distant land. On 
October 31st, 1896, when the Ormuz was in Lat. 37' 17' S. and 
three miles off the coast, a current paper No. 229, was thrown 
over at 10 h. 15 m. a.m., and it was found on October 24th 1897, 
on the New Zealand coast, forty miles north of Hokianga, its 
daily drift having been 3*6 miles per day. On October 31st 1896 
at noon, that is one and three-quarter hours after No. 229, Capt. 
Tuke had a second current paper No. 230, thrown over, the ship 
being then in 36** 57' S. and near the coast ; this paper instead 
of following No. 229, to the New Zealand coast, made its way to 
Tuggerah beach, which is half way between Sydney and Newcastle, 
on May 27th 1898, having been five hundred and fifty-three days 
on the journey, if we assume that this paper made its way up the 



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234 H. C. BUBSBLL. 

coast, i.«., the shortest way to Tuggerah beach, its drift was only 
half a mile per day. Bat there is a more probable roate, add 
that one it no doubt followed, that is, like No. 229 it drifted 
away eastward on the journey, got into the current setting north' 
wards in the eastern parts of Tasman sea (indicated by dotted 
line on the chart) and travelled in this current until it reached 
the branch of the great equatorial currents which sets past the 
south end of New Caledonia on to the coast of Australia, and 
thence went down the coast to Tuggerah beach. The daily drift 
necessary to accomplish such a journey is only four miles per day, 
nearly the same rate, 3*6 miles per day, as No. 229 made on its 
direct course to New Zealand. 

It is of course impossible to prove which way these papers go 
by following them over the sea, but I may mention two other 
papers which seem to support the assumed track : No. 275 was 
thrown over by Capt. G. W. Atkinson, of the R.M.S. ValeUa, when 
passing Gabo, and it was found on the Belefo Island, north of 
New Caledonia, having on the shortest track travelled 1,510 
miles at the rate of 4*6 miles per day. No. 339 was thrown over 
in the latitude of Gabo Island but 7° east of it ; this one found 
its way to one of the New Hebrides at a rate of 1*6 miles per 
day; probably it laid on the beach for a long time before it was 
found. 

It is true that to reach their landing places they must have 
crossed the equatorial current setting westward, but they may 
have done so under the influence of southerly gales of which a 
number passed over Tasman sea during the period of the drifting 
of these papers. I do not press the matter, but with the well 
known southerly current on our coast it seems more probable 
that the current papers make their northing by the round about 
way than by facing a strong current. 

Another paper bearing on this question is very interesting : 
No. 345 was set afloat in Lat. 46^* 18' S. and Long. 127** 50' E., 
and it was found on the coast of New South Wales almost on the 



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CUBBBNT PAPBBB. 235 

boundary between that colony and Queensland. There is of 
coarse no evidence to show how it got there, for plotting on the 
chart it has been assumed that it f oUowed the usual easterly drift 
in Lat. 46** S. to the longitude of Tasmania, and then took a 
northerly course, the shortest to the landing place which could be 
done in the time, at the rate of 5*4 miles per day. If, however, 
it took the alternative course, which I think the more probable, 
it travelled up the eastern side of Tasman sea and came on shore 
by the equatorial current past New Caledonia. The distance on 
this course being a thousand miles longer, and the daily rate of 
7*5 miles per day ; but during its drift in Lat. 46** S. it may, like 
other papers of this list, have travelled from nine to twelve miles 
per day, and the drift in Tasman sea would accord with those 
made by other papers in Tasman Sea. 

It has been found impossible to plot the tracks of all the papers 
even with a much enlarged chart of Australia and New Zealand, 
because so many are found on the coast between Adelaide and 
Melbourne. 

May I ask those who are so steadily assisting in this work to 
send me a tabular statement of the number of papers thrown over 
each month or voyage. From these returns it would be possible 
to get a percentage of the papers that came back to me. 



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OBOUP DIVI8I0MS AND INITIATIOM CEBEMONIBS. 241 



The GROUP DIVISIONS and INITIATION CEREMONIES 
OP THB BARKUNJEE TRIBES. 

By R. H. Mathews, l.s. 
[With PUte XII.] 



[Bead before the Boyal Society of N, S. Wales, December 7, 1898.} 



Introductoby. 

An aggregate of aboriginal tribes, with a social organisation 
aod inaugural rites sufficiently distinct from their neighbours to 
justify their being ranked as a separate nation, occupy an exten- 
sive territory in the western portion of New South Wales. The 
most widely spread of these tribes is the Barkunjee, and I propose 
adopting this term for the entire nation, represented on the 
Accompanying map as No. 1. The large and powerful communi- 
ties of the Wiradjuri and Kamilaroi adjoin them on the east; 
their northern limits extend into Queensland, where they are met 
by the Kogai-Yuipera nation ; on the south they cross the Murray 
River into Victoria. Their neighbours on the south-west were 
the Narrinyeri and kindred tribes of the Lower Murray ; and 
their western boundary was situated a little way withm the South 
AuBtralian frontier. 

It is beyond the scope of a short article like the present to 
t^mpt to define the areas occupied by the people speaking the 
(liferent dialects prevalent in each of the numerous districts 
incladed in this nation, but a few of the most important and best 
known will be briefly referred to, and located in a general way. 
^m Mount Murchison down the Darling River to below Men- 
indie, the Barkunjee are the prevailing people; above them are the 
Unelgo and Koonoo. The Bahroonjee occupy the Lower Paroo, 
^th the Byjerri above them ; and on the Lower Darling are 
located the Marowera and Tungarlee tribes. From Wentworth 
up the Murray to beyond Swan Hill are the following small tribes: 

P-Dec. 7, 1886. 



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242 R. H. MATHEWS. 

Karingma, Tatatha, Yerri Yerri, Latyoo Latyoo, Watthi Watthi, 
and others. Down the Murray River, between Went worth and 
the South Australian boundary, are the Yakayok, Inteck, and 
Takadok, who speak the Merri language. About Gnalta and 
White Clifis are the Tongaranka blacks. The Mulyanappa tribe 
includes Lake Cobham, Milparinka, and adjacent country. At 
Lake Boolka and Tilcha are the Endawarra and Berluppa people 
respectively. The Kunatatchee and Karrengappa tribes are about 
Lake Bulloo, Tibooburra, and Delalah Downs. 

I shall first endeavour to explain the tribal organisation, 
showing the groups and totems into which the community is 
divided, with the laws of marriage and descent established in 
accordance therewith. This will be followed by an outline of the 
inaugural rites obtaining among them, which it is thought will be 
found to possess a peculiar interest, owing to the fact that modified 
forms of ceremonies are practised in difierent parts of the country 
occupied. In the northern end of the nation, for example, the 
rites are dispensed in a somewhat similar manner to those of the 
Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri people ; in the southern portion of the 
district the ceremonies resemble those in force among the Lower 
Murray tribes ; whilst in a wide tract of country along the 
western boundary we find the rite of circumcision is incorporated 
with the other forms, or is to some extent in substitution of them. 

Group Divisions. 
The Barkunjee nation, comprising all the tribes spread over the 
immense tract of country delineated as No. 1 on the annexed map, 
Are divided into two groups, distinguished by the names Muck- 
warra and Keelparra. If a man belong to the Muckwarra group, 
his wife must be a Keelparra, and vice versa^ the sons and daughters 
of the marriage taking the name of the group to which their 
mother belongs. Arranged in tabular form, these rules of marriage 
and descent appear as follows : 

Husband. Wife. OfifupriDg. 

Muckwarra Keelparra Keelparra 

Keelparra Muckwarra Muckwarra 



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OROUP DIVISIONS AND INITIATION CEREMONIES. 243 

From Swan Hill to Balranald and Euston, and even further 
down the Murray, the Wiradjuri divisions, Murri, Kubbi, Ippai 
and Kanibo, are quite well known by all the local tribes. And 
from the Murray River southerly to Lake Tyrrell the group names 
Erokitch and Kamatch of the Wimmera district are equally well 
understood. In a similar manner, it is found that the Barkunjee 
diiisioDs, Muckwarra and Keelparra, are known as far south as 
lake Hindmarsh and the Avoca River. This has been brought 
aboot by the intermarriage of the members of the different adjoin- 
ing tribes, who have generally been on friendly terms with each 
I other. The group Kamatch corresponds to Muckwarra, and 

\ Xrokitch to Keelparra. Kamatch is also the equivalent of the 
J pair of sections, Murri and Kubbi, of the Wiradjuri, and Krokitch 
is the equivalent of Ippai and Kumbo. 

\ Each of these two groups has a distinct selection of totems 

I attached to it, comprising animals, plants, and different inanimate 
objects. The following are some of the totems of the Muckwarra 
division : — Common magpie, honey, galah parrot, native dog, 
bandicoot, teal duck, pelican, bilbee, kangaroo, porcupine, native 
bee, bronze-wing pigeon, eaglehawk, lizard, carpet snake, wood 
dock, ibis, black duck. 

Among the totems of the Keelparra division may be enumerated 
the following: — Crow, plain turkey, emu, bony bream, swan, 
wallaby, padamelon, diver, opossum, shingleback, curlew, whip- 
snake, iguana, native companion, codfish, brown duck, mallee-hen. 

According to Mr. E. M. Curr,' Mr. Chas. G. N. Lockhart was 
the first to report the names of the divisions, Muckwarra and 
Keelparra, in an official communication to the Government, in 
1852 or 1853. Mr. Lockhart subsequently told me that about 
the same period he drew attention to the plucking out of the hair 
growing on the persons of the men. 

Initiation Ceremonies. 
The Kuranda, — This ceremony, the principal feature of which 
is plucking the hair from the bodies of the graduates, is practised 
1 The Australian Bace, ii., 165. 



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244 B. H. MATHBWS. 

in that portion of the Barkunje© territory lying approximately 
south of a line drawn across the Darling River below Menindie. 

The preliminaries connected with inviting the neighbouring 
tribes to assemble at an appointed meeting place is practically 
the same as that adopted by the natives in other districts, and 
need not therefore be further referred to at present. 

On the morning of the day settled upon for the principal cere- 
mony, all the people are astir at daylight. The boys to be operated 
upon are gathered out of the camp, and are painted all over with 
red ochre, — their heads being decorated with the down of birds. 
When all is ready, the guardians take charge of the novices, and 
a number of men armed with spears surround them in a compact 
circle, and all of them march away ; the men making a great 
noise, but the boys remaining silent, with their heads bowed 
towards ther breasts. 

The mothers of the boys, and other women present, make a 

pretence of resistance by throwing pieces of sticks over the heads 

of the men, but do not attempt to follow them. The men and 

graduates then proceed to a place previously agreed upon, perhaps 

some miles distant, where a camp is formed, and the novices placed 

lying down on »y layer of leaves upon the ground, and are covered 

over "with cloaks o^^blankets, — their guardians remaining with 

them. All the other nictMc^^ make their camp in close proximity. 

Between the quarters of the ♦hpys and the mens' camp, a space is 

cleared of all sticks and grass, >.vith a fire lit close by it. In the 

evening, after the novices have t' artaken of their allowance of 

food, they are placed sitting in a ro^. n^ar this cleared spot, and 

various pantomimic displays, representing the totems of the men 

and boys, as well as hunting and other Scenes, are performed by 

the men by the light of the camp fires, simin^j. j^ character to the 

proceedings described by me in treating of t.^ inaugural rites of 

other tribes. ^^ 

A week or more may be spent at these campin^]^^^ j^^ ^j^^ 
bush. During the afternoon of one or more of theV^yg q£ ^^ 



/ 



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QBOUP DIVISIONS AND INITIATION CBBEMONIES. 245 

period, the novitiates are carried a short distance from the camp, 
and placed lying down on bushes thickly strewn on the ground, 
and rugs spread over them. A man then sits down beside each 
novice, and commences pulling out the hairs of his beard, under 
his arms, and from the pttbes. When one man gets tired he is 
replaced by another. The men of the novitiate's own tribe do 
not take part in the operation ; this doty devolving upon the men 
of the different strange tribes present at the meeting ; and the 
pluckers are the potential brothers-in-law of the novice assigned 
to them. Some of the head men of each tribe sit on the ground 
near by, directing the proceedings. The hair plucked from each 
novice is carefully kept by itself, and is given into the charge of 
one of his relatives in the same manner that the extracted tooth 
is disposed of in other tribes. When the plucking of the hair has 
been completed, the novices are raised to their feet by their 
guardians and other men, amid the shouts of all present. Each 
graduate is then painted, and invested with the usual regalia of a 
man of the tribe. 

The novices are then cautioned against divulging the details of 
what they have passed through to any except the initiated. They 
are now taken to where the women are encamped, where they are 
met by their mothers and other female relatives, who light fires 
to the windward of them, enveloping them all in a dense smoke, 
caused by placing green grass, bushes or weeds on the burning 
wood. The graduates have to pass through the ordeal of the 
Kuranda at not less than two or three different meetings of the 
tribes for that purpose, before they can be admitted to full 
membership, and be permitted to take a wife. 

Circumcision, — This rite is observed in more than a third of 
the entire Barkunjee nation, its south-eastern limiiLs being repre- 
sented by the line from A to B on the map. Mr. E. J. Eyre^ 
gives an account of the ceremony of circumcision in the district 
of Adelaide, which took place when the novices were from twelve 

1 Joumalfl of Expeditions of Discovery in Central Australia, (London 
1845), Vol. II., pp. S8d - 335. 



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246 B. H. MATHEWS. 

to fourteen years of age. As his descriptioii agrees in all essentiid 
points with the details of the ceremony told to nie by old black- 
fellows of the Silverton, Broken Hill, and adjacent districts, I 
propose giving the following r^sumd from the work referred ta 
In those portions which I have thought it necessary to give fuller 
particulars, or where my informants differ from Mr. Eyre, I have 
added the information accordingly : — 

** Early in. the morning, the boys to be circumcised were seized, 
and a bandage fastened over the eyes of each ; they were then 
led away from the presence of the women and children, to a dis- 
tance of half-a-mile, where they were laid on the ground, >and 
covered with cloaks and skins, so that they could not see what 
was passing among the adults. After some preliminaries, the 
men formed themselves into a circle, and kept walking round in 
single file — the first man having a long stick or pole held down 
his back. Presently all the men retired a short distance, led by 
the man with the pole, where a halt was made, and they formed 
into line, and commenced stamping and groaning, beginning at 
one end of the line and gradually continuing to the other. When 
this noise had been passed backwards and forwards along the line 
of men several times, they approached where the boys were lying, 
the bandages being now taken off the eyes of the latter. The 
man who held the pole fastened it in the ground, and all the 
others coming up took hold of it, and fell down into a heap. The 
boys were then thrown upon the heap of men, and the operation 
[circumcision] was performed by men who were supposed to be 
inspired, or sorcerers. Immediately after the operation the boys 
were taken away from the presence of all females and kept on a 
vegetable diet^ until recovered from its efiects. The head was 
covered with grease and red ochre, with a bandage passed over it, 
and was ornamented with tufts of feathers. The yudna, or pubic 
covering, was worn by the novitiates for some months after the 
operation." 

1 Animal food is also given to the novices in the district referred to in 
this article. 



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GROUP DIVISIONS AND INITIATION CEBSMONIES. 247 

As soon as the woands caused by the circumcision are healed, 
the novices are conducted to the vicinity of the women's camp, 
and are exhibited to their female relatives with certain formalities 
which I need not now occupy the space to detail. 

Mr. G. F. Angas, after referring to the blacks at Moorundie 
and Overland Corner, states that in the Wirramaya tribe, occu- 
pying the scrub country to the north-west of that part of the 
Murray River, the rite of circumcision was in force. He says a 
bollroarer was sounded, and no women were allowed to be present. 
The novice was laid on his back, and then, with a sharp flint an 
old man cut off the foreskin, and placed it on the third finger of 
the boy's left hand. He was then allowed to get up, and, in 
company with a man selected for the purpose, went away to the 
hills for a time.^ Mr. £. M. Ourr says that in Yorke's Peninsula, 
South Australia, the boys were circumcised, and the foreskin was 
swallowed by the youth's father.* 

The Tumba, — In that portion of the Barkunjee nation situated 
north of the tribes adopting the Kuranda ceremony, and east of 
those amongst whom circumcision is in force, the inaugural rite 
is called Tumba, which in its main features resembles the Bora 
of the Kamilaroi tribes. Messengers are sent out, and the muster- 
ing of the neighbouring tribes is conducted in the usual manner ; 
and during this time the people in whose country the assemblage 
takes place are occupied in the preparation of the meeting place. 
Early in the morning which has been settled upon for taking 
charge of the novices, they are painted by the men from distant 
tribes, after which their mothers and the remainder of the women 
are covered over with green bushes, grass and rugs. The procedure 
in taking away the novices is substantially the same as that 
adopted on similar occasions by the Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri 
communities, which I have elsewhere described.^ 

1 Savage Life in Australia and New Zealand, i , 99. 

S Australian Race, ii., 144. 

» Joum. Anthrop. lust., xxv., 295 - 889. 



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248 B. H. MATHBW8. 

The boys are conducted several miles into the bush, and on 
arriving at the place which has been agreed upon as the camping 
ground, a bough yard is made for them. At night, by the light 
of the camp fires the men go through various pantomimic perform- 
ances, imitating the animals which are the totems of those present 
and certain obscene gesticulations which are usually practised on 
these occasions. Different burlesques take place every evening, 
and also sometimes during the day. 

The period spent by the boys in the bush is about two or three 
weeks, being regulated by the weather and other considerations. 
An important ordeal through which the novices must pass is the 
extraction of an upper incisor tooth. The boy to be operated 
upon sits on his guardian's knee held by two men. The tooth- 
extractor shoves the gum back with his finger nail, and the tooth 
is punched out with a wooden chisel. The tooth is carefully 
rolled up in opossum fur or bird's down, and is preserved by the 
boy's relatives. 

One day the men strip pieces of bark resembling a cricket bat 
in size and shape, and sit in a row beating the ground and singing. 
The novices are brought and placed standing in front of these men 
and are told to observe them carefully. Two or more wizards or 
doctors now appear behind the men who are beating the ground, 
each with a coolamin containing human blood. They advance 
and the men and boys lap up the blood by means of small pieces 
of soft bark dipped into it, which they suck. ^ 

Another day two men stand out in an open space swinging each 
a buUroarer, at the end of a string eight or ten feet in length. 
When the graduates have paid particular attention for some 
minutes, the men come up and rub the instruments on the penis 
of each boy present, as well as on his navel, under his arms, on 
his chest, and other parts of the body. Armed warriors now rush 
up to each of the novices in a threatening attitude, and caution 
them against revealing what they have been taught during their 
sojourn in the bush. 



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GROUP DIVISI0N8 AND IMITIATION CEREMO/OBS. 249 

When the programme of performances in the bush has been 
disposed of, all their effects are gathered up, and a start made 
towards the locality where it is known the women have removed 
their camp to. On the way thither the men who have been per- 
forming, and instructing the novices, wash their bodies in a 
-waterhole. Men and boys then have their hair singed shorty 
including that growing under the arms, on the pubeSy and other 
parts. 

A discussion is held among the relatives of each boy, including 
his mother's brothers, the brothers of his potential wives, and his 
father's people, as well as the leading men of the tribe, and a new 
name is assigned to each novitiate, by which he will in future be 
known among the initiated men. All the novices are again 
ODJoined to observe strict secrecy respecting all these performances 
when speaking to the women or uninitiated, white men and women 
being included in the prohibition. 

The neophytes are freshly painted, and dressed in the simple 
outfit of an Australian native before the white man made his 
appearance among them. All hands then proceed towards the 
camp of the women, near to which the novices, guardians, and the 
other men who have been with them in the bush, are subjected to 
the fire and smoke ordeal described by me in other publications. 

General Eemarks. — I have very briefly outlined the different 
ceremonies, for the purpose of keeping this article within reason- 
able limits. As there are portions of the rites common to every 
part of the Barkunjee territory, I propose dealing with a few of 
them under a separate head, in order to avoid repetition. 

In most cases the graduates are not more than twelve or fifteen 
years old when first taken in charge by their sponsors, and there- 
fore the course of instruction in the bush will extend over some 
years, before the youths are finally admitted to the full member- 
ship of tribesmen. During this period they are taught certain 
■ongs and dances which are never sung or enacted in the presence 
of women or the uninitiated. What may be termed a cabalistic 



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250 ^ B. H. MATHEWB. 

language is also inculcated ; every animal and plant — in short, 
every object in the universe — has a mystic name which is known 
to the initiated only. 

During the ceremonies, the tribe in whose territory the meeting 
is held, are required to give up one o! their men to be killed and 
eaten by the visitors. He is slain by the men of the tribe in 
whose country the preceding inaugural assembly took place, and 
his death is in retaliation for the victim they themselves had to 
provide on that occasion. 

Before the visitors disperse to their own districts, there is 
generally a real or feigned quarrel between the men of the different 
tribes present, after which there is promiscuous sexual intercourse 
and interchange of wives, by way of reconciliation. 



APPENDIX. 

Divisions op Some North Queensland Tribes. 
In a former paper^ I enumerated the four divisions of the 
Mycoolon, Myappe and Kalkadoon tribes, together with those of 
the Koogobathy, reported by Mr. E. Palmer in 1883. He says 
*'The class names of the Mycoolon represent those of several 
adjoining and allied tribes. ''' 

I am now able to report the organisation of a community of 
tribes in North Queensland spread over the country from the 
Upper Mitchell River southerly to near Gilberton, a distance of 
about two hundred miles by a maximum width of more than one 
hundred miles. Their territory commences on the Mitchell River 
above Gamboola Station, and extends thence to the sources of 
that stream, including the Hodgkinson, Walsh, and Tate Rivers; 
and the upper portions of the Lynd, Einasleigh, Etheridge, Copper- 
field and Gilbert Rivers — all flowing towards the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria. On the eastern watershed, they include the head-waters 
of the Barron, Herbert and Burdekin Rivers. 



1 Journ. Eoy. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxii., 82, 88. 
2 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., London, xiu., 802. 



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aROUP DIVISIONS AND INITIATION OEBESfONIES. 251 

The names of the most important of the tribes in this area are 
the Warkeeman, Booburam, Shanganburra, Kookoowarra, Mul- 
aritchee, Chungki, and Koochnlburra. As the first mentioned is 
much the most numerous, and holds the largest territory, I propose 
giving their name to the community. The tribes of the Warkee- 
man community are organised into two intermarrying groups, 
each of which is divided into two sections, with rules of marriage 
and descent as exemplified in the following table : — 

Group. Husband. Wife. Children. 

A ( Koopungie Cheekungie Karpungie 

( Kellungie Karpungie Cheekungie 

g / Cheekungie Koopungie Kellungie 

( Karpungie Kellungie Koopungie 

The members of the Koopungie and Kellungie sections form a 
group, which may be called A ; and the Cheekungie and Kar- 
pungie sections constitute Group B. There is. a collocation of 
totems attached to each group, and the children take the name of 
the complementary section in the division to which their mother 
belongs. For the particulars of the organisation of the Warkee- 
man community I am indebted to the painstaking enquiries of my 
friend Mr. Dickson. 

In Northern Queensland, between the Nicholson River and the 
north-west comer of that colony, extending southerly a consider- 
able distance from the Gulf of Carpentaria, are some tribes 
possessing a different organization to any of those hitherto reported 
in other parts of Queensland. They are divided into eight sections 
— four of which form a group, which T have called A, and the 
other four Group B. The names of these sections, with the rules 
of intermarriage, and the sections to which the offspring belong, 
are exemplified in the subjoined table : — 

Hosband. Wife. Sons. Daughters. 

. /Bolangee Nungallermer BuUerringee Nulyarramer 

^J Kommerangee Nulyarramer Burralangee Nurralammer 

g NarrabeJangee Nurralammer Bongaringee Nongarimroer 

^ vYakamurry Nongarimmer KunuUer Nungallermer 



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252 R. H. MATHEWS. 



'Kunuller Nolangmar Takamurry JommeTunyee 

_J Bongaringee JummeyuDyee Narrabalangee Neonammer 

o I Burralangee Neonammer Kommerangee Nemurramer 

^ iBullerringee Nemurramer Bolangee Nolangmar 



. /J 



It is seen by this table that the sons of one group marry the 
daughters of the other in a certain fixed rotation ; and that a 
brother's son's children intermarry with a sister's son's children. 
Groups A and B, and the sections of which they are composed, 
are respectively equivalent to the A and B groups tabulated by 
me on page 75 of this volume.^ The particulars from which the 
above table is prepared were supplied to me by Mr. Shadforth. 

My son, who has travelled over the greater part of North 
Queensland, informs me that among the blacks on the Johnstone 
River, which flows into the ocean between Cairns and Cardwell, 
there are two divisions known as Koorabunna and Kooragula.' The 
former is equivalent to Wootaroo, and the latter to Yungaroo of 
the Kogai-Yuipera nation. 

The following are some of the totems of the Koorabunna people: 
Fish-hawk, scrub turkey, lizard, oyster, bloodwood, mangrove, tea- 
tree, sun, daylight, white cockatoo, salt-water perch, large turtle, 
stingaree, canoe, boomerang, fish-hooks and lines, white paint, 
fresh water. 

Among the totems of the Kooragula divbion are the under- 
mentioned animals, plants, and personal efiects : — Native com- 
panion, saltwater, alligator, wattle tree, ironbark, tomahawk, dilly 
bag, spear, wallaby, black snake, crow, jackass, shark, red paint, 
spear, night. 

Between the people just referred to and Halifax Bay, and on 
Hinchinbrook and the Palm Isles, are some tribes bearing the fonr 
section names reported by Mr. E. M. Ourr in 1886, namely, 

1 JourD. Roy. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxii., 75, 76. 

2 My informant states that in some parts of the district he observed ft 
third division, named Koorameenya, but he had not time to complete his 
investigations. 



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GROUP DIVISIONS AND INITIATION CEREMONIES. 253 

Koorkeela, Koogooroo, Woongo and Widjeroo, with the rules of 
marriage and descent given by him in his valuable work.^ 

From Broad Sound to Port Curtis, and reaching inland beyond 
the junction of the Fitzroy and Dawson Rivers are several small 
tribes, the best known of which is the Kooinmerburra. Their 
primary divisions are Wootaroo and Yungaroo — the first being 
subdivided into Moonal and Karilburra, and the latter into Kooi- 
alla and Koorpal. For these particulars I am personally indebted 
to Mr. W. H. Flowers, of Med way Station, Bogantungan. 

In an article contributed in 1894 to the Queensland Branch of 
the Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia,' I inadvertently 
omitted to mention that Mr. £. M. Curr was the first to report 
the divisions of the Wokelburra tribe on the Belyando River. I 
have, however, since amply recognised his valuable researches 
over a large extent of country in that part of Queensland.' 

If the tribal organisations given in this Appendix be read in 
connection with an article contributed by me to the American 
Philosophical Society,* it will be found that I have described the 
divisional systems of the principal native communities of Queens, 
land, extending from the boundary of New South Wales to the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, and thence to the Kennedy River, flowing 
into Princess Charlotte Bay, on the eastern coast. This immense 
area comprises the whole of the colony of Queensland, with the 
exception of the northern portion of Cape York Peninsula. 

Explanation op Plate. 
No. 1 on the map represents the Barkunjee nation, which is 
situated chiefly in New South Wales, but extends a little way 
within the frontiers of each of the three adjoining colonies, — 
Victoria, South Australia, and Queensland. In this community 
I have included all those tribes who possess the group divisions 
known as Muck warra and Keelparra. It has been shown in earlier 

I Aostralian Bace, ii., 418 aod 425. Mr. Curr g^ves some Tariations in 
the names of the four sections mentioned, among adjacent tribes. 

t Proc. Eoy. €^eog. Soc. Aust. (Q.) x., 80. 

» Journ. Eoy. Soc., N. S. Wales, xxxii., 80. 

* " Divisions of Queensland Aborigines." — Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 
(Philadelphia, U.S.A.) Vol. xxxvii.. No. 168, with map of Queensland. 



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254 B. H. MATHEWS, 

pages of this article that the oommunitiee oomposing this nation 
practised three types of initiation. This was due to their incorpor- 
ating portions of the ritual of their neighhonrs into their own, 
which is particularly noticeable among the small tribes on the 
Murray and Lower Darling, who have adopted the hair plucking 
ceremony from the adjoining Narrinyeri nation. Among the 
tribes about Swan Hill, Moulamein, Balranald, and the junction 
of the Murray and Murrumbidgee Bivers, during an assemblage 
for initiatory purposes, there was always a large proportion of the 
Wiradjuri people present, in consequence of which there was an 
overlapping or intermingling of the customs of both communities 
in that district. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are the Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri nations respec- 
tively, who adjoin the eastern boundary of the Barkunjee through- 
out its whole length. 

Ko. 4 shows the north-west corner of the Bangarang community 
who occupied Central Victoria from the Murray River to Port 
Phillip. The Wiradjuri nation, No. 3, adjoins them on the north, 
along the valley of the Murray, but evidences of the Wiradjuri 
Burbung are observable for as much as fifty miles within the 
Victorian frontier. 

No. 5 represents the northern extremity of what I have desig- 
nated the Booandik nation, after the tribe of that name at Mount 
Gambler, whose organisation is identical. The group divisions 
throughout this community are known as Krokitch and Kamatch, 
the feminine forms of the names being Krokitchgor and Kamatch- 
gor. If a man belong to the Krokitch group, his wife must be 
taken from among the Kamatch people, and vice versa, the children 
taking invariably the appellation of the group to which their 
mother belongs. 

The natives of the Murray Eiver, from Euston to above Swan 
Hill used to meet and mingle with those inhabiting the Avoca, 
Avon, and Wimmera Rivers.^ I have found that in consequence 
of this intercourse of the tribes, the ceremonies of initiation com- 



1 Aborigines of Victoria, i., 88. 



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OBOUP DIVISIONS AND INITIATION CEBBMONIES. 255 

TOon on the Murray extend as far south as Lake Hindmarsh. 
Traces of the Wiradjuri Burbung are also noticeable to the west 
of the Lodden. 

No. 6. I have denominated the aggregate of tribes who occupied 
the tract of country here represented, the Narrinyeri nation, 
following the name of the tribe who were formerly located about 
Lake Alexandrina, and the adjacent district. A prominent 
feature of their inaugural ceremonies is the plucking out of the 
hair from different portions of the body of the graduate, " the 
secret parts suffering the mosf ^ Their north-western boundary 
from B to C is also the eastern limit of the custom of circumcision. 
The northern continuation of this line from B to A, passing 
through the comer of New South Wales, is also delineated upon 
the map. The position of this line from A northerly to the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, being within Queensland territory all the way, is 
given by me elsewhere. 

The divisional systems and inaugural rites of the natives 
inhabiting the country represented by Nos. 4, 5 and 6 on the map, 
are dealt with in a comprehensive article on " The Victorian 
Aborigines," contributed by me to the Anthropological Society of 
Washington, U.S.A., last year. 

No. 7 is the country of the tribes having the group names 
Matturri and Karrara, who reach as far north as Cooper's Creek, 
adjoining the Barkunjee tribes all the way. 

No. 8 represents the Kogai-Yuipera nation, who adjoin the 
Barkunjee and Kamilaroi on the north. They are segregated into 
two primary intermarrying groups, Yoonga and Ootheroo ; the 
former is subdivided into two sections, called Bunburri and Koor- 
gilla, and the latter into two, called Woongo and Koobaroo. To 
the east of these people is the Dippil nation, extending from the 
sea coast to include the valley of the Dawson and Upper Conda- 
mine Rivers. They are divided into Deeajee and Karpeun, with 
the sub-divisions Derwine and Bunda, and Banjoora and Barrang 
respectively. 

1 Folklore^ Manners, etc. of S. A. Aborigines, (Adelaide 1879), p. 27. 



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256 A. UYSBSIDOB. 



Thb blue pigment in CORAL (HELIOPORA CCERULEA) 
AND OTHER ANIMAL ORGANISMS. 

By A. LlVBRSIDGB, M.A., LL.D., F.R.8., 

Professor of Chemistry in the University of Sydney. 

[Read before ihe Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, December 7, 1898.1 



Thb following notes contain the results of some preliminary 
experiments upon the blue pigment present in the blue coral 
known as ffeliopora ccerulea. Some fragments of the coral were 
supplied to me by Professor David, which had been collected by 
him at Funafuti, when conducting the Coral Reef Exploration 
Expedition in 1897. He states that the ffeliopora cosrtdea is 
there very abundant in places. 

The occurrence of the blue colouring matter in this coral is 
drawn attention to by the late H. N. Moseley, F.R.S., in the 
Challenger Reports,^ who points out that it can be partly separated 
by dissolving away the calcareous matter by means of hydrochloric 
acid, and dissolving the pigment in alcohol — he however did not 
obtain it in a pure form nor did he ascertain its chemical compo- 
sition ; but he gives a full account, illustrated by drawings, of 
the way in which it occurs in the coral. He states : — <^ The blue 
tint is seen in sections of the corallum of ffeliopora ccerulea to be 
diffused within the hard tissue. The colour is faint or almost 
absent in the freshly-growing tips of the corallum, and pale in 
the most recently formed superficial structures generally ; it is 
darkest in the layer lying immediately beneath these, that is to 
say, in the most recently matured tissue. 

"In transverse sections it is seen to be darkest at the surfaces 
of the walls of the tubes and calicles. In vertical section of the 



1 Zoology, Vol. II., p. 109 ; see also H. N. Moseley, " On the Colouring 
Matters of Various Animals, and Especially of Deep Sea Forms Dredged 
by H.M.S. Challenger"— QuATt, Joum. of Micro. Soc, New Ser., Jan. 1877, 
Vol. XII., p. 2. 



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BLUB FIGMENT IN COBAL AND OTHER ANIMAL OBOANISMS. 257 

oorallam the continuation of the dark blae line marking the 
margin of the wall of each tube enables the line of the tube to be 
traced past the superadded tabula, and marks the boundary 
between the two structures. Very exceptionally, intensely blue 
streaks are developed more internally on either side of the central 
canal. The tabulse are almost colourless." 

Separation of the Pigment. 

On shaking the finely powdered coral with water, the blue 
pigment does not float, as might have been anticipated, but rather 
tends to collect at the bottom of the vessel; not sufiiciently how- 
ever to be used as a means of separating and collecting it. 

As stated by Moseley the readiest way to separate the pigment 
from the mineral matter of the coral is to dissolve the coral in 
hydrochloric acid, when the blue colouring matter mixed with 
animal matter is left in suspension, it can then be Altered oflT 
from the calcium chloride solution, which passes through the Alter 
in a colourless condition. 

Some of the pieces of coral were old and waterworn, "dead" 
coral : — a specimen of this dissolved in pure hydrochloric acid left 
a small quantity of insoluble residue amounting to about '2%; 
under the microscope this was seen to consist of rock debris, 
probably pumice, and a few crystals and groups of crystals of 
magnetite. 

One specimen of such " dead " coral yielded '267% of the crude 
pigment after drying in a water oven. A specimen of the unrolled 
or "live" coral yielded I '1 23% of the dried pigment, the greater 
yield from the " live " coral appears to be due to the larger 
amount of animal matter mixed with the pigment. 

The crude pigment as set free from the coral by hydrochloric 
acid is black in colour, and on drying splits up into small pieces 
with very lustrous conchoidal surfaces, and it is exceedingly 
tender and so brittle that on crushing much of it flies out of the : 
mortar. 

Q-Dec7,189e. 



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258 A. LIVBBSIDaB. 

On ignition the pigment gives off nitrogenous odours, intumesoes 
greatly and the charred residue acquires deep blue, green, and 
other iridescent colours, similar to those sometimes seen on coke 
and specimens of haematite : this sheen did not readily bum o(L 
No crystalline structure could be detected in the intumesced char — 
(indigo, if present, would probably have been sublimed and 
deposited in the cavities, it was accordingly specially searched for) 
finally a bulky ferruginous-looking ash was left. The ash was 
found to contain much phosphoric acid, together with iron, lime, 
and magnesia. 

Moseley states that the blue colouring matter left by hydro- 
chloric acid can be at once dissolved off the filter by alcohol ; this 
may be the case with the perfectly fresh coral, but I found that 
the colour from the old dead coral is only slightly soluble, and 
even absolute alcohol only dissolves it in part. On evaporation, 
this extract leaves a dark olive-green residue ; (indigo leaves a 
blue residue) which intumesces on ignition and leaves a little ash. 

To ascertain its solubility '648 gramme of the blue residue left 
by hydrochloric acid was extracted for some hours with 75 c.c. of 
absolute alcohol in a percolator over a water bath ; the dark 
green alcoholic extract when evaporated to dryness in a platinum 
dish over a water-bath, left a dull dark green coloured and blistered 
residue weighing *115 gramme, equal to 17*8% on the crude 
pigment, and to * 18% on the original coral. 

On warming, it melts and becomes very fluid, but solidifies on 
cooling; at higher temperatures it gives off much fume and a 
disagreeable nitrogenous odour like burnt fish and finally 
inflames ; the carbon burns off very quickly and some ash is left, 
viz., the above '115 gramme of pigment left *0061 gramme or 
5*33%. This ash dissolved in hydrochloric acid to a pale yellow 
oolour and was found to contain iron, phosphoric oxide, lime and 
magnesia; the quantity (*0061 gramme) was insufficient for a 
complete examination. 

Next) *648 gramme of the blue colouring matter left by hydro- 
chloric acid was placed in a percolator with 60 ac. glacial acetic 



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BLUB FIGMENT IN OOBAL AND OTHBB ANIMAL ORGANISMS. 259 

acid and digested on a water bath for five or six hours. During 
extraction in the percolator the original blue colour gradually 
changed to a dark green. 

The extract was evaporated to dryness in a platinum dish over 
a water bath, the dried extract weighed -171 gramme or 26*45% 
on the above, or '268% on the original coral, hence the acetic acid 
extracts a larger proportion of matter than alcohol, but the 
amount of pigment dissolved may not be proportionately greater; 
the residue was dark green in colour, with a resinous appearance, 
closely adherent to the dish, without blisters, and somewhat 
deliquescent. 

On heating, the residue melted and assumed purple, blue and 
other iridescent tints ; it also gave off a disagreeable nitrogenous 
odour like burnt fish, similar to that from the crude pigment set 
free by hydrochloric acid and by the alcoholic extract ; dense 
white inflammable fumes were also emitted. 

The fixed residue or ash was of a brownish colour and weighed 
0123 gramme equal to 1*90%. It was found to consist principally 
of iron, phosphoric oxide, lime and magnesia. Hence the acetic 
acid extracts more organic matter and less ash or mineral matter. 

No traces of crystal form could be detected even under the 
microscope in any of the residues left by the acetic acid solutions. 

On evaporating the glacial acetic acid solution of the pigment 
to dryness over a water bath and taking up with hot glacial acetic 
acid a second time, the solution was of a light brown colour 
instead of blue. The ash from this brown extract also contained 
iron and phosphoric acid. 

When solutions of the coral blue and of indigo in acetic acid 
are compared side by side the former is seen to be brighter and to 
have a green shade as compared with the indigo blue. The colour 
is between that of indigo and copper sulphate solution. 

When a luminous flame is viewed through it the flame appears 
of a bluish-green, but when viewed through sulphindigotic acid 
or indigo in acetic acid, the flame is more or less reddish-purple. 



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260 A. LIVSBSIDOB. 

The spectrum of the coral blae in glacial acetic, formic and 
lactic acids and alcohol is mainly blue and green, a little of the 
extreme red is visible and some of the yellow, bat the bands are 
by no means well defined. 

Solutions in glacial acetic acid when diluted gradually fade 
and a voluminous whitish flocculent precipitate of organic matter 
is formed, which on ignition burns with a nitrogenous odour. 

The undiluted solutions in glacial acetic, in strong formic and 
propionic acids faded very slowly, and did not become turbid 
even after standing some six months. The strong solutions of 
the pigment when exposed to the light do not fade so quickly as 
those of sulphindigotic acid and of indigo in glacial acetic acid. 
To test this, solutions of equal depth of colour were made and 
left exposed to diffused daylight; the indigo solutions faded and 
lost the blue tint in a day or two, and after a week or two became 
practically colourless, while the coral blue solution had faded 
but slightly. A faded solution of indigo in glacial acetic acid is 
quite red (salmon colour) by gas-light. 

The alcoholic solution fades more quickly than the acetic and 
formic acid solutions, and especially when diluted ; a flocculent 
precipitate is gradually formed and the solution turns brown; 
finally after two or three weeks it becomes colourless. 

The best solvents for the pigment were found to be formic acid, 
hot glacial acetic and lactic acids and absolute alcohol. 

The acetic acid solution does not dye wool, silk or cotton, 
neither is it fixed by alum or ammonia. 

It yields a very pale bluish-lake with alum and ammonia, but 
the colour fades in a few days. It also yields precipitates with 
baryta and lime waters, also with lead acetate; these precipitates 
require further examination. 

Action of Rbagbnts. 
1. Alcohols and their Derivatives, — The crude pigment set free 
by hydrochloric acid is insoluble in methyl alcohol, also in ordinary 
alcohol, although soluble in absolute alcohol ; it is insoluble in cold 



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BLUE PiaifBNT IN OORAL AMD OTHBB AlOMAL 0B6ANI8MS. 261 

amyl alcohol, but on boiling it yields a dull greenish coloured 
solution. It is also insoluble in amyl acetate. It is insoluble in 
ether, ethyl acetate, and chloroform; also in acetic anhydride 
although glacial acetic acid is one of its best solvents. 

When boiled with dichloraoetio acid it yields a pale green 
solution, with monobromacetic acid it yields a pale grass-green 
solution changing to a greenish-brown on boiling. 

It is insoluble in oil of winter-green (methyl salicylate). 

It is but slightly soluble in aldehyde, in paraldehyde and in 
acetone. It is insoluble in glycol; with glycerol it gives a pale 
greenish solution which quickly fades; it also imparts a pale green 
colour to hot dichlorhydrin. 

2. Hydrocarbons. — It is not dissolved by kerosene, naphtha, 
nor by the pure paraffins, neither is it soluble in such olefines as 
caprylene and octylene, the latter however acquires a slight green 
tint when heated with the pigment. 

With eucalyptus oil it yields a pale green solution and leaves a 
greyish gelatinous-looking residue of proteid matter, many times 
the volume of the original pigment, with black specks of the 
colouring matter embedded in it. 

It does not yield a coloured solution with turpentine, either 
hot or cold, but after standing in it for some weeks the turpentine 
lost its original pale straw coloured tint and became viscid, the 
pigment also lost its colour and left a grey residue or skeleton. 

3. Acids. — With nitric acid the pigment gives a yellow or 
orange coloured solution fading to yellow, probably due to the 
formation of picric acid. The colour is not restored by alkalis. 

It has already been stated that the pigment is insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid. 

It is insoluble in dilute sulphuric acid, 1 to 4 aq., but with 
concentrated sulphuric acid it gives a greenish coloured solution 
in the cold; on boiling the colour darkens, and on filtering through 
glass wool an almost black liquid is obtained; on dilution a dusky 



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262 A. LIVBBSIDOB. 

blae filtrate passes through, but on standing, a black precipitate 
forms and the solution becomes colourless ; this black precipitate 
gives a blue solution with acetic acid, so that the pigment is 
sufficiently stable to resist the action of hot sulphuric acid. 

Organic Acids, — Formic acid dissolves it readily both hot and 
cold to a beautiful blue colour similar to that yielded to acetic 
acid ; on evaporating to dryness over a water bath it leaves a 
greenish coloured residue, and this on ignition chars in much the 
same way as the acetic residue and leaves a ferruginous-looking ash. 

The residue insoluble in acetic acid and the other above-men- 
tioned solvents after repeated treatment, until the solvent no 
longer became coloured, is practically black. On heating this 
residue on platinum it burns slowly without flame, emits a nitro- 
genous odour, and leaves a considerable amount of ash, which is 
of a ferruginous colour, and appears to have much the same com- 
position as that from the crude pigment itself. 

Propionic Acid, — Slightly soluble in the cold ; when boiled it 
yields a bright blue solution equal to that in glacial acetic acid, 
and as permanent. 

Fropionitril, — Insoluble. 

JBtUyric Acid. — Insoluble in the cold but yields a pale greenish 
solution when boiled. IsobtUyric Add takes up a little of the 
blue on warming. 

Heptoic Caprylic and Nonylic Adda. — Insoluble. 

Lactic Acid (Ethylidene lactic acid). — Slightly soluble in the 
cold, but when warmed the solution is a full bright blue, as good 
as the acetic acid solution. The black residue insoluble in lactic 
acid imparts no colour to acetic acid. On concentrating the 
lactic acid solution over the water bath, the colour gradually 
&des and acquires a light brownish tint. 

Gh/collic Add, — Gives light green solution, a little darker on 
warming. 

Oldc Acid, — Insoluble, on boiling the add becomes brown. 



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BLUE FiaHBNT IN OOSAL AMD OTHBB AlOMAL 0BGANI8MS. 263 

Tartaric Acid, — A faint blae coloar on boiling. 

Oxalic Acid, — Insoluble. 

Citric Acid, — ^Yields a pale blue solution on boiling. 

4. Alkalis, — In cold dilute ammonia it gives a pale blue solution 
which gradually fades in the course of a few weeks. It is much 
more soluble in strong ammonia, also in hot ammonia. On 
evaporating to dryness the residue is of a brownish colour. 

It imparts a greenish colour to potash, both dilute and strong 
solutions, but when boiled with potash the solution turns brown. 
Moseley states that the colour is restored by acids, but I did not 
find this to be the case; a very faint dusky purple only was obtained. 
When boiled with ammonium, sodium and potassium carbonates, 
it in each case yields a dingy slate coloured solution with a slight 
purple tinge. 

AronuUic derivatives. — It is insoluble in benzene. Nitro- 
benzene is coloured green by it, but on heating this darkens and 
becomes brown. It also imparts a greenish tint to colourless 
phenol in the cold; on heating it yields a dark solution — ^the 
pigment does not, like indigo, appear to be redeposited on cooling. 
On evaporating down to dryness over a water bath and driving 
off the phenol, the pigment was left as a sap-green resinous-look- 
ing film, which under the microscope was seen to be made up of 
drop-like forms without any trace of crystallisation. 

It appears to be insoluble in xylenol and also in aniline. 

It is partly soluble in cresol (meta) to a dark green solution, 
and in cold creosote to a pale green, in hot creosote it yields a 
dark green solution similar to cresol. 

The phenol, cresol, xylenol, aniline and other similar solutions 
were filtered through glass wool and evaporated but none of them 
deposited the pigment in a crystalline form. 

Salts, — It was found that the pigment is insoluble in sodium 
chloride and nitrate, both in the cold and when boiled. The 
acetate of sodium gave a slight shade of green, and the phosphate 



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264 A. LnrsBsmaE. 

a hardly perceptible dusky purple tint. It is also insoluble in 
magnesium sulphate and stannous chlorida On boiling with 
stannic chloride a bright blue solution is apparently obtained, but 
on filtering, most of the colour is left on the filter and a very 
pale blue solution passes through. 

Other Eeagents. — No colour was imparted to olive oil, and the 
particles of pigment remained in it unbleached, although exposed 
to the light for some months, but the olive oil became quite 
colourless and viscid. It was found to be insoluble also in carbon 
disulphide, carbon tetrachloride, chloropicrin, thiophen, oil of 
cloves, cane sugar solution, etc. 

In all cases, although not always specifically stated, the reagent 
was used hot as well as cold, and in most instances the cold 
reagent was allowed to stand upon the pigment, with daily 
shakings, for several weeks. 

It is bleached by chlorine water (the colour is not restored by 
alkalis) and a greyish coloured residue is left (several other 
reagents left a similar residue); this residue or skeleton bums 
with a nitrogenous odour and leaves a considerable amount of ash 
— it apparently consists largely of the membrane of the pigment 
cells and perhaps cornein (C^Ti^fii^)' ^^® ^^^ ^^ ferruginous 
in appearance and contains iron, phosphoric oxide, lime eta 

A mixture of glucose, ferrous sulphate and lime does not appear 
to reduce it as is the case with indigo. 

The colour is discharged by nascent hydrogen (from zinc and 
hydrochloric acid) also by hydroxy], and sulphurous acid, and it is 
not restored by neutralising with an alkali 

After the above experiments were completed, the crude pigment 
wsts obtained by means of hydrochloric acid from the growing 
points of "live" coral, i.e., coral which had been gathered whfle 
growing. 

The tips or growing points were of a dull slaty-blue colour both 
externally and internally, and I expected them to yield a fuller 
blue than the "dead" coral, but the pigment obtained was of a 



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BLUE PI6MBNT IN CORAL AND OTHBB ANIMAL 0B6ANI8M8. 265 

pale chlorophyll green tint, and its solutions in alcohol, glacial 
acetic and lactic acids were also of a pale green colour ; it was 
practically insoluble in formic acid. 

Under the microscope it was seen to be largely made up of 
membranous matter and celih containing granules of the green 
pigment. On exposure to light this green pigment gradually 
darkened somewhat. 

Other Animal Blue Figments. 
The late Prof. H. N. Moseley, gives an account of certain blue 
and other animal pigments in his paper on the colouring matter 
of various animals.^ 

Purple Pentacrinin, — He states that many species of penta- 
crinins readily yield to acidified alcohol colouring matter with 
well defined spectra. The two principal bands correspond very 
nearly to those of turacin. 

When rendered alkaline by ammonia the solution becomes 
bluish-green. When the acid solution of pentacrinin is carefully 
concentrated it yields a dark violet amorphous precipitate, which 
is only slightly soluble in alcohol ; it is not soluble in hydrochloric 
acid alone. 

The fresh colouring matter is soluble in fresh water, but remains 
partly suspended, forming a slightly opaque dark purple solution, 
on acidifying it entirely dissolves to a beautiful pink ; when this 
is rendered alkaline a green flocculent precipitate is thrown down. 

Antedonin. — Antedonins are usually rose, orange, yellow or 
brown colour to purple. A dark purple one was dredged off Cape 
Tork, Australia. The pigment was insoluble in glycerin, largely 
soluble in fresh water, and very soluble in weak spirit, and gave 
an intense f uchsine coloured solution, becoming pinker on dilution 
with alcohol. 

When the alcoholic solution is rendered alkaline by ammonia 
it changes to a deep violet, and a flocculent purple precipitate is 

1 Quarterly Joum. Micro. Science, xvii , 1877. 



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266 A. LIYSBSIDGB. 

formed, yielding a violet amorphous powder when dried, insoluble 
in alcohol and in oil of cloves. 

A similar or the same colouring matter was yielded by a hole- 
thurian, from the South Indian Ocean; Moseley regarded it as 
identical with antedonin. 

Land planariana, — Two large species of Rhynchodemus were 
found at Parramatta, N.S.W., one red and the other prussian 
blue. The blue is insoluble in alcohol, and becomes red on adding 
hydrochloric acid and is soluble in acidified alcohol. 

Mollusca — Aplysiopurpurin, — A purple fluid is emitted by an 
Aph/sia abundant on the shore of St. Vincent, Oape Yerde ; the 
purple fluid is soluble in alcohol. Said to contain aniline.^ 

The purple colouring matter used by the ancients for dyeing 
linen and woollen, known as punicin, yielded by Purpura capillm 
and other mollusca, is a colourless secretion which becomes purple 
on exposure to light. It crystallises readily from its solution in 
aniline and is insoluble in alcohol and ether. Like indigo it can 
also be crystallised by sublimation. 

Darts. — A Doris had the surface of the foot coloured a dark 
purple, the pigment is soluble in alcohol acidified with hydrochloric 
acid — the spectrum resembles that from Aplysia, 

larUhinin. — The pigment of the purple fluid emitted by lanthina 
was found to be soluble in spirit to a pale pinkish-blue tint, and 
shows a brilliant red fluorescence like nsculin which is also blue 
by transmitted light. On adding a drop of hydrochloric acid the 
colour changes to a clear pale blue — the spectrum is well marked. 
The pigment is also soluble in glycerin and yields a deep violet 
coloured solution. The solution in ether resembles that in alcohol; 
but leaves a residue which dissolves in absolute alcohol to a blue 
solution. The ianthinin solutions all faded in a week or two. 

Blue Stentorin. — Prof. K Ray Lankester found that the blue 
pigment of Stentor cceruleus yields two well marked absorption 

1 See Gmelin, Vol. zviii., p. 422. 



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BLUE PIGMENT IN OOBAL AND OTHBB ANIMAL OBOANISMS. 267 

bands in the spectnim, one in the red and the other in the green; 
also that it is unaffected by dilute acetic, hydrochloric and sulphuric 
acids, while dilute potash intensifies it. 

He also speaks in the same paper^ of the blue pigment oiVeleUa, 
as being probably identical with that of other oceanic hydrozoa ; 
no detached bands are exhibited, but the red and violet ends of 
the spectrum are cut off. 

Fiah. — Oeo. Francis, (Adelaide) describes a bluish-green colour- 
ing matter from certain species of Odax common in St. Vincent's 
Gulf, S. A., giving a spectrum somewhat resembling that of chloro- 
phylL' The pigment is soluble in water, rather bluer than 
chlorophyll ; sulphuric acid precipitates it with albumen, but does 
not destroy the colour; it is bleached by light. The pigment is 
nitrogenous, and is destroyed by heat, chlorine, acetic acid, alkalis, 
ammonia, and alcohol. 

Turacin.^ — A blue pigment from the feathers of the turacoa or 
plantain-eater, it is soluble in water and contains copper. 

Indigo — Although essentially a vegetable production, it was 
specially tested for, since an indigo-forming substance occurs in 
both normal and morbid urine.^ But no certain indications of 
the presence of indigo were obtained from the coral pigment. 

Pyocyanin, — Formed occasionally in pus. It forms blue acicular 
crystals arranged in crosses or rosettes. Melts on heating and 
does not sublime. Soluble in water ; reddened by acids, but the 
colour is restored by alkalis. Neither the alcoholic nor the aque- 
ous solution is precipitated by alum or lead acetate." 

Hcemocycmin. — This is present in the blood of certain cephalo- 
pods, gasteropods, Crustacea and arachnida, and plays the same 

i Quart. Joorn. Micro. Science, 1878, p. 142 , and Journ. of Anatomy 
and Physiology, Vol. iv. 
s For figure and description see " Nature/' Dec. 80^ 1876, p. 167. 
s A. H. Church^Phil. Trans. Soy. Soc., 1869, p. 627. 
4 For authoritiee see Gmelin, Vol. xvui., p. 407. 
s Omelin, xyiii., p. 416. 



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268 

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Journal Ibyal Society, Vol XXXII. PlaU IX. 



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Journal Royal Society, Vol. XXXIl , 1898. 



Plate Xll. 



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ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS 



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ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS 



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l^ogal (S^omtg of |iefDf (S^outjl SBaUs. 



ABSTRACT OF PBOCEEDINaS, MAT 4, 1898. 



The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, May 4th, 1898. 

The President, Hbkbt Deans, m»a.^ if. inst. c.e., in the Chair. 

Forty-five members and one visitor were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following Financial Statement for the year ended 31st 
March, 1898, was presented by the Hon. Treasurer, and adopted: 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Recbifts. £ b. d. £ 8. d. 

/One Guinea 117 12 0\ 



J Two Guineas 817 2 

SubscriptionsK Arrears ... 145 19 


Ol 
^1 


' 588 16 


V Advances 3 8 


oj 




Entrance Fees 




27 6 


Parliamentary Grant on Subscriptions received— 
1897 






June 15, Balance of Vote for 1896-97 ... 228 17 







1898 






Jan. 12, On account of Vote for 1897-98... 847 11 





571 8 
14 


Bent 




Sundries 


... 


25 18 


Total Receipts 

Bflklance on Ist April, 1897 


1222 8 
14 6 11 


fOutstanding Account, F. W. White ^664 158. Od.] 


JB1286 9 11 



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IV. 



ABSTRACT OF PB00BBDING8. 





JB s. d. 


Advertisements 


23 12 6 


Assistant Secretary 


250 


Books and Periodicals 


80 8 4 


Bookbinding^ 


58 2 7 


Conversazione 


58 2 7 


Collector 


11 8 9 


Freight, Charges, Packing, &c 


10 


Fomitore and Effects 


27 5 1 


Gas 


25 8 


Housekeeper 


10 


Insurance 


11 12 


Interest on Mortgage 


63 


Office Boy 


22 6 4 


Petty Cash Expenses \ 


12 11 4 


Postage and Duty Stamps 


30 


Printing 


6 7 


Printing and Publishing Journal 


384 7 6 


Bates 


39 7 2 


Beception 


15 15 6 


Bef reshments and attendance at Meetings . 


24 11 6 


Bepairs 


2 6 6 


Stationery 


3 8 


Sundries 


24 14 6 


Total Payments 






Balance on 31st March, 1898, viz.: — 




Cash in Union Bank, General Account . 


24 1 7 


B. & I. Fund 


8 6 


Cash in hand 


10 



£ s. d. 



1194 710 



42 2 1 
£1236 9 11 
BUILDING AND INVESTMENT FUND. 

BSCBIPTS. £ B. i 

Loan on Mortgage ab 4i% 1400 OO 

Clarke Memorial Fund — 

Loan at current Savings Bank rate of interest 896 15 U 



Patmbnts. 
Advance to General Account 31st March, 1897 
Balance 31st March, 1898 



£17% 15 11 




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ABSTRACT OF PB00BBDING8. y« 

CLAEKE MEMORIAL FUND. . 

BSOBIFTS. iB 8. d. 

Loan to Building and Inyest. Fund, 1 Sept., and 12 Oct., 1886 876 7 9 
Interest to 81 March, 1898 



Iioan to Building and Inyestment Fund, March 81, 1898 



20 8 2 


£396 15 11 


£ 8. d. 
896 15 11 


£896 16 11 



AnniTBD AND FOxnn> oobbbct, DAVID FELL. 

C. R. WALSH. 
Stdnst, 14th April, 1898. 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
W. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

Messrs. G. B. Cowdery and Henry G. Smith were appointed 
Scrutineers, and Mr. 0. W. Darley deputed to preside at the 
Ballot Box. 

A ballot wfiis then taken, and the following gentlemen were 

elected officers and members of Council for the current year : — 

Honorary President: 

HIS EXCELLENCY THE BIGHT HON. HENKY ROBERT 

VISCOUNT HAMPDEN. 

President : 
G. H. ENIBBS, F.B.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents : 
PsoF. ANDERSON STUART, m.d. Prof. T. W. E. DAVID, B.A., f.o.s. 

Pbof. THRELFALL, M.A. HENRY DEANE, m.a.,M. Inat. C.E. 

Hon. Treasurer: 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, m.b.c.s. Eng., l.8jl. Lond. 

Hon. Secretaries: 

J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.8. I W. M. HAMLET, f.c.s., f.i.c. 

Members of Council : 



C. O. BURGE, H. Inat. C.E. 

E. B. DOCKER, m.a., d.o.j. 

J. W. GRIM8HAW, M.In8t.C.B. 

H. A. LENEHAN, f.b.a.s. 

P^rof . LIVER8IDGE,if .A.,LL.D.,F.B.8. 



CHARLES MOORE, f.l.s. 

E. F. PITTMAN, Awoc. RSJL 

F. H. QUAIFE, MJL., M.D. 

H. 0. RUSSELL, B.A., cif.o., f.r.8. 
Pbof.WARREN, M. Inst. C.E., Wh.8c 



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Vl. ABSTRACT OF PR0CBBDING8. 

The oertifioates of six candidates were read for the first time. 
The following announcements were made : — 

1. That the Society's Journal for 1897, Vol. xxxi., was in the 

hands of the binder, and would shortly be ready for delivery 
■ to members. 

2. That the Officers and Committee of the Engineering Section had 

been elected for the ensuing Session, and the dates fixed for 
their meetings as follows : — 

Section Mkbtings. 

Enoinbkbino— Wednesday, Ma, jom July Aug. 8«p(. Oet. Nor. Dt^ 

(8 p.m.) 18 16 20 17 21 19 16 21 

Sectional Committees — Session 1898. 
section K.— Bnfflneerlnsr. 
Chairman— T. H. Houg^hton, M. Inst. C.E., M. Inat. M.E. 
Secretary and Treasurer — S. H. Barraclough, m.m.e. 

Committee— Henry Deane, M. Inat. C.E., T. E. Firth, M. Inat. C.B.. 

W. Thow, M. lust. C.E., M.Iii8tM.E., H. B. Carleton, M. Inst. C.S., 

Norman Selfe, M. Inst. C.E., M. Inst M.E., Percy Allan, Assoc. M. Insfc. 

C.E., Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C.E. 

Past Chairmen, em o^icio Members of Committee for three yeazs r 

B. C. Simpson, M. Inst. C.E., Prof. Warren, M. Inst. C.E., Wli. 8e^ 

and C. O. Surge, M.Inst. C.E. 

3. That the Officers and Committee of the Medical Section wonld 

be elected, and the dates fixed for their meetings on the 

20th May. 
On the motion of Mr. G. H. Knibbs, seconded by Mr. Josiah 
Mullens, it was resolved that the following proposed alterations 
to various Rules be agreed to pro/armdt and that the discassioQ 
upon the same take place at the next General Monthly Meeting 
in June. 

Alterations to Rules, recommended by the Council, proposed at 

the Annual General Meeting, 4th May, 1898 : — 

Rule IV. (Page xv.) Third line, insert the word ' first ' before 
' General Meeting,' and after the word ' May ' add the 
following : < hereinafter called the Annual General Meet- 
ing." 



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ABSTRACT OP PR0CBRDING8. viu 

RuLB XII. (Page xviii.) First line, alter * Ist' to 'first day.' 
„ XIV. (Page xviii.) Seventh line, the word 'shall' to be 

altered to * may.' 
„ XIY. (Page xviii.) Ninth line, insert the word 'sach*^ 
before * arrears,' and after the word ' arrears ' add ' aa 
the Ooancil may determine.' 

„ XY. (Page xix.) Second line, the word * requested ' to be 
altered to ' required.' 

„ Xy. (Page xix.) Fifth line, after the word ' Society ' add 
the following : — ' and to pay all arrears of subscription 
due to the Society.' 

„ XXI. (Page xxi.) First line, alter the word *A' to *The 
Annual,' and erase the word ' annually.' 

„ XXV. (Page xxiL) Eighth line, after the word 'ordinary * 
insert the word ' general.' 

„ XXXVI. (Page xxvi.) First line, after the word * Vice- 
Presidents ' the word * Hon. Treasurer ' to be inserted . 

„ XU. (Page xxvii.) Second line, after the word ' successive ' 
insert the word ' Annual.' 

Mr. Hbnbt Deans, m.a., m. inst. c.e., then read his address, which 
was divided into three parts dealing with : — 

1. The affairs of the Society during the past twelve months. 

2. Matters of interest that arose during the same period, 
especially in the Gk>vemment Departments, Natural Science, and 
the meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 

3. The importance of Science and Scientific Education. 

Part 1. The following matters were referred to : — The reduc- 
tion in the roll of members and the increased expenditure of the 
Society; the members were urged to invite suitable persons in the 
community at large to join. Obituary: under which, amongst 
others, was Mr. Eddy, late Chief Commissioner for Railways ; 
reference was made to the loss of Mr. John Whitton, who although 



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Viii. ABSTRACT OF PR0CBBDINO8. 

not a member of the Society, was closely identified with the pro- 
gress of the Colony, especially as regards railways. The work 
done at the monthly meetings of the Society and Sections ; the 
Reception held last July and the Conversazione in January wen 
mentioned in addition to some other matters. 

Part 2. This part dealt with the principal work done during the 
year outside the Society, general routine work being excluded. 
Special attention was invited to electrical tramways, to the newly 
discovered system of septic treatment of sewage, to artesian bores 
as inducing settlement of population in the north-west, and to the 
meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science last January. 

Part 3. The importance of science and scientific education was 
dealt with at some length, and the President pointed out the mis- 
conceptions that prevail as to what science really is, while some 
people looked on it as a harmless but somewhat contemptible 
triviality, others as uninteresting and abstruse and beyond thdr 
comprehension. The erroneous nature of these ideas was pointed 
out and the further dissemination of scientific knowledge advo- 
cated. Attention was specially drawn to the importance of 
technical training to all those engaged in the mechanical and 
manufacturing arts, from the employer through all grades down 
to the workman. 

The President concluded by advocating greater sympathy being 
encouraged between teacher and student, especially in the case of 
large classes. This has reference not only to Universities, but to 
other educational institutions where similar conditions prevail. 
By the introduction of more complete intercourse the President bad 
no doubt that results would far exceed those at present obtained. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the retiring President, the Hon. 
Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, and Mr. G. H. Knibbs, F.B.AJ., 
was installed as President for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Knibbs thanked the members for the honour conferred 
upon him. 



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ABSTRACT OP PROCEEDINGS. IX. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, JUNE 1, 1898. 



The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabethstreet North, on Wednesday 
evening, June 1st, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, p.k.a.s., in the Chair. 

Thirty members and one visitor were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of six candidates were read for the second time^ 

The Chairman announced : — 

1. That the Society's Journal for 1897, Vol. xxxi., was ready for 

delivery, and any member entitled to the same could obtain a 
copy on application to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. That the Officers and Committee of the Medical Section had 

been elected for the ensuing Session and the dates fixed for 
their meetings as follows : — 

Section Meetings. 

May Jane July Aug; Sept. Oct Nor. Dee. 
MiDiCAL— Friday, (815 p.m,)... 20 17 15 19 16 21 18 16 

Sectional Committees — Session 1898. 

Section H.— Medical. 
Chaizman — G. E. Bennie, B.A. 3yd., M.D. Land., J.P. 
Hon. Secretaries — J. Adam Dick, B.A. 8yd., M.D. Edin., and F. Tidswell, 
M.B. 8yd., and D.P.H., Comb. 

Committee — Sydney Jamieson, B.A. Syd., M.B., CM. Bdin., M.R.C.S., Eng,, 
G. Lane Miillin8,M.A.,M.D.,Dub.,F. H. Qaaif6,M.A.M.D.,C.M.,6lac. 
J. Ashburton Thompson, M.D. Brtur., D.P.H. Camh., MJt.C.S. Eng, 

Meetings held on the Third Friday in each Month, at 8' 25 p.m. 
(Provided snffloient material is obtainable.) 

A memorandum on the nature and progress of work carried out 
at The Imperial Institute, London, with illustrations of practical 
results attained, or in progress, from information supplied by the 
Commercial and Industrial Intelligence Office, and by the Scientific 
and Technical Department of the Imperial Institute, was brought 
under the notice of the members. 



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X. ABSTRACT OF PBOCBBDIKGS. 

The alterations to the following rules proposed at the Annosl 
General Meeting, 4th May, 1898, were agreed to, viz.: — Rules lY., 
XII.. XIV., XV., XXI., XXV., and XXXVI., and the following 
amendment to Rule XLI. was carried, viz.: — "To insert instead 
of the words 'two successive general meetings,' the words *one 
ordinary general meeting, and confirmed at the next Annual 
General Meeting.' " 

THE FOLLOWING PAPERS WERE READ : — 

1. "Paper on A&ronautiea,** by Lawrence Harorave. 

The author describes at length, with scale drawing and photo- 
graphsi a kite that under favourable circumstances will soar 
horizontally and at various acute angles to the direction of the 
wind. The kite is of the well known cellular form but in addition 
has a bent piece of vulcanite nearly midway between the celk 
This is called the propeller, and its effect is to create a vortex 
that acts on its under and concave side. The vortex pushes 
against the propeller in the same manner that the ball of a water 
nozzle draws against the orifice from which the water is issuing. 
The kite is heavily ballasted with lead, and weighs 1*9 lbs. for 
every square foot of area. Three methods of soaring are described, 
and eight points that require investigation are indicated for the 
guidance of anyone who has the leisure and sufficient interest in 
the subject to assist in the work. The paper also contains a short 
description of a pipe boiler and screw engine that is intended to 
drive a flying machine, and also the proposed arrangement of 
aeroplanes for supporting it, with the method of ensuring a safe 
trial. 

2. "Australian Divisional Systems," by R. H. Mathews, l.s. 

The author pointed out that all tribes of Australian Aborigines 
are divided into two exogamous intermarrying groups — the men of 
one group marrying the women of the other group. These tribal 
divisions have been designated, organisations or systems. The 
names of the groups may change with the languages of the people 
in different districts, but the same system prevails in them all 



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ABSTRACT OF PEOOSflDINOS. xi 

Besides these segregation into groups, there is a further subdividion 
of the latter into smaller s^ments, bearing the names of animals, 
such as kangaroo, iguana, emu, cod-fish, frog, etc. These animal 
names have been called totems^ a word in use for the same purpose 
among the North American Indians. Mr. Mathews then pro- 
ceeded to give an exhaustive description of the rules of marriage 
and descent established in relation to the divisions referred to, 
selecting examples from various native tribes located in districts 
widely separated from each other in different parts of Australia. 

3. "Artesian Waters in New South Wales," by J. W. Boultbbb. 

The paper describes briefly the initial efforts at artesian boring 
in this colony, and leads up to the utilization of the water for 
irrigation purposes; it describes the work in that direction under- 
taken by the Government at the Native Dog and Pera Bores, and 
hints at the possibilities in the way of close settlement in small 
area& near to population centres. It points out how the Govern- 
ment was guided by American experience, and refers to the 
areas, soil, water,, results, and the revolution effected in some of 
the States, and the rapid growth of settlement by means of the 
artesian water supply ; it refers to the gradual awakening of our 
western pastoralists to the benefits conferred. The progress of 
the work in New South Wales, cost, yield of water etc., is tabulated. 
The advance in geological knowledge of the subject, and the more 
important developments in this branch are referred to. A new 
boring machine, "The Calyx,'' and the provisions of the Artesian 
Wells Act, 1897, are discussed. The paper emphasizes the vast 
possibilities of the question, and concludes that this colony now 
is in the same position in regard to it as America was twenty- 
seven years ago. ' 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged : — 

TBANSACTIONS. JOURNALS, BEPOBTS, Ac. 

(The Names of the Donors are in Itdl,ie$ ) 

Annapolis, M.D. — U.S. Naval Institute. Proceedings, Vol. 

XXII., No. 8, 1896 ; Vol. xxin., Nos. 3, 4, 1897. The InsiiUtU 



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XU. ABSTRACT OF PR00EEDINQ8. 

Baltimors— Johns Hopkins University. Circulars, VoL xvii.. 

Nob. 182^ 133, 1897. The Univeniii 

BiBMiNOHAM — Birmingham and Midland Institute. Prognramme 
for Session 1897-98. Report of the Council for the year 
1897. An address delivered in the Town Hall, Birming- 
ham, 18 Oct. 1897, by Frederic Harrison, m.a., " The 
MiUenary of King Alfred." The InttU^ 

Cakbbidob — Cambridge Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 
Vol. IX., Parts vi., vii.. 1897. Transactions, Vol. xvi.. 
Parts ii., iii., 1897-98. The Soddy 

LsiDS— Yorkshire College. Annual Report, (23rd) 1896-7. The CoUegt 

London — British Museum (Natural History). A Guide to the 
Fossil Invertebrates and Plants in the Department of 
Geology and Palsdontology, 1897. The Jfntews 

Geological Society. Quarterly Journal, VoL liii.. Part iv.. 
No. 212. 1897 ; Vol. liv.. Part i.. No. 218. 1898. Geo- 
logical Literature added to the Library during the year 
1897. List of the Geological Society of London, 2 Nov. 
1897. The Socidji 

Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland. Pro- 
ceedings. Parts i., ii.. 1897. Bye-Laws, Charter of In- 
corporation, Regulations for Admission to Membership, 
and Register of Fellows, Associates and Students. The InstiMt 

Institution of Ciril Engineers. Minutes of Proceedings, 
Vol. cxxx., Part iv., 1896-97. Brief Subject Index, Vols, 
cix. - cxxx.. Sessions 1894-95 - 1896-97. The IiwiiiuiioJi 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings, Nos. 
1 and 2, 1897. 

Iron and Steel Institute. Journal, Vol. lii.. No. 2, 1897. 

ThelnsHM* 

Linnean Society. Journal, Botany, Vol. xxxiii.. No. 229 ; 

Zoology, Vol. XXVI., No. 168. Proceedings. Nov. 1896 

to June 1897. The Soeieti 

Mineralogical Society. Mineralogical Magcuine, Vol. xi.. 

No. 53, 1897. 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Calendar, 1898. 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. v.. Fourth Series, Nos. 

1427 - 1485, 1897 ; Vol. vi.. Fourth Series, Nos. 1436 - 

1447, 1898. 
Physical Society of London. Proceedings, Vol. xv.. Parts 

ix. - xi., Nos. 84 - 86, 1897. „ 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, Third 

Series, Vol. viii.. Part iv., No. 82, 1897. „ 

Royal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. lviu., 

Nos. 2, 8, 4, 1897-98. „ 

Royal College of Physicians. List of the Fellows, Members, 

Extra Licentiates and Licentiates, 1898. The CoUeg* 

Royal Geographical Society. The Oeographiedl Journal, Vol. 

XI., Nos. 1, 2, 8, 1898. Year Book and Record 1898. The SocUty 

Royal Historical Society. Transactions, New Series, Vol. 
XI., 1897. 



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ABSTEAOT OF PBOCBEDINOS. xiil, 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, JULT 6, 1898. 

The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, July 6th, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.b.a.8., in the Chair. 

Twenty-eight members and two visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Beale, Charles Griffin; 109 Pitt-street. 
Boyd, Robert James, b.e. Univ. Syd, ; Terara. 
Gurney, Elliott Henry; Petersham. 
Smith, S. Hague; 81 Pitt-street. 
Wark, William; 9 Macquarie Place. 
Wildridge, John, m.i.m.e.; 97 Pitt-street. 

The certificates of three candidates were read for the first time. 

THE FOLLOWING PAPERS WEBB BEAD : — 

1. "On the Stringy bark trees of New South Wales, especially 
in regard to their essential oils," by R. T. Baker, p.l.s., and 
Henry G. Smith, f.c.s.. Technological Museum. Part I. 

This paper is the authors' third contribution to a knowledge of 
the essential oils of the genus Eucalyptus. Some notes on the 
classification of the species of this genus by other authors are 
given, and the species now investigated are arranged according 
to their chemical, economic, and botanical affinities. It was 
shown that the essential oil of the Red Stringybark, B, rruxcro- 
rhyncha besides containing a large percentage of eudesmol (the 
stearoptene of eucalyptus oil) gives an oil of excellent quality 
containing over fifty per cent, of eucalyptol, and answering all 
the requirements of the British Pharmacopoeia with the excep- 
tion of that of specific gravity. The authors point out that by 
fixing the specific gravity of an Eucalyptus oil as high as 0*910 
excellent oils might be considered as of inferior quality, wlul^ 



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ZIV. ABSTRACT OF PB0CBBDING8. 

inferior oils might pass the test, and they suggest that if the pro- 
vision was made that a Eucidyptos oil should contain fifty per 
cent, of eucalyptol in addition to the other tests given in the 
Pharmacopoeia that the specific gravity test might be reduced to 
0*900 - 0*925. The presence of such a large quantity of eudesmol 
in the oil may probably account for the peculiarity of this oil, as 
the low specific gravity is evidently caused by the presence of a 
terpene of low specific gravity, the eucalyptol when isolated being 
found to have the usual specific gravity of that substance. The 
importance of this matter of specific gravity was pointed out 
because most probably the oil will be eventually distilled in large 
quantities, when it is expected that it will be obtained as a bye> 
product in connection with the extraction of myrticolorin. Three 
methods were described in the paper for the preparation of 
eudesmol. The authors also show that the presence of such a 
large percentage of eudesmol in the oil, prevents to a very large 
extent the reaction for eucalyptol with phosphoric acid, and tiiat 
the method could not be used for the quantitative determination 
of eucalyptol in the crude oil of this species. The oil of that 
Stringybark called by the authors Brown Stringybark, (B, 
capUellata) was found to resemble much that of the previons 
species, but does not appear to contain eudesmol. The oil of the 
!White Stringybark (E. eugeniaideaj answers all the requirements 
of the British Pharmacopoeia. 

2. "On Current observations on the Canadian- Australian route," 
by Capt. Campbell Hbpwobth, R.M.S. Aarangi. 
This paper purposed to shew by observations of ocean current 
made during sixty-four passages between Australia and British 
Columbia in the liners Aorangif Warrimoo, and Miowera^ the 
general set and strengths of the currents which are experienced) 
according to the season of the year, by vessels making the passage 
between these two colonies. The paper was illustrated by twelve 
charts, one for each month of the year, on which was delineated 
each current observation recorded, amounting to several thousand 



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ABSTRACT OF PBOOBBDINGS. XV. 

observations. It will be readily understood that safe and sac- 
<;e8sfal navigation depends largely on a knowledge of the move- 
ments of the sea ^surface drifts and the path of the main ocean 
streams, and it is with the object of adding to snoh scanty inform 
mation upon the subject as has been obtainable hitherto, that the 
Author compiled his paper. In a far more comprehensive form 
the Hydrographical Office purposes to publish current charts of 
the Pacific Ocean, and to quote Oapt. Hep worth's words, *' then 
these records of ocean current with which I have been dealing, 
the study of which has appeared to me somewhat like the perusal 
of stray fragments of a torn up document, will have complete 
contexture, and it will be known whether the theories adopted by 
me in their interpretation be correct or otherwise, but in the mean- 
time it is hoped they will be of some value to the navigators of 
the Pacific." 

The reading of the paper on "A group of Water-spouts" by 
H. 0. RussBLL, B.A., O.M.G., F.B.8., was postponed till the next 
meeting. 

EXHIBITS. 

1. Mr. R. A. Bastow, Fitzroy, Victoria, exhibited a key to 
tribes and genera of Melanospermse (olive-green or brown algae) 
-which he had prepared for the use of students. This key will be 
reproduced by photo- lithography in the same size as the original 
•drawing, and will form Plate 1 in the Society's Journal for 1898, 
Vol. XXXII. 

2. A facsimile (in metal, presented by the Trustees of the 
Public Library of New South Wales) of the Tablet erected on 
Inscription Point near Cape Solander, the southern head of Botany . 
Bay. The original was affixed to commemorate the foundation 
of the Philosophical Society of Australasia in 1821 (the precursor 
of our Society) and as a record of the landing-place of Cook and 
Banks in Botany Bay in 1770. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged : — 



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XVI. ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

TBANSACTIONS, JOURNALS, KEPOKTS, &c. 

(The Names of the Donors are in Italics). 

Aachkn — Meteorologische Station L Ordnung. Deutsches 

Metorologisches Jahrbuoh fiir 1896. The Dmdor 

Adklaidb — Boyal Society of South Australia. Transactions, 

Vol. XX., Part ii., 1896. Tht 8o6di 

University. Calendar for 1897. The Umventfy 

Berlin— Gesellschaft fOr Erdkunde. Verhandlungen, Band 
XXIV., Nos. 4-7, 1897. Zeitechrift, Band xxxn., Nos. 
2-4, 1897. The Socuty 

E5niglich preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sit- 

zungsberichte, Nos. 40 - 63, 1897. The Aeaimi 

Kdniglich preussische Meteorolo^sche Institute. Ergebnisse 
Beobachtungen an den Stationen II. und III. Ordnung 
im Jahre 1897, Heft 1. Die Feier des fdnfzigjahrigen 
Bestehens am 16 Oktober 1897. The InstiMt 

Boston, Mass. — American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. XXXII., Nos. 16, 17 ; Vol. xxxiii., Nos. 1 
-8,1897. The Academy 

Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings, Vol. xxviii.. 

Nos. 1 - 6, 1897. TheSocid^ 

Brookvillb — Indiana Academy of Science. Proceedings, 1896. 

The Acaiemi 

Camb&idgb (Mass.) — Museum of Comparative Zodlogy at Harvard 
College. Annual Report of the Curator for 1896-07. 
Bulletin, Vol. xxxi., Nos. 1-6, 1897-98. Memoirs, Vol. 
XXIII., No. 1, 1897. The Mmi» 

Chicaoo — Field Columbian Museum. Second Annual Exchange 

Catalogue for the year 1897-98. Publications 21, 22, 24. „ 

Cincinnati — Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Journal. 

Vol. XIX., No. 3, 1897. The Sooit^ 

Denvee— Colorado Scientific Society. Bulletin, Nos. 10, 11, 1897; 
No. 1, 1898. Papers read before the Society Nov. 6, 
1897 and Feb. 5, 1898. 

Dublin — Eoyal Dublin Society. Scientific Proceedings, N.S., 
Vol. VIII., Part v., 1897. Scientific Transactions, Ser. 2, 
Vol. v.. Part xiii., 1896 ; Vol. vi.. Parts ii. - xiii., 189p-7. „ 

Boyal Irish Academy. Proceedings, Third Series, Vol. iv.. 

No. 4, 1897. The Aeadm 

Edinburgh — Edinburgh Geological Society. Transactions, Vol. 
VII., Part iii., 1895-96. Roll of Members, 31 Dec. 1897. 
The Laws of the Edinburgh Geological Society, 31 Oct. i 

1897. The Sociif | 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Scottish Oeographical 
Magazine, Vol. xiii., Nos. 10, 11, 12,1897; Vol. xiv.. 
Nos. I, 2, 3, 1898. 

PoBT Monroe, Va. — U. S. Artillery School. Journal of the U.S. 
Artillery, Vol. viii., Nos. 2. 8, 1897; Vol. ix.. No. 1. 

1898. The 8did 



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ABSTRACT OP PROCEEDINGS. XVll. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, AUGUST 3, 1898. 



The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at iAie 
Society's House, No. 6 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, August 3rd, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., in the Chair. 

Twenty-four members were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

Two new members enrolled their names and were introduced. 

The certificates of three candidates were read for the second 
time, and of three for the first time. 

The President made the following announcements: — 

1. That it was necessary and customary for authors to furnish 

the Hon. Secretaries with short abstracts of their papers prior 
to being read before the Society, such being required both 
for Press purposes and for the printed monthly abstract of 
Proceedings. 

2. That at the last meeting of the Council it had been decided to 

obtain for the convenience of the members of the Society the 
complete International Scientific catalogue. Students of 
Science are familiar with the bibliographical difficulties which 
beset every attempt to obtain complete information of the 
state of any branch of Science, and the formation of an 
International catalogue, in which will be set forth immedi- 
ately, every publication in Science throughout the length and 
breadth of the world, is a boon, the value of which it is 
impossible to overestimate. He need hardly say that the 
decision of the Council in respect of this matter will be very 
heartily appreciated by every student or investigator in our 
membership : the opportunity of easily becoming acquainted 
with every accession of scientific knowledge is now within< 
measurable distance, and it is to be hoped that a correspond- 
ing stimulus will be given here to scientific {research without 
which we hardly take our place in the civilized world. 

6— Aug. 8, 1898. 



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Xriii. ABSTRIOT OF PB00BBDING8. 

3. The CouDcil of the Physioo-Eoonomioal Society (Der YoFStuid 
der Physikalisch Gesellachaft) Kdnisberg L Pr., oflfer a prbe 
of 4,000 marks (£200), for <'a work which brings to light 
either the province of vegetable or animal electricity or funda- 
mentally new phenomena, or famishing essentially new co&> 
elusions touching the physical cause of organic electricity or 
its significance for life generally or for definite functions." 
The essay may be printed or written in German, Frendi, 
English, or Italian, and must reach the Council before 31st 
December 1900, and must in no case be published prior to 
30th September, 1898. The author may remain anonymous 
by giving a title to his paper and enclosing his name and 
address in an envelope. In case no essay is deemed of sufficient 
merit, two lesser prizes of 500 marks (£25) will be awarded 
to the worthiest works. The result will be announced at the 
General Meeting of the Society, 6th June, 1901. 

THB FOLLOWING PAPBRS WBRB BEAD : — 

1. "Water-spouts on the Coast of New South Wales," by H. C. 
Russell, b.a., cm.o., f.b.8. 

The paper dealt chiefly with the group of twenty water-spouts 
seen at Eden, on May 16th. It was shewn that one of these 
water-spouts was 5,000 feet high, as measured with a theodolite. 
The longest off Sydney Heads was 400 feet ; here the greater 
number observed are even less than 400 feet. It was shewn that 
water-spouts always form under massive rain clouds, and that th^ 
seldom, if ever, last for an hour. The author endeavoured to 
prove that the water did not go up the centre of the spout^ but 
followed spirally the outside of it, and that the quantity of salt 
water going up cannot be so much as supposed, because there ii 
no instance on record where aaU rain fell after a water-spout 
For the observation of water-spouts Mr. Russell is indebted chiefly 
to Mr. Grichton, Mining Engineer, Eden ; to Dr. A. W. Morgan, 
Pambula ; to Mr. Newton, Pilot, Eden ; and to Mr. Francta^ 
Signal Master, Sydney. 



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AB8TRA0T OF PB00BBDIHG8. xix. 

3. " Some PhyBical Properties of Nickel Steel," by W. H. Wabben, 
wiL So., M. Inst. c. E., Ohallis Professor of Engineering, and 
S. H. Babbaolouoh, icice., AisocM. inst. c.e.. Lecturer in 
Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney. 

Nickel steel, hitherto employed chiefly in the manufacture of 
armour plates, and to a less extent, in forgings for certain impor- 
tant parts of machinery, will probably have a greatly extended 
use as its physical properties become better known, and the cost 
of its production lessened. The present paper describes a series 
of tests of specimens of three varieties of nickel steel manufactured 
by the firm of Fried. Krupp, of Essen, Germany, the three varie- 
ties being known as *mild,' * medium,' and * non-rusting,' and con- 
taining respectively, three, eight and twenty-five per cent, of 
nickel. After summarising the present state of our knowledge 
of the material, the authors describe their experiments to deter- 
mine the tensile and compressive strengths, limit and coefficient 
of elasticity, percentage elongation and contraction of area, yield 
point, torsional strength, shearing strength, and relative liability 
to corrosion. Detailed tables of the observations for each experi- 
ment accompany the paper, and, in order to supply a basis for 
comparison, especially as regards the elastic limits, a summary of 
results obtained from similar tests of specimens cut from a Yicker's 
axle is attached. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Professor Anderson Stuabt, m.d., University of Sydney, 
exhibited a preparation of the human ear showing a new mode of 
demonstrating the action of the auditory ossicles. The method 
consists in removing the roof of the tympanic cavity so as to fully 
expose its contents. A glass tube is now tied into the external 
auditory meatus. To this tube is attached a rubber tube about a 
foot long, and through these tubes the demonstrator by his mouth 
can force air into, and suck air out of, the external meatus. Thus 
the tympanic membrane is made to move, carrying with it the 
ossicles in the same sort of movement as in the normal action of 
the parts, the only essential difference being that this movement 



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M 


N. 


4' 11' 


4'ir 


3'3f 


3'0' 


371 sq. in. 


243 gq. in. 


144 „ 


128 „ 


3-58 


•2-58 


5-63 


4-09 


1-57 


1-59 


-H' 


-3* 



XX. ABSTRACT OF PB0GBEDIKG8. 

is greatly exaggerated. It is best observed bj the aid of a hand 
lens. 

Mr. L. tf ARORAYE exhibited two Soaring Kites M. and N.— 
Two Soaring Kites. 
Length 

Width 

Projected area of propeller ... 
„ „ end surfaces 
Total area, square feet 
Weight, pounds 
Pounds weight per sqaare foot 
Angle of propeller 

(1) The bed rock of this matter is the fact that the wind blow- 
ing on the convex side of a soaring curve, causes a thrust on the 
concave side in a direction to windward of the zenith. 

(2) The soaring curve pulls the plane part of the kite up against 
the wind, resulting in a motion against the wind. This is the 
converse of the act of pulling in the string of a kite to make it 
come forward and down. 

(3) The soaring bird's wing may be divided into three triangle0> 
two of which soar, and one acts as a kite wrong side up. . 

(4) A bird that is merely soaring by means of an upward trend 
of wind may be known by the wing tips being turned up. 

(5) A bird that is truly soaring in horizontal or downward 
blowing wind, may be known by the wing tips drooping. 

Prof. LiVERSiDGB, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., exhibited and described 
(1) some Maori net sinkers made of impure barytes (sp. gr. 4*03) 
and of clay stone? (sp. gr. 2*8) and some unworked concretionary 
nodules of barytes, these had been obtained by Mr. John Webster 
of Hokianga, New Zealand, from some kitchen middens in the 
district. The Maoris had doubtless selected the bar3rtes on accoont 
of its great density ; its comparative softness allowed it to be 
readily worked into shape and perforated. This is the only cas^ 
known to the exhibitor, of barytes being used for this purpose. 



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ABSTRACT OF PROOBBDINOS. XZl. 

(2) Sections of Silver and Capper Nuggets, — The nugget of 
native silver from Lake Superior, was not very much water-worn. 
It contained a little calcite and some quartz in cavities, also a 
little native copper. On slicing, polishing and etching it with 
dilute nitric acid it presented a strongly marked crystalline struc- 
ture closely resembling that seen in the West Australian gold 
nuggets, figured in the Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 1897. 

A nugget of copper from Lake Superior, although studded with 
crystals of silver externally, showed none in the etched section. 
The silver crystals were imperfect rhombic dodecahedra about 
one-eight inch across. This nugget of copper, as well as others, 
from Bolivia and from Burra Burra, South Australia, showed an 
internal crystalline structure somewhat similar to that of the 
West Australian gold nuggets already referred to, but the crystals 
nearly always radiate out from one or more centres, this was not 
observed in any of the gold nuggets. 

(3) StcUactites and Stalagmites from the tunnel at the Prospect 
Keservoir; these were collected by Mr. E. Hufton of the Chemical 
Laboratory; the tunnel was built some twelve ? years ago, and the 
comparatively large size of the stalagmitic deposit — nearly two 
inches in thickness — ogives an idea of the rate of deposition of 
calcium carbonate. The exhibitor believes they have been derived 
mainly from the cement of the tunnel, inasmuch as he understands 
that no limestone was used in its construction, nor is there any in 
or about the reservoir. The catchment area is essentially of 
sandstone and the water consequently poor in lime. 

Mr. J. F. Mann desires to make the following remarks on the 
paper " Native Names of some of the Runs &c, in the Lachlan 
District," by F. B. W. Woolrych (this Journ. xxiv., 63) communi- 
cated by him. **0n pages 65, 66, I make it appear that Cou>al 
Bugan is the correct native name for the extensive lake or swamp 
locally known as Cowal Lake ; this statement is correct only to a 
certain extent, and requires further explanation. 

" In the early days of settlement all swampy places were densely 
coyered with rushes, since ^^reatly destroyed by cattle; at certain 



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Xxii. AB8TBA0T OF PBOOBBDIKGS. 

seasons these rashes were occupied or visited by a species of moth 
called by the natives Bugon or Bugong; they abounded in swamps 
and were no doubt connected in some way with the namerons 
gossamer webs also found in abundance amongst the rushes. These 
moths, though small, were occasionally collected by the natives as 
an article of food, an entrement only, and the expression Cofcal 
Bugon indicated the intention of one or more of these natives of 
visiting this lake for the purpose of collecting these insects ; had 
the object been otherwise, such as seeking wacer-fowl or their eggs, 
the significant name for that particular item would have been 
used in place of the word *' Bugon." 

** Oowal, as I have already explained, means large; I cannot at 
present give the tribal name for water, lake, or swamp; there are 
several names for these, so as to distinguish good drinking water 
from that which is bad, also smooth water from that flowing over 
a rocky bed, etc. 

" The word Bugon is applied also to the moths found in num- 
bers at Mount Kosciusko, but I am unable to say whether thej 
are identical with those of the Lachlan district; doubtless local 
influences cause some difference. 

"Many years ago while scaling some steep cliffs of Hawkesbury 
Sandstone, situated at an elevation of at least 3,000 feet, at the 
head of the Cudgegong River, [ was nearly smothered by a swarm 
of moths which suddenly issued from a cave or recess in the rocks, 
these I conclude were more closely allied to the Kosciusko moth 
than those of the Lachlan River. 

**I have grave doubts as to the genuiness of the name ''Bum- 
baldry" (p. 65); taken in connection with the interpretation 
thereof, I am inclined to think that it is the result of some poetically 
inspired early settler on viewing a number of naked aboriginee 
taking headers into the pool of water on Tyagong Greek. 

" In conclusion, I may here note that, in the early days when 
the natives were numerous, the arrangements in a ' camp proper,' 
that is, when it comprised the bulk of a tribe, were carried on 



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AB8TRA0T OF PBOCBEDINQS. ZXUL 

with systematic regularity, and the disposal of the men for the 
ensuing day or days was a matter always for consideration/' 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged : — 

TRANSACTIONS, JOUENALS, KEPOKTS, Ac. 
(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 

Bologna — B. Aooademia delle Scienze dell' Istituto di Bologna. 
Bendioonto, Nuova Serie, VoL i., 1896-97. Memorie, Serie 

v.. Tome v., 1896-96. The Aeadem/ff 

Bonk — Natashistorieche Vereins der prenssischen Eheinlande, 
Westfalens unddee Beg.-Bezirks Osnabrtlck. VerhaDd- 
lungen, Jahrgang liy., HaUte 1, 1897. Tlie Society 

Niederrheinische Gesellschaft ftlr Natur-und Heilkmide. 

Sitzungsberichte, Haifte 1, 1897. „ 

BsAUNBCHWBio — Vereins for Naturwisenschaft. Jahresbericht, 

Vol. X., 1895-97. firannschweig im Jahre 1897. „ 

Bbibbans — Boyal Society of Queensland. Proceedings, Vol. 

xin., 1897-8. „ 

Camv — Acad^mie Nationale des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres. 

M^moires 1896. The Academy 

Oablsbuhb — QroBBherzoglich-Badische Technische HochschtQe. 
Programm fOr das Studienjahr 1897-8. Inaugural Dis- 
sertations (2) The Director 

Cbacow — Academic des Sciences. Bulletin International, Nos. 

8 - 10, 1897 ; No. 1, 1898. The Academy 

FifOBSNCS — Societik Italiana di Antropolog^a, Etnolog^a &c. 

Archivio, VoL xxvii., Fasc 2, 1897. The Society 

Sofdetk di Studii Qeografici e Coloniali. BuUettino, Annata 
TV., Fasc. 9, 10, 1897 ; Annata v., Fasc. 1-8, 1898. „ 

Fbankfttbt a/m — Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesell- 
schaft Abhandlungen, Band xz.. Heft 1, 1897 ; Band 
XXIII., Heft 3, 4, 1897. Bericht fiir 1897. 

FaBiBBBQ is. — Kdniglich-Sftchsische Bergakademie. Jahrbuch 
fiir das Berg-und HUttonwesen im Kdnigreiche Sachsen 
auf das Jahr 1897. I'he Academy 

QiiASOOW — Philosophical Society of Glasgow. Proceedings, Vol. 

XXVIII., 1896-97. The Society 

Q&mNOBN — Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Nachrichten, Geschftftliche Mittheilungen Heft 2, 1897. 
Mathematisch-physikalische Elasse Heft 8, 1897. „ 

Halifax, N.S. — Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Proceedings 

and Transactions, Vol. ix.. Part 8, 1896-97. The Institute 

Hajcbitbg — Deutsche Seewarte. Ergebnisse der Meteorologis- 
chen Beobachtungen. Jahrgang xix., 1896 und fiir das 
Desennium 1886 - 1895. The Observatory 

Naturhistorisches Museum. Mitteilungen, Jahrgang xiv., 

1897. The Musewn 



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ZXiy. ABSTRACT OF PB00SBDING8. 

Hamilton (Ont.)— Hamilton Association. Journal and Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviu., 1896-97. The Ataoctatiom, 

Haybb — Soci^t^ G6ologique de Normandie. Bulletin, Tome xtii.. 

Annies 1894-9. The Society 

Lxipzio — E5nigl. S&chsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Berichte, Math.-pliys. Classe No. 4, 1897. Sachregiater 
der Abhandlungen und Berichte 1807. 

LiLLi — Soci^t^ G6ologique du Nord. Annales, Tome zziy.« 1896. „ 

London — Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Journal, Vol. xxvii.. No. 2, 1897 ; No. 3, 1898. The InsHiuU 

British Museum (Natural History). Catalojfue of the 
African Plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch in 
1863 - 61 — Dicotyledons Part i. Catalogue of the Fossil 
Bryozoa in the Department of Geology — The Jurassic 
Bryozoa by J. W. Gregory, d.So. The Musewm 

Geological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. liv.. Part ii.. 

No. 214. 1898. The Societf 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings, No. 4, 

1896. The Ituiiiulum 

Institution of Naval Architects. Transactions, Vols, xxxvi., 

xxxviii., xxxiz., 1895-97. The Institnium 

Linnean Society. Journal, Botany, Vol. xxxiii.. No. 230. 

List of Fellows 1897-98. The Society 

Meteorological Office. Meteorologfical Observations at 
Stations of the Second Order for the year 1894. Report 
of the Meteorological Council for the year ending 30th 
March, 1897. The Qfiee 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Pharmaceutical 
Journal, Ser. 4, Vol. vi., Nos. 1448-1468, 1460. 1461. 
J898. The Society 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal, Ser. ii.. Vol. vi.. 

No. 41, 1897. The Cl^ 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, Third 

Series, Vol. ix.. Part i.. No. 33, 1898. The SocUt^ 

Royal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. lvii.. 
No. 9, Supplementary Number ; Vol. lviii., Nos. 1-7, 
1897-8. 

Royal Geographical Society. The Oeographical Journal, Vol. 
X.. Nos. 4-6, 1897 ; Vol. xi., Nos. 4-6, 1898. 

Royal Meteorological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. xxiii., 
1897 ; Vol. XXIV., Nos. 105, 106, 1898. Meteorological 
Record, Vol. xvii., Nos. 66 - 67, 1897. List of Fellows, 
Feb. 16. 1898. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, Nos. 104» 106, 1895 ; 
Nos. 120. 121, 1897; Nos. 122, 124, 1898. 

Royal Society. Philosophical Transactions, Vol. clxxxvi.. 
Parts 1 and 1a.. 2 and 2b. 1896 ; Vol. clxxxvii.. Parts a 
and B, 181*6 ; Vol. clxxxviii.. Part a, 1896. List of 
Fellows, 30th November, 1896. ^ 



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SOTE.— Members are reminded Ihit the next General Monthly Meeting 
wiU be held on Oct. 5, at 8 o'clock p.m. (the first Wednesday in the month). 



/ 
§lopl Socictg of ^efo JSoat| Males, 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, SEPTEMBER 7, 1898. 

The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society^s House, No. 5 Elizabeth street North, on Wednesday 
evening, September 7th, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., in the Chair. 

Twenty members and three visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of three candidates were read for the third time, 
of three for the second time, and of one for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Blunno, Michele, Licenziato in Scienze, (Roma), Government 
Viticultural Expert; Department of Agriculture, N.S. W. 
Murray, Lee, m.c.e. Melb., CivirEngineer; 65 Pitt-street. 
Wade, Leslie A. B., Civil Engineer; Public Works Depart- 
ment. 

THE FOLLOWING PAPERS WERE READ :— 

1. "Key to Tribes and Genera of Melanospermesa (Olive-green 

seaweeds)" by R. A. Bastow. 
This paper was taken as read. 

2. "A study of the Dialects of New Caledonia," by Jules Bernier, 

Curator of the Musee Neo-Caledonienne. (Communicated 
by Charles Hedley, f.l.s.) 

No less than owenty dialects are distinguished in New Cale- 
donia, which are grouped into the following main divisions : the 



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la 



Southern, inclusive of the Isle of Pines ; the Central ; the Northern; 
and those parts of the Loyalty Islands peopled by Melanesians. 
The first two are sharply separated from the latter by the absence 
of the article. The northern is characterised by a tendency to 
terminate in a consonant as shown by the place names, Belep, 
Hienghen, Wagap. A foreign aggressive Polynesian element can 
be detected intrusive upon the indigenous Melanesian. A marked 
feature in the New Caledonian language is its extreme simplicity, 
it is the most primitive Papuan speech. Even the roots are in a 
state of fluctuation and affect various forms. Any labial, or it 
may be any dental consonant, may be used by a native with a 
root vowel to express a particular word. The same word can be 
used as a noun, verb, or adjective, and the broad difference which 
elsewhere prevails between the parts of speech are here unknown. 
Monosyllabisra prevails, and the roots have preserved a synthetic 
signification which seems a property of primitive people, but which 
is in more advanced languages obliterated by specialisation. Thus 
the native mind aggregates together such ideas as white, bright, 
eye, sun, day, light, and expresses them by forms of a root word 
" fire." A method occurs by which not only verbs but other parts 
of speech are conjugated. Enumeration is of the usual Papuan 
type, counting by one, one-one, one-two, one-three, ^ve equal a 
hand (in reference to the digits) five-one, five- two, five-three, five- 
four, ten equal a head. 

EXHIBITS. 

1. An interesting collection of photographs from the Don 
Dorrigo and Brush districts, N. S. Wales, chiefly geological, were 
shewn by His Honor Judge Dockbr, m.a. 

2. A new Eucalyptus oil was exhibited by Messrs. Baker and 
Smith of the Technological Museum, Sydney. On rectification 
this oil was found to contain a fraction boiling between 280° - 
290'' C, equalling 18 per cent, of the whole, and which consisted 
almost entirely of eudesmol, comparatively iu a pure condition. 
The fraction wholly crystallised in less than one hour. This oil 
appears to be free from bodies, also of high boiling point, that 



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Ul. 

have previously been found to interfere with and to make the 
purification of this stearoptene difficult Eudesmol has now been 
found to exist in the oils of six of the forty-five species of Eucalypts 
obtained. If eudesmol shall be found eventually to be of medicinal 
value, or useful for other purposes, we have in this oil a most pro^ 
lific source of the material. 

3. The latest type of Polariscope (Wright-Newton projecting 
polariscope) was exhibited by Dr. F. H. Quaipb, m.a. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged : — 

TRANSACTIONS, JOURNALS, REPORTS, Ac. 
(The Names of the Donors are in Italics). 

Bristol — Bristol Naturalists' Society. Proceedings, N.S. Vol. 

VIII., Part ii., 1896-97. The Society 

Cambbidgb — Cambridge Philosophical Society. Transactions, 

Vol. XVI., Part iv., 1898. „ 

Cambridge University Library. Annual Report (44th) of 

the Library Syndicate for year ending 31 Dec., 1897. The Univenity 

Edinburgh — Royal Physical Society. Proceedings, Vol. xiii.. 

Part iii., 1896-97. The Society 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Scottish Geographical 

Magazine, Vol. xi v., Nos. 4-6, 1898. „ 

Scottish Microscopical Society. Proceedings, Vol. ii.. No. 2, 
Session 1896-97. „ 

Flobkncb — Society Italiana di Antropologia Etnologia &c. 

Archivio, Vol. xxvii.. Ease. 8, 1897. „ 

G BELONG-— Gordon Technical College. ' The Wombat,* Vol. in., 

Nos. 2, 8, 1998. The College 

Kew — Royal Gardens. Hooker's Icones Plantarum, 4 Ser., 

Vol. VI., Part iii.. 1898. The Director 

LrvBRPOOL — Literary and Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 

Vol. Li., 1896-97. The Society 

London — Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Lreland. 

Journal, Vol. xxvii.. No. 2, 1897 ; No. 3, 1898. The Institute 

British Museum (Natural History). Catalosrue of the 
African Plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsoh in 
1853 - 61— Dicotyledons Part i. Catalogue of the Fossil 
Bryozoa in the Department of Geology— The Jurassic 
Bryozoa by J. W. Gregory, d.sc The Museum 

Geological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. liv.. Part ii., 

No. 214, 1898. The Society 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings, No. 4, 

1896. The Institution 



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XXVm. AB8TBA0T OF PBOOBBDINOS. 

Ksw — Boyal Qardens. Hooker's Icones Plantarum. 4 Ser., 

Vol. VI., Part iii.. 1898 The Dmd» 

LiYSRPOOL — Literary and Philosophical Society. Proceeding^, 

Vol. LI.. 1896-97. The 8odi<y 

London — Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceeding. 

Nos 3. 4. 1897. The IntHtvUn 

Iron and Steel Institute. Journal. Name Index, Vols. i. 

- L. . 1869 - 1 896. The Ifulihdt 
Pharmaceutical Society of Qreat Britain. Journal, Fourth 

Series. Vol. vi.. Nos. 1459. 1463-1469, 189S. The Sw^ 

Physical Society of London. Proceedings, Vol. xv.. Part 

xii., No. 87, 1897. Science Abstracts, Vol. i.. Parts 

i. -iv., 1898. 
Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, Third 

Series, Vol. ix . Part ii . No. 34, 1898. 
Boyal Meteorological Society. Meteorological Record, Vol. 

XVII.. No. 68, 1897. Quarterly Journal, Vol. xxrv.. No. 

107. 1898. 
Royal Society of Literature. Transactions, Second Series, 

Vol. XIX., Parts i. and ii., 1897. »> 

Royal United Service Institution. Journal. Vol. xli., Nos. 

280, 284-238, 1897; VoL XLii., Nos. 239-241,1898. 

Supplement to Lectures 1897. The InstihUin 

Sanitary Institute of Great Britain. Journal. Vol. xviii.. 

Parts iii. and iv.; Vol. xix., Part i., 1897-98. The IndUuU 

Society of Arts. Journal. Vol. xlv.. Nos. 2846 - 2347; VoL 

XLVi., Nos. 2348 - 2362, 2364 - 3379, 1897-98. The Socirff 

Zoological Society of London. Proceedings, Parts iii., iv., 
1897 ; Part i.. 1898. Transactions, Vol. xiv.. Parts iv. 

- vi., 1897-98. 

Manchbbtkb — Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Proceedings. Vols. ii. - xv.. Sessions 1860-61 - 1875-76. 
Memoirs, Third Series, Vols. i. - v., 1862 - 1876 ; Fourth 
Series, Vol. vi.. 1892. Memoirs and Proceeding^, Vcd. 
XLii.. Parts i, ii., 1897-98. 
Manchester liiterary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs 
and Proceedings, Vol. xlii.. Part iii., 1897-98. „ 

Mabbubg — Gesellschaft zur Bef 5rderuiig der gesammten Natur- 
wissenschaften. Schriften, Band xia., Abtheil ), 1896. 
Sitzungsberichte. Jahrgang 1896. Th4 Soddti 

University— Inaugural Dissertations 1896-97 (86) The UntMrntr 

MsLBOUBNB— Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers. 
Proceedings, 14 January, 12 April, 1898. Transactions, 
Vol. v., 1898. r^ IndMt 

Australanan Journal of PharvMey, Vol. xn.. No. 144, 1897; 

Vol. XIII., Nos. 146 - 154, 1898. Hie SdUer 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ld. Reports and Statements 
of Account for Half Tears ending 80 Nov., 1897, and 
31 May, 1898. The aecret&ri 

Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The Victorian Naturaliti, 

Vol. XIV., Nos. 1 - 12, Vol. XV., Nos. 1-6, 1897-8. The CW 



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NOTB.—Mmnbert are reminded thai the negt General Monthly Meeting 
vriU he held on Nov, 2, at 8 o'doek p.m. (the first Wednesday in the month). 



^ogal Soaetg of |ietDf Soutj^ fflalw. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, OCTOBER 5, 1898. 



The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, October 5tb, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.8., in the Chair. 

Thirty-six members and four visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of three candidates were read for the third time, 
of one for the second time, and of one for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Alexander, Frank Lee, Cement Maker ; Druitt-street. 

Behrendt, Peter, Engineer ; O'Connellnstreet. 

Kerry, Charles Henry, Photographer ; 310 George-street. 

THB FOLLOWING PAPERS WBRE RBAD : — 

1. <*0n the Pinenes of the Oils of the genus Eucalyptus, Part 1," 
by Hbnrt G. Smith, F.as., Technological Museum, Sydney. 

This paper treated of the investigation of both dextrorotatory 
and Isevorotatory pinenes found existing in large quantity in the 
oils obtained from two new species of Eucalypts growing in New 
South Wales. These two species belong to the group of Eucalypts 
known as the Stringybarks, and botanically both have many 
resemblances. The oils obtained from their leaves by steam dis- 
tillation were found to consist principally of the terpene, pinene, 



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^ 



and although the oils iresembled each other most markedly in 
many respects, it was found that while the pinene from E. dexbro- 
pinea rotated the ray of light to the right, the pinene from the 
other species (E. lasvopineaj rotated the ray to the left The 
crude oil of E, dexiropinea when redistilled gave 88 per cent 
between 156*" and 172° C, and on final rectification of the first 
fractions, this dextropinene was found to have the following 
characteristics : boiling point 1 56** C, specific gravity at ^^ = 0-875, 
at H° = 0-8629, and specific rotation at 18' C. of + 4^2^ The 
oil from E, lavopinea gave 88 per cent., distilling between 157* 
and 172*" C. and this Isevopinene on final rectification gave the 
following results: boiling point 157° C, specific gravity at }' = 
0-8755, at \¥ = 0-8626, and specific rotation at 1 9° C. = - 4863. 
These results show that Eucalyptus oils contain pinenes having 
both right and left rotation. When equal volumes of these two 
pinenes were mixed it was found that the dextropinene had exactly 
neutralised an equivalent portion of the Isevopinene as the remain- 
ing rotation was found to be almost identically the amount 
required theoretically. The dextropinene appears to be identical 
with that isolated from the oil of Eucalyptus globulus by Bour- 
chardat and Tardy (Comp. rend. 1895, 120, 1417) and maybe 
considered to be the physical isomeride of terebenthene obtained 
from French oil of turpentine. It also appears probable that the 
Eucalyptus dextropinene may eventually be found to be the 
isomeride of Eucalyptus Isevopinene, and that these two pinenes 
always occur together in the natural state in various proportions, 
which governs the rotation of the particular oil No phellandrene 
was detected in the oils of either species, and only a minute trace 
of eucalyptoL The hydrates, nitrosochlorides, monochloride etc., 
were prepared from both pinenes, and these were found to give 
identical results with those obtained from Australene and tere- 
benthene, which terpenes they therefore chemically and physically 
resemble. The results indicate that these Eucalyptus pinenes 
(N.O. Myrtacese) are identical with the pinenes obtained from the 
pines (K.O. Coniferse). It was stated by the author that it appears 



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AB8TBA0T OF PROCBBDINOS. ZXZl. 

for the IsBYopinene, the old name Eucalyptene remaining for the 
dextrorotatory form. 

2. *'Oarrent Papers, No. 3," by H. 0. Russbll, b.a., o.]f.G., F.B.S. 

Since the previous paper on this subject was read one hundred 
and fifty-five papers have been collected, and a large percentage 
of them are of great interest. Seven were thrown over by Royal 
Mail Steamships between Ceylon and Aden, and with two excep- 
tions were found on the coast of Africa, one on Farquhar Island 
and the other on the southern coast of Madagascar. It is note- 
worthy that these were all between the Equator and 24*" South^ 
No papers have been found in the sea between 24*" and 30*" South 
and thence southward all the papers have travelled to the east. 
A few papers found in the Indian Ocean north of the equator 
have also gone to the east. On the south coast they have followed 
the usual easterly course. In Tasman Sea several have followed 
unusual courses to north-north-east, one thrown over near Qabo 
was found on an island near the north of New Caledonia, another 
thrown over in the latitude of Gabo, but further east, was found 
on one of the New Hebrides islands. Of those thrown over by 
It. M.S. Ormuz when near Gabo, two are very remarkable, one 
three miles off Green Cape at 10*15 a.m. was found on the west 
coast of Zealand ; at noon on the same day, twenty mUes north of 
the position of the first one, a second bottle was thrown over, and 
it was found on the beach between Sydney and Newcastle. 

EXHIBITS. 

1. Prof. LrvBBSiDOB, m.a., LL.D., F.B.S., exhibited specimens of 
the blue pigment which he had separated from Heliopora ccBrulea, 
brought by Prof. David from Funafuti, together with solutions of 
it and of indigo for comparison. 

2. Prof. T. P. Andbrson Stuart, m.d., exhibited a specimen 
of artificial silk, and showed the acetylene light. 

3. Mr. RussBLL exhibited Dine's Portable Anemometer. 

4. Prof. David exhibited specimens of cores of coral rock from 
the Funafuti Bore from depths of eight hundred and fifty to nine 



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=*■ 



!▼. 



brought hy Prof. David from VuDafuti, together with solutions of 
it and of indigo for oomparison. 

2. Prof. T. P. Andbbson Stuart, m.d., exhibited a specimen 
of artifioial silk, and showed the aoetylene light. 

3. Mr. BxTBSBLL exhibited Dine's Portable Anemometer. 

4. Prof. David exhibited specimens of cores of coral rock from 
the Funafuti fiore from depths of eight hundred and fifty to nine 
hundred and eighty-seven feet, the latter being the greatest depth 
attained by the boring up to the time when Mr. Qerald H. 
Halligan left the atoll on September 6th. The rock is harder 
than that previously encountered, but is easier for boring, as it 
does not need to be supported by lining pipes to prevent caving. 
Mr. Halligan exhibited specimens of the material dredged by Mr. 
A. E. Finckh and himself from the seaward slope of the atoll, 
from between depths of thirty and two hundred fathoms. The 
apparatus used consisted of a he^vy steel chisel and hempen tangles, 
and a strong conical steel bucljet with sharp cutting edge. The 
results were very satisfactory, k considerable amount of new and 
useful material having been obtltined. Mr. Halligan also exhibited 
samples of the Halifneda sand' and coral heads obtained by him 
when in charge of the hydratdic drill belonging to the Works 
Department of New South Wales, and placed on H.M.S. Porpoise 
for the purpose of boring the bottom of the Funafuti lagoon. 
Professor David stated that the time allowed by the Admiralty 
for the boring was one week, and in this short space of time two 
bores had been put down to depths respectively of two hundred 
and forty-five and two hundred and fourteen feet below the surface 
of the lagoon, the depth of water at the sites of both bores being 
one hundred and one feet. The HaUmada sand proved to be 
eighty feet thick, and under that in each bore coral heads, appar- 
ently in situ, had been penetrated. The rate of boring in the 
bottom of the lagoon had averaged about forty-five feet per day, 
a highly satisfactory result. The evidence obtained would probably 
be of great value, as bearing on the suliject of Darwin's theory as 
to the formation of atolls by subsidence. 



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ABSTRACT OF PR00EBDING8. • XXix. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, OCTOBER 5, 1898. 



The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, October 5tb, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., in the Chair. 

Thirty-six members and four visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of three candidates were read for the third time, 
of one for the second time, and of one for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Alexander, Frank Lee, Cement Maker ; Druitt-street. 

Behrendt, Peter, Engineer ; O'Connell-street. 

Kerry, Charles Henry, Photographer; 310 George-street. 

THE FOLLOWING PAPERS WERE READ : — 

1. "On the Pinenes of the Oils of H;he genus Eucalyptus, Part 1," 
by Henry G. Smith, f.c.s.. Technological Museum, Sydney. 
This paper treated of the investigation of both dextrorotatory 
and Isevorotatory pinenes found existing in large quantity in the 
oils obtained from two new species of Eucalypts growing in New 
South Wales. These two species belong to the group of Eucalypts 
known as the Stringy barks, and botanical ly both have many 
resemblances. The oi)s obtained from their leaves by steam dis- 
tillation were found to consist principally of the terpene, pinene, 
and although the oils resembled each other most markedly in 
many respects, it was found that while the pinene from E, deoctro- 
pinea rotated the ray of light to the right, the pinene from the 
other species (B, kevapineaj rotated the ray to the left. The 
crude oil of JS, dextrapinea when redistilled gave 88 per cent, 
between 156*" and 172*" C, and on final rectification of the first 
fractions, this dextropinene was found to have the following 
characteristics: boiling point 156°C., specific gravity at i° = 0*875, 



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XZXIV. ABSTRACT OF PB00BBDINQ8. 

Easton, Pa. — American Chemical Society. JoornaU Vol xiz.. 

Nob. 11, 12, 1897; Vol. xx.. Nob. 1-5, 1898. . Ths Soddf 

Edinburgh — Highland and Agricultnral Society of Scotland. 

TranaactionB, 6 Ser., Vol. x., 1898. „ 

Boyal ScottiBh Geog^phical Society. Scottish Q9ographioal 

MagoMine, Vol. xiv., No. 7, 1898. 
Boyal Society of Edinburgh. ProceedingB, Vol. xxi.. Sessions 

1896-97. Transactions, VoL xxxviii.. Parts iii., iv.. 

Session 1895-96 ; Vol. xxxix.. Part i.. Session 1896-97. „ 
University. Calendar, 1898-99. Hie Uimmmtf 

FoBT MoNBOB,Va. — U. S. Artillery School. Journal of the U.S. 

Artillery, Vol. ix., Noa. 2, 8, 1898. The SdwU 

GxiLONG — Gordon Technical College. The Wombat, Vol. ui.. 

No. 4, 1898. The CoUegi 

GxNBYA— Institut National Genevois. Bulletin, Tome xxxiv., 

1897. The InstiMe 
Glaboow — UniTcrsity. Calendar 1898-9. The University 

Jamaica — Institute of Jamaica. Journal, Vol. ii., Noe. 2 and 5, 

1895-97. The TnsiUvU 

Lausanns — Soci6t6 Vaudoise dee Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin, 

4 Ser., Vol. xxxiii.. Nob. 125, 126, 1897. The Sodei^ 

Lincoln — U.S. Agricultural Experimental Station. Bulletin, 

Vol. X.. Nob. 50-54. 1897-98. The Staium 

London — Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Journal, Vol. xxvii.. No. 4, 1898. The InstituU 

Institution of Civil Engineers. Minutes of Proceedings, 

Vols, cxxxi., czxxii., 1897-98. The ItwiOirfum 

Physical Society of London. Proceedings, Vol. xvi.. Part i., 

1898. List of Officers and Fellows, 1898. Science 
Abstracts, Vol. i.. Parts vi., vii., 1898. The Soeitt^ 

Boyal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, VoL lviii.. 

No. 8, 1898. 
Boyal Geographical Society. Oeographical Journal, Vol. xii.. 

Nob. 1, 2, 1898. 
Boyal Microscopical Society. Journal, Part iv.. No. 125, 1898. „ 
Boyal Society of Literature. Beport and List of Fellows 

1898. Transactions, Second Series, Vol. xix., Parts iii.« 

and iv., 1898. „ 

Sanitary Institute. Journal, Vol. xix.. Part ii., 1898. The InstUuU 
Society of Arts. Journal, Vol. xlvi.. Nob. 2380 -2888. r^ Society 

LuBBCK — Geographische Gesellschaft und Naturhistorische 
Museums. Mitteilungen, Zweite Beihe, Heft. 10, 11« 
1896. The JficMim 

Manchbstbb— Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Journal of Conchology, Vol. ix., Nos. 1-8, 1898. The Society 
Manchester Geological Society. Transactions, Vol. xxv.. 
Parts 12 - 16, 1897-98. 

Mabssillks— Faculty des Sciences de Marseille. Annales, Tome 

VIII., Fasc. 5 - 10, 1898. The FaevUy 



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ABSTRACT OF PB0CEEDING8. XZXY. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, NOVElfBER 2, 1S9S. 

The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
eyening, November 2nd, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members and one visitor were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificate of one candidate was read for the third time, 
of one for the second time, and of one for the first time. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 
of the Society : — 

Thow, Sydney, Engineer; 24 Bond-street. 

The members are informed that the library of the New South 
Wales Branch of the British Medical Association (121 Bathurst- 
street) is available for their use, the Association and this Society 
having entered into a reciprocal arrangement. This arrangement * 
does not extend to the lending out of books. 

THR FOLLOWING PAPERS WERE READ: — 

1. " Soaring Machines," by Mr. Lawrence Haroravb. 

The paper describes some recent experiments with soaring 
machines and gives as a reason for rejecting the form previously 
made, that its nature was such that however long or heavy the 
ends of the rod were, they could only retard for a longer or shorter 
period of time the tipping up or down of the machine. The 
weight is now hung underneath the propeller, like the car of a 
balloon or parachute, the angle of incidence being regulated by 
gravity alone. Some previous experimenters with soaring machines 
were mentioned who have, as a rule, been greatly discredited. 
A diagram showed the condition of the air in the neighbourhood 
of a soaring curve with the names of the various parts. 

2. "Native Vocabulary of Miscellaneous New South Wales 

Objects etc.," by Mr. Surveyor Larmer. (Communicated by 
Professor T. P. Anderson Stuart, M.D., by permission of the 
Honourable the Secretary for Lands). 



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XXZVl. ABSTRACT OF PROGBKDINGS. 

EXHIBITS. 

1. Mr. BussELL exhibited a diagram shewing for the past 
eleven years a progressive variation in the lm>el, nadir and asdmulk 
of the Transit instrument, Sydney Observatory. These diagrams 
shew an annual variation as well as a variation due to heavy rains. 
The instrument is of the very best quality, cannot produce these 
changes within itself, and stands upon a very massive pier whidi 
was built forty years ago on the solid rock. It was shewn that 
the progressive changes would be accounted for if the sandstone 
is dipping to south ten degrees west, and instances were given 
shewing that any heavy fall of rain caused a sudden change in the 
instrument, coincident with what would happen if the weight of 
the rain bent down the sandstone to the west of the Observatory. 
Other Observatories had noted similar changes, notably that of the 
Oape of Good Hope, where it was found that the instrument was 
a£fected by the accumulation of water in an adjacent swamp. 

2. Professor Threlfall exhibited a large number of materials 
required in well-equipped physical laboratories which recent 
industrial advances have made commercially available. 

The President then addressed Professor Threlfall in the 
following words: — "For the interesting exhibits by Professor 
Threlfall the Society is greatly indebted. As most of you are 
aware this meeting of the Royal Society is probably the last at 
which we shall have the pleasure of our esteemed friend's presence^ 
inasmuch as he proposes leaving for England during the current 
month. We cannot let this opportunity pass, therefore, without 
publicly expressing our very great regret at losing Professor 
Threlfall as a member of our Society, and at losing his services in 
our University and community. On behalf of our Society, I may 
venture to say that we very keenly appreciate his scientific 
labours amongst us. 

"Perhaps not the least conspicuous and important feature 
among these is the creation of the splendidly equipped physical 
laboratory at the University, and his work and influence therein. 
These are monuments of his energy which will live on in the life 



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ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. XZXviL 

of our community, and are instruments of scientific culture which 
will leave their mark on the future of our people. 

" More directly as concerns our Society Prof. Threlfall's capable 
aervices both in the deliberations of its Council and in the direction 
of its afiairs during his office as President challenge our gratitude* 
His interesting and incisive discussions at our meetings and the 
readiness with which he always responded to every appeal for 
assistance in the more important movements of our Society, will 
long be remembered by those who take any interest in its affairs. 

**I may be pardoned for making a personal reference to my own 
indebtedness to Prof. Threlfall. I wish to say that in so far as I 
have been able to follow — a very long way off" — in his footsteps 
as a student of physics, it has been largely due to the stimulus of 
his personal influence and the infection of his enthusiasm for that 
subject of which he is so able an exponent. 

** Professor Threlfall, on behalf of the Royal Society, I offer 
you our very best wishes for your future and the future of those 
near and dear to you, and I beg to assure you that we part with 
you with profound regret and with a keen sense of how much as 
a Society we owe to you and to your ardent affection for Science.*' 

Professor Threlfall replied, " Mr. President and Gentlemen, 
I thank you ^ery heartily for the kind words which you. Sir, have 
spoken and to which the Society has so graciously responded and 
endorsed. If I may accept Mr. Knibbs' assurance as to the effect 
of my feeble strivings on him personally as his reasoned opinion, 
and not merely as an expression of his kindliness towards me, 
then I can say that if I had done nothing else, my time has not 
been wasted. 

"I should like to take this opportunity of referring to the great 
assistance and encouragement which I have received from the 
Hoyal Society ever since I came to the Colony; I should like to 
place on record my sense of the stimulus which I have received 
from the Society, and of the profit I have had in attending its 
meetings and discussing the things in which I am interested. I 



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XZXTIU. AB8TIUL0T OF PB0CBBDING8. 

should like to say that I consider the Society holds a very importaat 
place in the community, both on account of the work which it 
publishes, and on account of the ideal of scientific work which it 
holds up. Personally I am immensely indebted to the Society for 
the encouragment it has always given me and also for the grest 
use I have had of its fine library, without which it would hive 
been impossible at one time for me to have done any work at ilL 
I shall always look back upon my connection with the Society 
with the warmest gratitude and pleasure, and consider that the 
fellowship of the Society is one of which any man might be proud. 
Let me conclude by again thanking you all for your kindnen 
towards me." 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged: — 

TBANSACnONS, JOURNALS, BEP0BT8, Ac. 
(The Names of the Donors are in Itdlies,) 

AxsTBBDAM— Koninklijk Zoologisch Genootsohap. "Natara 

Artis Magistra," 1888 - 1898. The Socittff 

Nederlandsche Maatschappij terbeyorderingvan Nijverheid. 
Tijdschrift, Nieuwe Beeks, Deel i., Nov., Dec., 1807; 
Deel II., Jan. - Mar., May - Oct., 1898. The AtMociaivm 

Boyal Academy of Sciences. Verhandeliiigen, Afd. Nataur- 
kunde, 1 Sectie, Deel vi.. Nob. 1 - 5 ; 2 Sectie, Deel vi.. 
Nob. 1. 2. Zittingsverslagen, Afd. Nataarkunde, Deel 
VI., 1897-8. Jaarboek 1897. The Academy 

Baltimobk — Johns Hopkins Universitv. Zum hochalemaimis- 
chen Eonsonantismas der althochdeutBchen Zeit. von 
Dr. Friedrich Wilkens, 1891. The Univeniifi 

Basoxlona— Beal Academia de Ciencias y Aries. Boletin, Vol. 

I.. No. 16, 1897. The Academy 

BsBLiN — Centralbureau der Intemationalen Erdmessung. 
Bericht tlber den stand der Erforschung der breiten- 
variation im December 1897 von Th. Albrecht. The Bureau 

Gesellschaft ftlr Erdktmde. Verhandlungen, Band xxiv.. 
Nob. 8 - 10, 1897; Band xxv.. Nob. 1-4, 1898. Zeitaohrif t. 
Band xxxn., Nos. 6, 6, 1897 ; Band xxxin., Nos. 1, 2, 
1898. The Sodeii 

KOniglich preassische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sit- 

zungsberichte, Nos. 1-89, 1898. The Academy 

EOniglich preusaische Meteorologische Institute. Bericht 
tlber cue Th&tigkeit im Jahre 1897. Ergebnisse der 
Beobachtong^n an den Stationen JI. and IIL Ordnong 
Heft 2. 1897. Ergebnisse der Gewitter-Beobachtungen 
in den Jahren 1895 und 1896. The JnslUvU 



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ABSTRACT OF PB00BBDIN08. XXXIZ. 

BiKiciiroHAiE — Birmingham and Midland Institute. Programme 

for SessioB 1898-99. The InstUuU 

BoGTOM, Maee. — American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. XXXIII., Nos. 18 - 27, 1898. The Academjf 

Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings^VoL xxvui., 

Nos. 8-12, 1S98. The Bociety 

Bomv — Naturhistorischer Verein der prenssischen Bheinlande, 
Westfalens and des Beg.-Bezirks Osnabrtick. Verhaod- 
longen, Jahrgang liv.. Heft 2, 1897. „ 

Niederrheinische GeseUscbaft ftlr Natur-und Heilkunde. 

Sitznngsberichte, Halfte 2, 1897. „ 

Brbiom — Naturwissenschaf tlicher Verein. Abhandlnngen, 

Band xiv.. Heft 3, 1898 ; Band xv.. Heft 2, 1897. ,, 

Brisbane — Department of Agriculture. Contributions to the 
Flora of Queensland and New Guinea, Extract from The 
Queeneland Agricultural Journal, Vol. in.. Parts iii. - v., 
1898. The Department 

Geological Survey. Bulletin, Nos. 8 - 10, 1898. The Survey 

Bbussbls — Academic Boyale des Sciences, des Lettres et des 
Beaux-Arts. Annuaire 1896, 1897. Bulletin, 8 Ser.» 
Ann6e 66 - 67, Tome xxx. - xxxiii., 1895 - 1897. Notices 
Biographiques and Bibliographiques, 4th Edition, 1896. 
B^glements et Documents Concemant les Trois Classes 

1896. The Academy 
Observatoire Boyal de Bruxelles. Annales Astronomiquee, 

N.S. Tome vii., 1896. Annales M^t^rologiques, N.S. 
Tome III., nr., 1896. Annuaire, Ann^e 66-64, 1889 - 

1897. Bibliographic (J^n^rale de 1' Astronomic par J. C. 
Houseau et A. Lancaster, Tome i., Seconde Partie 1889. 

The Obseroaiory 
Soci6t6 Boyale Malacologique de Belgique. Annales, Tome 
XXVIII. -XXX., 1893-96; Tome xxxi., Fasc. 1, 1896. 
Proems- Verbaux des Stances, Tome xxiv., 1896 ; Tome 
XXV., 1896 ; Tome xxvi., 1897 ; Tome xxvii., 1898 (pp. 
1-72). The Society 

BuBNOS AiBss — Museo Nacional. Anales, Tome v., (Ser. 2, 

Tome II.) 1896-97. Memoria, 1894, 1896, 1896. The Museum 

Institute Geogr&flco Argentine. Boletin, Tomo xviii., Nos. 

7 - 12, 1897. The Institute 

Buffalo ~ Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Bulletin, Vol. 

v.. No. 6, 1897 ; VoL vi., No. 1, 1898. The Society 

Calcutta— Geological Survey of India. General Beport on the 
work carried on by the Geological Survey of India for 
the period from 1st Jan. 1897 to the Ist April 1898. The Survey 

Cambbidob — Cambridge Public Free Library. Annual Beport 

(48rd) of 1897 - 1898. 2%e Library 

Cambbidob (Mass.) — Museum of Comparative Zodlogy at Harvard 
College. Bulletin, Vol. xxviii., Nos. 4, 6 j Vol. xxxi.. 
No. 7 ; Vol. XXXII., Nos. 3-8, 1898. The Museum 

Casskll — ^Vereins ftir Naturkunde zu Eassel. Abhandlungen 

und Bericht, Vol. xlii., 1896-97. The Society 



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Xl. ABSTRACT OF PR00EBDINO8. 

MsLBOURNS — Pablio Library, Museums, and National Gallery 

of Victoria. Beport of the Trustees for 1897. The TnuUes 

Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia (Victoria). Trans- 
actions, Vol. XV. The d'oady 

Boyal Society of Victoria. Proceedings, (New Series) VoL 
X., Part ii J Vol. xi.. Part i., 1898. 

Universily. Calendar 1897, 1899. The tTit iwijiy 

Mbbidsm, Conn. — Meriden Scientific Association. Transactions, 

Vol. VIII., 1897-98. The Astodaiiom 

MsTz— Vereins f Or Erdkunde. Jahresbericht, xix., 1896-97. The Sodetif 

Milam — Society Italiana di Scienze Naturali. Atti, Vol. xxxvii., 
Fasc. 2, 1898. 

MoDBMA — Begia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti Memorie, 

Serie 2, VoL xii., Partie i., 1896. The Academy 

MoNTPELLiER — Acad^mic des Sciences et Lettres de Montpellier. 
M6moires de la Section des Sciences, S^rie 2, Tome ii., 
Nos. 2-4, 1895-6. 

MuLHOUSE — Soci^t^ Industrielle de Mulhouse. Bulletin, Vol. 
Lxvii., Sept. - Dec. 1897; Vol. lxviii., Jan. - Mar. 1898. 

The Society 

Nantes — Society des Sciences Naturelles de TOuest de la France. 
Bulletin, Tome vi., Trimestre 4, 189G; Tome vu., 
Trimestre 1-3, 1897. ., 

Naples — Society Beale di Napoli. Bendiconto dell' Accademia 
delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche Ser. 3, Vol. in., 
Fasc. 8 - 12, 1897; Vol. iv., Fasc. 1, 2, 1898. 

Nbwoa8TL«-upon-Ttnb — Natural History Society of Northum- 
berland, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Natural 
History Transactions, Vol. xiii.. Fart ii., 1898. „ 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers. Transactions, Vol. xlvi.. Parts iv. -vi., 
and Annual Beport 1896-7; Vol. xlvii., Parts i. -v., 
1897-98. An account of the Strata of Northumberland 
and Durham as proved by Borings and Sinkings U - Z, 
1897. The InstituU 

New York — American Geographical Society. Bulletin, VoL 

XXIX., Nos. 3, 4, 1897; Vol. xxx., Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1898. The Society 

American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin, Vol. ix., 

1897. The Mwevtm 

New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, Vol. ix., Nos. 6 

- 12, 1897. The Academy 

New York Microscopical Society. Journal, Vol. xiii.. No. 

4, 1897; Vol. xiv.. No. 1, 1898. The Society 

School of Mines, Columbia College. The School of Mines 
Quarterly, Vol. xvui.. No. 4, 1897 ; VoL xix., Nos. 1, 2. 
8, 1898. The School 

OxiOBD—Badcliffe Library. Catalogue of Books added during 

the year 1897. The Trwteee 



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AB8TRA0T OF PROOEBDIN68. xlL 

ABSTRACT OF PBOCEEDINaS, DECEMBEB 7, 1808. 



The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, December 7th, 1898. 

The President, G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., in the Chair. 

Thirty members and one visitor were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificate of one candidate was read for the third time, of 
one for the second time, and of one for the first time. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 
of the Society : — 

Burfitt, Walter Fitzmaurice, b.a., b.Sc.; Glebe Point. 

Messrs. David Fell and H. A. Lbnbhan, were appointed 
Auditors for the current year. 

THE FOLLOWING PAPBR8 WBRB RBAD: — 

1. ''The Group Divisions and Initiation Ceremonies of the 

Barkunjee Tribes" by R. H. Mathbws, l.s. 

Mr. B. H. Mathews read a short article on the Group Divisions 
and Initiation Ceremonies of the Barkunjees, a native tribe in 
the western portion of New South Wales. He pointed out that 
all the men and women in the community are divided into two 
distinct groups, designated Keelparra and Muckwarra respectively, 
the individuals of one group intermarrying with those of the other. 
The inaugural ceremonies common among these tribes was next 
briefly referred to. On the boys approaching puberty they are 
taken away from the maternal control, and are kept under rigor- 
0118 treatment in the bush with the chiefs and wise men of their 
tribe, for several weeks. During this period they are subjected to 
the extraction of a front tooth, cutting off the hair, and the 
ancient rite of circumcision. 

2. '* Native Silver accompanying Matte and Artificial Galena," 

by Professor Lfvbrsidgb, m.a., ll.d., f.b.s. 



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Xlii. ADeTBA.CT OF PB0CSBDIN08. 

Prol Livereidge, m.a., ll.d., f.b.8., exhibited some speeimeDi 
forwarded to him by Mr. Edgar Hall, f.c.s., of Tenterfield, which 
Mr. Hall had obtained from between two ooursee of brickwork in 
the arch over the vault of an old reverberatory furnace, the upper 
course had been raised bodily, but remained intact, and the space 
between became filled to a thickness of about four inches with a 
layer of clean matte ; the metallic silver occurs on the sur&ceB 
in the cracks and crevices of the matte and bricks. 

Mr. Hall also states that the matte assays about 120ozb.o{ 
silver per ton, 67% lead and 5% copper, whereas no matte ever 
tapped out of the furnace in the usual way assayed less than 350 on. 
silver, 20% copper, and only about 25% lead ; and probably the 
average of all the matte made in the furnace would be 25% copper 
25% lead, 400 ozs. silver and 1 oz. of gold per ton. 

Mr. Hall remarks ''now it seems to me that this lead matte (an 
artificial galena?) must have separated out from the liquid matte 
and passed through the porous brick arch as a compound of definite 
composition, leaving the copper and silver behind." 

Prof. Liversidge stated that the galena breaks with a granular 
fracture, and as might be expected, it is harder than usual. The 
silver occurs in thin films not in wires or globules, it does not 
appear to have been fused, but looks as if it had been reduced 
from silver sulphide.^ The silver sulphide had probably liquated 
out from the matte, as it is very much more fusible. 

3. " The Blue Pigment of Corals,'' by Professor Livebsidob, M.An 

LL.D., F.R 8. 

The coral examined was Ileliopora ccbvuUa^ obtained by Pro! 
David from Funafuti Atoll when conducting the Coral Reef 
Exploration in 1897. He states that it is very abundant there 
in places. The specimens were of a dull light slate-blue colour 
externally and a little darker internally.' The pigment has not 
yet been obtained in a pure condition, as the quantity at mj 

1 See A. Liversidge, ** On the Formation of Moes Gold and Silvern- 
Boy. Soc. N.S.W., 1876 ; Chem. News, 35, 1877. 

s See Mosely's paper in the Challenger Beport, Zoology II., p. 109. 



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ABSTRACT OF PBOCBEDINOS. xliiL 

cUspoeal was yery smidl. Neither has it yet been obtained in a 
crystallized 'condition ; its best solvent appears to be glacial acetic 
acid, to which it imparts a rich blue colour. It appears to be 
quite distinct from indigo, also from the blue pigment of lobster 
shell and other blue substances, the colour of the Emu egg shell 
seems to be somewhat similar. Its ash contains a good deal of 
iron, phosphoric oxide, lioie and some magnesia. Rather more 
than 1% of the crude pigment was obtained from a freshly col- 
lected specimen, an old waterworn dead specimen yielded only 
*26% of pigment. It does not readily lend itself to dyeing either 
silk, wool, or cotton. On extracting it in a percolator with 
glacial acetic acid or with absolute alcohol it after a time changes 
to a green colour. Dilute solutions of indigo in acetic acid or of 
sulphindigolic acid fade much more quickly than solutions of the 
coral blue of equal depths of colour. 

EXHIBITS. 

1. Mr. Hamlbt exhibited a small spectroscope by Reichert. It 
consisted of a system of direct vision prisms, a reflecting prism by 
means of which a separate spectrum may be observed at the same 
time ; a bright-line micrometer scale enables the observer to locate 
at once the right position of absorption bands or the usual lines 
emitted by incandescent bodies. He also shewed a convenient 
Abb^ refractometer by Reichert of Vienna, for ascertaining the 
refractive indices of oils and other liquid substances. The prin- 
ciple of construction of the instrument is based on total reflection, 
which takes place at a thin film of liquid enclosed between two 
prisms of high refractive power. To use the instrument, one of 
the prisms is removed and the exposed surface of the other brought 
into the horizontal plane. A drop of liquid is then placed on it 
and covered by the second prism. An adjustment is made to the 
boundary between light and dark. Dispersion is removed by a 
compensator, and the index of refraction is read off directly from 
the scale. 

2. Prol David exhibited, on behalf of Mr, E. C. Andrews, B.A., 
specimens collected by the latter from the raised coral reefs of the 



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Xliv. AB8TRA0T OP PR0CRRDING8. 

Fiji Group. Mr. Andrews had lately made cursory geological 
examinations of the raised reefs of Fiji, on behalf of Professor A. 
Agassiz of Harvard College, Mass., U.S.A., and found that the 
raised reefs extended up to a height of over 1000 feet above sea- 
level. There was evidence that some of the volcanic rocks were 
newer than the raised reefs, while other volcanic rocks were older. 
Many of the Fiji raised reefs were distinctly terraced, as the 
result of pauses in the process of elevation. Prof. David inter- 
preted the bearing of Mr. Andrews' observations on the Funafuti 
boring, and indicated the different types of reef which might be 
formed respectively during rapid elevation and rapid subsidence, 
and rapid subsidence becoming progressively slower until stable 
equilibrium is reached. He also exhibited a sample of the so- 
called " Edible Earth " of Fiji, which natives of that group are 
in the habit of eating. This is a very soft and highly decomposed 
pinkish-grey volcanic rock, of a basic type, with traces of chalce- 
donic lumps. The sample was forwarded by the Hon. Dr. B. G. 
Corney, Chief Medical Officer, Suva, Fiji. 

3. His Honor Judge Docker, m.a., exhibited a series of stereo- 
scopic views of a geological character, photographed by himself, 
they comprised groups of trachyte rocks called ' the Gins,' from 
the Nandewarr Range near Narrabri, also volcanic cores from the 
Warrumbungle Mountains. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and ackzkow- 

ledged : — 

TRANSACTIONS. JOURNALS, REPORTS, &c. 

(The Names of the Donors are in Italics ) 

Batavia — Koninklijke Natuurkundige Yereeniging in Nederl. 
Indi€. Natuarkundig Tljdschrift voor Nederlandsch- 
Indie, Deel lvii. ; Tiende Serie, Deel i., 1896. Boek- 
werken, 1897. The SocUty 

Bbboem — Bergens Museums. Aarbog for 1897. An account of 

the Crustacea of Norway, Parts iz., x., 1898. The M^tseum 

Bbbkblby, Cal. — Uniyersity of California. Bulletin— Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station— Nos. 116-119, 1897. Register 
1896-97. Annual Report of the Secretary to the Board 
of Regents for the year ending 80 June, 1896. The 
University Chronicle, Vol. i.. No. 1, 1898. Resistant 
Vines by Arthur P. Hayne, Ph.B. The Beet Sugar In- 



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ABSTRACT OF PBOGBEDINGS. 



xlv. 



BsBKBLiT— continiced. 

dustry and its development in California by E. W. 
Hilgard. Address of Regent J. B. Beinstein, 15 Jan. 
1898. Report of Committee on Ways and Means, 20 
May, 1896. Report and Addendum submitted by the 
Academic Council to the Joint Committee of the Board 
of Regents on the subject of Instruction in Astronomy 
in the University, June 6, 11, 1896. Comparative Chart 
of Attendance and Income 1887 - 1896. Reference list 
to the published writings of John Muir by Cornelius B. 
Bradley, 1897. The UniversUy 

CHAiSTiANiA-^Videnskabs-SelBkabet. Forhandlinger, 1891, 1892^ 

1896, 1896. Skrifter, 1896, 1896. TJte SocUty 

Cincinnati — Cincinnati Sooie^ of Natural History. Journal, 

Vol. XIX., No. 4, 1898. „ 

€k>PSNHA0SN — Soci^t^ Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. M^moires, 
NouveUe S^rie, 1897. Tilloeg til Aarboger for nordisk 
Oldkyndighed og Historic, Aargang 1896-97. ., 

Ck>Bi>OBA— Academia Nacional de Ciencias. Boletin, Tome xv., 

Entrega 2-4, 1897. The Academy 

Cracow — Academic des Sciences. Bulletin International, Nos. 
2-7, 1898. 

Dbbsdsn — E5nigl. Mineralogisch-Geologisches und PriUHistor- 

isches Museum. Mitteilungen, Heft 13, 1897. The Mttsewn 

E. S&chs. Statistische Bureau. Zeitschrift, Jahrgang xliii.. 
Heft 3, 4 and Supplement 1897 ; Jahrgang xliv.. Heft 
1, 2 and Supplement, 1898. The Bureau 

DiTBLiN — Royal Irish Academy. Transactions, Vol. xxxi.. Parts 

i. - vi., 1896-97. The Academy 

Easton Pa. — American Chemical Society. Journal, VoL xx., 

Nos. 6 - 10, 1898. The Society 

Edinburgh — Royal Scottish Geographical Society. The Scottish 
OeographicaZ Magazine, Vol. xiv., Nos. 8, 9, 1898. 

FifOBBNCB — Society Itaiiana di Antropologia, Etnologia &c, 
Archivio, Vol. xxviii., Fasc J, 1898. 

Fbankfubt a/h — Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesell- 
schaft. Abhandlun$2ren, Band xxi.. Heft 1 ; Band xxiv.. 
Heft 1, 1897. 

Frbibusg (Baden) — Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Berichte, 
Band x.. Heft 1-3, 1897-8. 

Glasgow — Philosophical Society of Glasgow. Proceedings, Vol. 
XXIX., 1897-98. 

G5RI.ITZ — Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, Band 
XXII., 1898. 

GoTHBHBURG — Kuugl. Vctenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhftlles. 
Handlingar, Ser. 4, Tome i., 1898. 

GOttingbn — Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Nachrichten, Gesch&ftliche Mittheilun^en Heft 1.1898. 
Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse Heft 1-3, 1898. 



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Xlyi. ABSTRACT OF PBOCBRDINOS. 

Hallb — Eaiserliche Leopoldino-Caroliniache Deutsche Akademie 
der Natorforacber. Abhaadlunffen (Nova Acta) Band 
LZYui., Lxix , 1897^ 1898. S^talog der Bibliothek. 
Lieferang 8 (Band u., b), 1897. Leopoldina^ Heft 
zzziii., 1897. The icodenf 

Hahbubg — ^DeutBche Seewarte. Arcbiv, Jahrgang zx., 1897. 
Besultate Meteoroloffischer Beobachtungen von DexitB- 
chen und HollandiBchen Schiffen fiir Eingradfelder des 
Nordatlantischen Oseans No. xvi., 1898. The Obserarf«rj 

G^ograpbische Gesellscbaft in Hambnrg. Mittbeilnngen, 

Band ziy., 1898. The Soad^ 

Haablkm — Eoloniaal Musexun te Haarlem. Bulletin, May- 
July 1898. Eztra Bulletin 1897 viz.: Nuttige Indiscbe 
Flanten door Dr. M. Oresboff, Aflevering 4. The Mvsmm 

Mus^e Teyler. Archives, 8er. 2, Vol. v.. Part iv. ; Vol. vi.. 
Part i., 1898. 

Soci6t^ Hollandaise des Sciences. Archives N^rlandaises 
des Sciences Ezactes et Naturelles, Ser. II., Tome i., 
Liv. 2-5, 1897-8 ; Tome n., Liv. 1., 1898. The 806*1 

Helsinofobs— Soci6t^ des Sciences de Findlande. Ofversigt, 
FOrhandlingar, Vol. zzziz., 1896-97. Observations pub- 
lic par rinstitut M6t^rologique Central, Vol. zv., 
Liv. 1, 1896. E68nm6 des annees 1881 - 1890. Acta, 
Tomus zzii., zziii., 1897. „ 

Hobabt — Department of Idines. The Progress of the Mineral 
Industry of Tasmania for the Quarter ending 80 Sept., 
1898. The D^partmai 

Boyal Society of Tasmania. Proceedings, Session 1807. The 
Iron Deposits of Tasmania by W. C. Dauncey, c.s., v.e. 

The Social 

Jbna — Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft. Jen- 
aische Zeitschrift fiir Naturwissenschi^, Band zzzi., 
(N.P. Bd. zziv.) Heft 2 - 4 j Band zzzii., (N.F. Bd. zzv.) 
Heft 1, 2, 1897-8. 

KiBFF — Soci^t^ des Naturalistee. M^moires, Tome zrv., Liv. 2; 

Tome zv., Liv. 1, 2, 1896-8. „ 

E5NI06BBBO— Physikalisch-dkonomische Gesellschaft Schriften, 

Jahrgang zzzvui., 1897. ., 

La Plata— Museo de la Plata, fievista. Tome vni., 1898. The Mutem 

Lausanne— 8oci6t6 Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin, 

4 Ser., Vol. zzzrv., No. 127, 1898. The 806^ 

Leifzio— Ednigl. Sftchsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Berichte, Heft 6, 6, 1897. 
Vereins f^ Erdkunde. Mitteilungen, 1897. >. 

LiTge — Society G^logique de Belgique. Annales, Tome zzn., 
Liv. 3, 1804-97; Tomezziii., Liv. 3, 1895-97; Tome zziv., 
Liv. 2. Tome zzv., Liv. 1, 1897-98. ^ 

Scci^t6 Boyale des Sciences. M^moires, S^rie 2, Tome zz., 
1898. 



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AB8TBA0T OF PBOCBBDINGS. xlvii. 

London — British Mnaemn (Natural Histoiy). Catalogue of 
WelwitBoh's Afrioan Plants 1858 - 61— Dicotyledons, 
Part ii., by W. P. Hiem, m.a., f.l.s., 1898. List of the 
Types and figured Specimens of Fossil Cephalopoda in 
the Musenm^ 1898. The Museum 

€(eological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. liv.. Part iii.. 

No. 215, 1898. The Society 

Institution of Ciyil Engineers. Minutes of Proceedings, 
VoL cxzxin.. Part iii.. Session 1897-98. Beport of 
Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam-Engines 
1898. The IiutUuUtm 

Institution of Naval Architects. Transactions^Vol. zl., 1898. „ 

Iron and Steel Institute. Journal, VoL liii.. No. 1, 1898. 

Bules and List of Members, 1898. The Intiitute 

Linnean Society. Journal, Botany, VoL xxxni., Nos. 281 

- 288. Zoology, VoL xxvi., Nos. 169 - 171, 1898. The Society 
Pharmaceutical Society of Qreat Britain. Pharmaceutical 

Journal, 4 Ser., Vol. vii., Nos. 1470-1478, 1898. „ 

Physical Society of London. Proceedings, VoL xvi.. Part 

ii., 1898. Science Abstracts, Vol. i.. Parts viii - x., 

1898. „ 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal, Ser. n.. Vol. vn.. 

No. 42, 1898. The Cluh 

Boyal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, Third 

Series, Vol. ix.. Part iii., No. 35, 1898. The Society 

Boyal College of Surgeons. Calendar, Aug. 2, 1898. The CoUege 

Boyal Colonial Institute. Proceedings, Vol. xxix., 1897-98. 

The Institute 
Boyal Geographical Society. The Oeographieal Journal, VoL 

XII., Nos. 8, 4, 1898. The Society 

Boyal United Service Institution. Journal, Vol. xlii., Nos. 

242-245 1898. The Institution 

Society of Arts. Journal, VoL xlvi., Nos. 2889 - 2896, 1898. The Society 
Zoological Society of London. Proceedings, Part ii., 1898. 
List of the Fellows &c., 81 May, 1898. Transactions^ 
Vol. xrv.. Part vii., 1898. „ 

LirxniBOXJBa — L'Institut Qrand-Ducal de Luxembourg. Pub- 
lications (Section des Sciences Naturelles et Mathe- 
matiques). Tome xxv., 1897. The Institute 

Madison, Wis. — Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 

Transactions, VoL xi., 1896-97. The Academy 

Madras — Madras Government Museum. Bulletin, Vol. ii.. No. 

2, 1898. The Museum 

MANCHiSTSEb— Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Journal of Conchology, VoL ix., No. 4, 1898. The Society 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs 
and Proceedings, Vol. xlii.. Part iv., 1897-98. „ 

2£^iiBUBO— Gesellschaft zur Bef drderung der ^esammten Natur- 
wissenschaften zu Marburg. Schnften, Band xiii., 
Abtheil 2, 1898. Sitzungsberichte. Jahrgang 1897. „ 



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Zlviii. ABSTRACT OF PB00BBDING8. 

MiLBOUBNX — Au8trala9icM Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. xm.. No. 

165. 1898. Tke Editm 

Field Naturalists' Clnb of Victoria. The Victorian NaiuraUit, 

Vol. XV., No. 7, 1898. The CM 

Boyal Geographical Society of Aostralasia. Transactions 

of the Victorian Branca, Vols, xii., zni., 1896. TheSocMti 

Mszico — Institute Geol^oo de Mexico. Boletin, Num 10^ 1898. 

ThelnditvU 
Observatorio Astron6inico Nacional de Tacnbaya. Annario, 
Ano XVIII., 1898. Boletin, Tomo ii., Num 2-4, 1897-8. 

TheObtmvtdoq 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate" Memorias j Beyista, 
Tomo X., No8. 5 - 12, 1896-97; Tomo xi., Nos. 1-8, 1897 
- 1898. The Soddy 

Milan — Beale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. fiendi- 

conti, Serie 2, Vol. xxx., 1897. The InOiiuU 

Societal Italiana di Scienze Naturall e del Museo Civioo di 
Storia Naturale in Milano. Atti, Vol. xxxni., Fasc. 3, 
1898. The Sodebi 

MiBTiBLD — Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. Pro- 
ceedings, New Ser., Vol. xiii.. Part iii., 1898. „ 

MoMTBYiDBO — Musco Nacional de Montevideo. Anales, Tomo 

III., Fasc. 9, 1898. The Mumtm 

Montreal — Natural History Society of Montreal. Canadian 

Record of Science, Vol. vii., Nos. 5-7, 1897-8. The Soeiet^ 

Mosoow — Soci^t^ Imp6riale des Naturalistes. Bulletin, Nos. 
2-4,1897. 

MuLHOUSB— Soci^t^ Industrielle. Bulletin, Avril - Jnillet, 1898. 

Programme des Prix a d6cemer en 1899. „ 

MiTNCHBN — Akademie der Wissenschaften. Abhandlnngen der 
Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe, Band xix., Abth. 
2, 1898. Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Physikal- 
ischen Classe, Band xxiv.. Heft 4, 1894; Band xxv., 
Heft 1-3.1895; Band xxvi., Heft 1-4, 1896; Band 
xxvii.. Heft 1, 2, 1897. Ueber die wechselseitigen 
Beziehimgen zwischen der reinen and der angewandten 
Mathematik von Walther Dyck, 1897. The Academy 

Naplks — SocietJt Keale di Napoli. Eendiconto dell Accademia 
delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Ser. 8, Vol. iv., 
Fasc. 3, 4, 6, 7, 1898. The Sod^ 

Zoological Station. Mittheilungen, Band xiu.. Heft 1-3, 
1898. 

Newoastlb-upon-Tyne— North of England Institute of Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers. An account of the Strata 
of Northumberland and Durham as proved by Borings 
and Sinkings, L - B, 1887. The InstiMt 

New York — American Museum of Natural History. Annual 

Beport for 1897. The Mumm 

New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, Vol. xi., 1898. 

Transactions. Vol. xvi., 1896-97 The Academf 



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ABSTRACrr OF PROCEEDINGS. xlix. 

Nsw York — continued. 

Sdiool of Mines, Columbia College. The School of Mines 

Quarterly, Vol. xix.. No. 4, 1898. The College 

Ottawa — tieologic&l Survey of Canada. Paleeozoic Fossils, Vol. 

Ill,, Part iii., 1897, by J. P. Whiteaves, f.o.s. The Survey 

Palermo— B. Orto Botanioo di Palermo. Bollettino, Anno i., 

Fasc. 8, 4, 1897. The Director 

Pajlis — Acad^mie des Sciences de I'lnstitut de France. Comptes 
Rendus, Tome cxxv., Noe. 16 - 26, 1897; Tome cxxvi.. 
Nob. 1 - 26, Tome cxxtii., Nos. 1 - 15, 1898. The Academy 

Ecole d' Anthropologic de Paris. Bevue Mensuelle, Ann^ 
v., Nos, 1-12, 1895; Ann6e vii., Nos. 10, 12, 1897; 
Ann6e viii., Nos. 1-9, 1898. The Director 

Ecole Nationale des Mines de Paris. Statistique de I'lndustrie 
Min^rale et des appareils h vapeur en France et en 
Alg^rie pour Tannee 1896. Minisidre des Travaux Pvblice 

Ecole Polytechnique. Journal, S^rie ii., Cahier 2, 1897. The School 
FeuiUe des Jeunes ifcUuralistes. Catalogue de la Biblioth^que 
Fasc. 22 - 24, 1897-98. Revue Mensuelle, 8 Ser., Annee 
XXVIII., Nos. 325 - 335, 1897-98. The Editor 

Ministere de Tlnstruction Publique. Bibliographic des 
Travaux Scientifiques (Sciences math^matiques, physi- 
ques et naturelles) publics par les soci^t^s savantes de la 
France, Tome i., Liv. 2. The Minister 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Bulletin, Nos. 4, 6, 1895 ; No. 

8, 1896 ; Nos. 1-6, 1897. The Museum 

Observatoire de Paris. Bapport Annuel pour Tann^ 1897. 

The Observatory 
Soci^t6 d'Anthropologie de Paris. Bulletins, S^rie 4, Tome 

VII., Fasc. 6. 1896 ; Tome viii., Fasc. 1-4, 1897. The Society 
Soci^t^ de Biologic. Comptes Bendus, S^rie 10, Tome iv., 

Nos. 31 - 40, 1897 ; Tome v., Nos. 1 - 30, 1898. „ 

Society d'Encouragement pour I'lndustrie Nationale. Bul- 
letin, Serie 5, Tome i., 1896. „ 
Soci^t^ de Olographic. Bulletin, S^r. 7, Tome xvii., Tri- 
mestre 4, 1896 ; To-^e xviii., Trimestre 2, 3, 1887 ; Tome 
XIX., Trimestre 1, 2, 1898. Comptes Bendus des Stances 
Nos. 15 - 20, 1897 ; Nos. 1-7, 1898. 
Soci6t4 Fran(;aise de Mineralogie. Bulletin, Tome xx., Nos. 

5-8, 1897 ; Tome xxi.. Nos. 1-5, 1898. 
Soci^t^ Fran9aise de Physique. Bulletin, Nos. 103-120, 
1897-8. Stances. Ann^ 1897, Fasc. 2-4. BecuMl de 
Donnas Numeriques — Optique par H. Dufet, Fasc. 1, 
1898. 
Soci^t^ Qtologique de France. Bulletin, S^r. 3, Tome xxiv., 

Nos. 8-11. 1896 ; Tome xxv., Nos. 1-6, 1897. 
Soci^t^ de Sp^l^ologie. Bulletin, Tome iii., Nos. 11, 12, 1897. „ 
Societc Zoologique de France. Bulletin, Tome xxi., 1896; 

M^moires, Tome ix., 1896. „ 

Pbkzancb— Bo^al Geological Society of Cornwall. Transactions, 

Vol. XII., Part iii.. 1898. „ 

Pbbth, W.A. — Department of Mines. Gk>ld Mining Statistics 

1897. Beports for the years 1896 and 1897. The Department 

Geological Survey. Annual Progress Beport for the year 
1897. Bulletin, No. 1, 1898. Beports by the Govern- 
ment Geologrist in connection with the Water Supply of 
the Goldfields. The Survey f 

d— Dec 7, 1888. 



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1. ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

PsBTH, W. A. — continued. 

Observatory. Meteorological Report for the year 1894. The ObtermtorTi 

Victoria Public Library. A Land of Promise— Weet Aus- 
tralia in 1897-8, (2nd Edition). Western Australian 
Year Book for 1896-97 (10th Edition). The Library 

Philadelphia —Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings, 

Parts ii., iii., 1897 . Part i., 1898. The Academy 

American Entomological Society. Transactions, Vol. xxiv., 

Nos. 3. 4, 1897; Vol. xrv., No. 1. 1898. The SoeUt^ 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Vol. zxxv.. 
No. 153, 1896; Vol. xxxvi., Nos. 155, 166, 1897; VoL 
XXXVII., No. 167, 1898. „ 

Franklin Institute. Journal. Vol. cxliv., Nos.'863, 864, 1897; 

VoL CXLV., Nos. 1 - 6 ; Vol. cxlvi., Nos. 1-4, 1898. The In$tU^ 

University of Pennsylvania. Contributions from the 
Botanical Laboratory, Vol. 1., Nos. 2, 8. University 
Bulletin. Vol. ii.. No. 5, 1898. The UniversU^ 

Wagner Free Institute of Science. Transactions, Vol. v., 

1898. The InMiiMe 

Zoological Society. Annual Eeport (26th) 28 April, 1898. The Socidif 

Pisa — SocietJ^ Toscana di Scienze Naturali. Atti, Vol. x., pp. 243 
- 294, 1897; Vol. xi., pp. 1 - 10, Vol. xii., pp. 11-56, 
1897-98. 

PoLA — K. E. Eriegs-Marine-Hydrographische Amt. Relative 
Schwerftbestimmungen durch Pendel-beobachtungen, 
Gruppe III., Heft 1, 1897. The Board 

Poet Louis — Boyal Alfred Observatory. Annual Beport of the 
Director for the year 1896. Results of the Magnetical 
and Meteorological Observations made in the year 1896. 

The ObtervaicTy 

Pbaque — E5ni^l. Bdhmische Qesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Jahreebericht fiir das Jahr 1896. 1897. Sitzungsberichte- 
Mathematisch-Naturwissenscbaftliche Classe, Parts i., 
ii., 1896; Parts i., ii.. 1897. Classe fOr Philosophie. 
Geschichte u. Philologie, 1896, 1897. The Socitiy 

Rio db JANEIBO-Observatoire Imperial de Rio de Janeiro. 

Annuario 1897. 1898. The 0b9ervatory 

Museu Nacional. Revista, Vol. i., 1896. 7he Mueewm 

RoMi — Accademia Pontiticia de Nuovi Lincei. Atti, compilati 
dal Segretario, Anno l., Sessione 7 ; Anno li., Sessione 
1-7, 1897-98. The Academy 

Ministero dei Lavori Pubblici. Giomale del Genio Civile, 
Anno XXXV., Pasc. 5 - 12, 1897; Anno xxxvi., Pasc. 1-6, 
1898. Osservazioni cinca gli " Appunti di un tecnico " 
sul coefficiente d'esercizio delle reti ferroviare Mediter- 
ranea ed Adriatica — Ing. Adolfo Rossi. 

Minister for Public Instruetifm, Bom 

Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Rendiconti, Ser. 5, Vol. vi., 
Fasc. 8-12, Seme8tre2, 1897; VoL vii., Fasc. 1-12, 
Semestre 1, Fasc. 1-7, Semestre 2, 1898. Rendiconto 
12 June, 1897. The Academn 

Revista Oeografica d' Italiana. Annata v.^ Fasc. 4-6, 

1898. Ihe Fublither 

R. Ufficio Centrale di Meteorologia e di Qeodinamica. Annali 
Serie 2, VoL xiv.. Parte ii., 1892; VoL xvi.. Parte i.. 
1894. The QjlUte 



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ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. IL 

Bomb — continued. 

Society Qeog^rafica Italiana. BoUettino, Ser. 8, Vol. x.^ 
Fasc. 10-12, 1897; Vol. xi., Fasc. 1 - 10, 1898. Memorie, 
Vol. vii.. Parte i., ii. The Society 

St. Andrews — University. Calendar for the year 1898-99. The Unwerttty 
St. Louis — ^ssoori Botanical Garden. Annual Keports (8th) 

1897; (9th) 1898. The Director 

St. Pstbbsbubg — Acad^mie Imp^riale des Sciences. M^moires, 
Tome XLii., Nos. 13, 14, et dernier 1894; Clasae Historico- 
Philologique, Ser. 8, Tome i., Nos. 3 - 7 j Tome ii., Nos. 
1, 2, 1897; Classe Physico-Math^matique Ser. 8, Tomei., 
Nos. 1 -8, 1894; Tome v., Nos. 2-18, 1896-7; Tomevi., 
Nos. 1 - 3, 5, 1898. Bvdletin, Ser. 5, Tome v., Nos. 3-6, 
1896 ; Tome vi., Nos. 4, 5, Tome vii., Nos. 1, 2, 1897. The Academy 

Comity Geologique (Institut des Mines) . Bulletins, Vol. x yi., 
Nos. 3-9 and Supplement 1897; Vol. xvii., Nos. 1-3, 
1898. The InstUute 

Bussisch-Kaiserliche Mineralogische Qesellschaft. Verhand- 
luDgen, Ser. 2. Band xxxiv.,Lief. 2, 1896 ; Band xxxv.. 
Lief. 1, 2, 1897-8. Systematisches Sach-und-Namen 
Register der Ser. ii , 1885 - 1895. Materialien zur Geo- 
logie Busslands, Band xviii., 1897. The Society 

Salbm — American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Proceedings, Vol. xlvi., 1897 (Detroit, Mich.) Pre- 
liminary Announcement of the Boston Meeting to be 
held August 22 to 27, 1898. The Association 

Essex Institute. Bulletin, Vol. xxvi., Nos. 4-12, 1894; 
Vol. XXVII., Nos. 1 - 12, 1895; Vol xxviii.,Nos. 1-6, 1896; 
Vol. XXIX., Nos. 1-6, 1897. Historical Collections. Vol. 
XXX., Nos. 7-12.1893; Vol. xxxi., Nos. 1-24,1894; 
Vol. XXXII., Nos. 1 - 12, 1896 , Vol. xxxiii., Nos. 1 - 12, 
1897. The InstUute 

San Fbancisco— California Academy of Sciences. Occasional 
Papers, Vol. v., 1897. Proceedings, Third Series, Geology 
Vol. I , Nos. 2, 8 ; Zoology, VoL i., Nos. 4, 5 ; Botany, 
Vol. I., No. 2. The Academy 

San Salvador — Observatorio Astron6mico y Meteorol6gico. 

Observaciones Meteorologicas Abril 1897. The Observatory 

ScBANTON, Pa.— Mines and Minerals, Vol. xviii., Nos. 7-12, 

Vol. XIX., Nos. 1, 2, 1898. The Colliery Engineer Co, 

Singapore — Boyal Asiatic Society. Journal of the Straits Branch, 

Nos. 25 - 29, 81, 1894-98. The Society 

SoMBRYiLLE (Mass.) — Tufts College. Tufts College Studies, 

No. 5, 1898. The CoUege 

Stockholm — Eongl. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens. Access- 
ions-Katalog, 10-12, 1895-97, Tioars-Register 1886- 
1895. Bihang, Band xxiii.,Afdelning 1-4, 1898. Hand- 
lingar. Band xxix., 1896-97. Of versigt. Vol. liv., 1897. 

The Academy 
Eongl. Vitterhets Historic och Antiqvitets Akademiens. 
Antiqvarisk Tidskrif t fdr Sverige, Band xvi.. Heft 4, 
1895-98. Manadsblad, Arg, xxiii., 1894. „ 



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lii. ABSTRACT OF PROGEBDINOS. 

Sr&ABSBirBa, i.s. — CentralBtelle des Meteorologischen Landes- 
dienstes Ergebnisse der Meteorologischen Beobachtun- 
gen im Beichsland Elsass-Lothringen im Jahre 1895. The Dirtettr 
Stuttoabt — Koniglichea Statistiscbes Landesamt. Wtlrttem- 
bergische Jabrbiicber far Statistik und Landeskunde, 
Jahrgang 1897. Wiirttembergiscben Jabrbiicbem f&r 
StatStik und Landeskunde, Erg&nzang^band i.^ 1898. 

The'LitndesamU* 

Yereins far Vaterl&ndische Natorkunde in Wiirttemberg. 

Jabreshefte. Jabrgang liii., 1897. The Soddf 

WOrttembergiscbe Yereins fiir Handelsgeograpbie Jabrea- 

bericbt, xv., xvi., 1896-97. „ 

Stdnvt — Antbropological Society of Australasia. Science of 
Man and Australasian Antbropological Journal, New 
Series, Yol. i., Nos. 1 - 3, 6 - 10, 1898. ^ 

Australian Museum. Catalogue No. 4, Australian Birds in 
tbe Australian Museum, Parts i. and ii., Accipitres and 
Striges, 1874 -1898. Memoir III., Part vi., 1898. Records, 
Yol. III., No. 4, 1898. Eeport of Trustees for 1897. The Trusten 

Botanic Garden. Annual Beport of tbe Director on Botanic 

Gardens and Domains for tbe year 1897. The Director 

Department of Mines and Agriculture. Agricultural Ocuetie 
Yol. VIII.. Part xu., 1897; Yol. ix.. Parts i.-xi., 1898. 
Annual Beport of tbe Department of Mines and Agri- 
culture for tbe year 1897. A Manual of tbe Grasses of 
N.S. Wales by J. H. Maiden, p.l.s. Geologi(»l Survey — 
Memoirs, No. 6, 1898 ; Becords, Yol. v.. Part iv., Yol. 
vi.. Part i., 1898. Mineral Besources, Nos. 1-4, 1898. 
Beport on Agriculture and Forestry, 1 July 1895 to 31 
December 1897. The D^artmmi 

Department of Public Instruction. Beport of tbe Minister 
of Public Instruction for 1896 and 1897. Besults of 
Bain, Biver, and Evaporation Observations made in 
N.S. Wales during 1896 by H. C. Bussell, b.a., c.m.q., 
F.B.s. Tbe New Soutb Wales Educational Gazette, 
Yol. VII., Nos. 7 - 12, 1897-98 ; Yol. viii., Nos. 1 - 5, 1898. „ 

Government Printer. Tbe Statutes of New Soutb Wales 
(Public and Private) passed during tbe Session of 1897. 

Qovemment Primier 

Government Stati stician. A nnual Beport on Yital Statistics 
for 1895, 1897, and previous years. New Soutb Wales 
Statistical Begister for 1896 and previous years (Bound 
Copy) also Part xii.; for 1897 and previous years. Parts 
i. -zii. Tbe Seven Colonies of Australasia, 1897-98, 
Seventb Issue. Wealtb and Progress of New Soutb 
Wales, 1896-97, Tentb Issue. Qovemment StatixHciem 

Institution of Surveyors, N. S. Wales. The Surveyor, Yol. 

X., No. 12, 1897 ; Yol. xi., Nos. 1 - 11, 1898. The InstUuHam 

Linnean Society of New Soutb Wales. Abstract of Pro- 
ceedings, Mar. 30, April 27, May 26, June 29, July 28, 
Aug. 31, Sept. 28, Oct. 26, Nov. 30, 1898. Act of Incor- 
poration, Bules, List of Members, Feb. 1898. Proceed- 
ings. Yol. XXII.. Parts iii, and iv., Nos. 87, 88, 1897 ; 
Yol. XXIII., ParU i. and ii., Nos. 89, 90, 1898. The Soddf 



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ABSTRACT OF PROGEEDINQS. lilL 

Stbnbt — continued. 

New South Wales Medical Board. Kegister of Medical 

Practitioners for 1898. The Secretary 

Public Library of N.S. Wales. Annual Report (27th) of the 

Trustees for 1897. The Trustees 

University of Sydney. Calendar for the year 1898. The University 
Tatpino— Perak Government Gazette, Vol. x., Nos. 29 - 34, 

and Index 1897 ; Vol. xi., Nos. 1 - 10, 12 - 30, 1898. The Secretary 

ToKio — Asiatic Society of Japan. Transactions, Vol. xxiv.. 

Supplement 1898. The Society 

Imperial University of Japan. Calendar, 1896-97. The University 

ToBONTO — Canadian Institute. Proceedinjjs, New Ser.. Vol. i.. 
Parts iv., v., Nos. 4, 5, 1898. Transactions, Vol. v.. 
Part i., Supplement to No. 9 ; Part ii., No. 10, 1898. The Institute 
Boyal Society of Canada. Proceedings, Second Series, Vol. 

n., 1896. The Society 

ToTJLOUss — Acad^mie des Sciences, Inscriptions et BeUes-Lettres. 

Memoires, Serie 9, Tome viii., 1896. The Academy 

Tbbncsin — Maturwissenschaftliche Verein des Trencsiner Komi- 

tates. Jahresheft, 1896-97. The Society 

Tbomso— Tromso Museum. Aarsberetning for 1895 and 1896. 

Aarshefter, Vol. xix., 1896. The Museum 

Tunis — Institut de Carthage. Eevue Tunisienne, Ann6e iv.. No. 

16, 1897; Annee v., Nos 17 - 20, 1898. The InstUute 

TiTBiN— E. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino. Atti, Vol. xxxiii., 

Disp. 1 - 15, 1897-8. The Academy 

B. Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino. Effemeridi del Sole 
e della Luna per V Orizzonte di Torino e per Tanno 1898 
Calcolate dal Dottor Vittorio Balbi. La Durata dello 
Splendere del Sole suU' Orizzonte di 1'orino nota del 
Dott. G. B. Bizzo, 1896. Osservazioni Meteorologiche 
fatte nell' anno 1897 all' Osservatorio della B. University 
di Torino. Pubblicazioni No. 4, 1896. The Observatory 

Upsala — Kongliga Vetenskaps Societeten. Nova Acta BegisB 

Socifetatis Scientiarum Ser. 3, Vol. xvii., Fasc. 2, 1898. The Society 

ViiNNA — AnthropologiRche Gesellschaft in Wien. Mittheilun- 

gen. Band xxvii.. Heft. 4-6, 1897 ; Band xxviii.. Heft 

1, 2, 1898. „ 

K.E. Central- Anstalt fQr Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus. 

Jahrbttcher, Band xxxi., xxxii., xxxiii., 1894-96. The Station 
E. E. Geogn^phische Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, Band 

XL., 1897. The Society 

E. E. Geologische Beichsanstalt. Jahrbuch, Band xlvii., 

Heft 2-4, 1897. Verhandlungen, Nos. 9-18, 1897; 

Nos. 1-12, 1898. The **Reich8anstaU '* 

E. E. Gradmessungs-Burean Astronomische Arbeiten, 

Band ix., 1897, Langenbestimungen. The Bureau 

I. B. Osservatorio Astronomico-Meteorologico. Bapporto 

Annuale per I'anno 1896. The Observatory 

E. E. Natarhistorische Hofmnseoms. Annalen, Band xii., 

Nos. 1-4, 1897. The Museum 



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liv. ABSTRACT OF PR0GBEDING8. 

ViKNNA — eoniinued, 

E. E. dsterreichische Gradmessanf^s-Commissioii. Ver- 

handlungen-ProtokoU 21 April, 1897. The CommMm 

Section far Naturkunde des OsterreicliiBclien Tonristen- 

Club. Mittheilungen, Jahrg^ang ix., 1897. The teUM 

E. E. Zoologisoh-botanische GtosellBchaft. Verhandlmigen, 

Band xlvii.. Heft 1 - 10, 1897. TAe SoetO^ 

Wabhinoton— American Historical Association Annual Beport 

for the year 1896. Vols, i., ii. The AstocUdiM^ 

Borean of Education. Bepori; of the Commissioner of Edu- 
cation for 1896-6, Vols, i., ii.; 1896-7, Vol. i. The CommiMsioim 

Bureau of Ethnology. Annual Beport of the Director, ( I6th) 

1894-6. The Dwedvr 

Department of Agriculture. Dirision of Agrostology — 
Bulletin, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6, 6, 9, 1896-97; Circular, Nos. 1, 2. 
Division of Biological Survey — North American Fauna, 
No. 18. 1897. Division of Botany— Circular No. 18. 
Diyision of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology — Bul- 
letin, Nos. 14. 15. Division of Statistics— New Series, 
Beport Nos. 168 - 166. Farmers' Bulletin, Nos. 18, 20, 
31, 87, 60, 68, 66, 76 j Crop Circular. May -Oct. 1898, 
Weather Bureau — Monthly Weather Beview, Vol. xxv., 
July - Dec. and Annual Summary for 1897 ; Vol. xxvi., 
Jan. - July, 1898 ; Bulletin D., Bainfall of the United 
States. Year Book 1896-1897, and 5 Beprints. The Department 

Department of the Interior (Census Office). Compendium 
of the Eleventh Census, 1890, Part iii. Beport on Popu- 
lation of the United States at the Eleventh Census, 1890 
Part ii. Beport on Vital and Social Statistics, Part i. 
Analysis and Bate Tables. Statistical Atlas of the 
United States, based upon results of the Eieventii 
Census. „ 

Engineer Department, U.S. Army. Annual Beport of the 

Chief of Engineers, Parts i. - vi., 1897. ^ 

Smithsonian Institution. Annual Beport of the Board of 
Begents 1894-6. Beport of the U.S. National Museum, 
1898, 1894, 1896. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
Vol. XXXVII., No. 1087; Vol. xxxviii.. Nob. 1084, 1090; 
Vol. XL. ThelnsiUutM 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Beport of the Superinten- 
dent, Fiscal Tear ending with June 1896, Parts i. and 
iL The 

U. S. Geological Survey. Annual Beport (17th) to the 
Secretary of the Interior 1896-6, Part i. Director's Beport 
and other papers ; Part ii. Economic Geology and Hydro- 
graphy. Bulletin, Nos. 87, 127, 180, 185 - 148, 1896-97. 
Monographs — xxv.. The Glacial Lake Agassiz; xxvi.. 
The Flora of the Amboy Clays. ; xxvii.. Geology of the 
Denver Basin in Colorado ; xxviii.. The Marquette Iron- 
bearing district of Michigan. 

U.S.Hydrographic Office. Chart No. 1681 The Arctic Begions 
with the tracks of search parties and the progress of 



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ABSTRACT OF PR00BBDING8. Iv. 

Washington — eonUnued, 

discovery. Qraphical Method for l^avigatora by Com- 
mander C. D. Sigsbee, U.S.N. Notice to Mariners, Nos. 
19« 82 ~ 52 and Index 1897 ; Nos. 1 - 81. 1898. U.S, Hydrography 
U. S. Navy. Beport of the Sorg^n-General, 189^. 

The Secretary of the Navy 
Wbllxnoton N. Z. — Mines Department. Annual Beport (Slst) 

of the Colonial Laboratory, 1896-97. The DepaHmmU 

New Zealand Institute. Transactions and Proceedings, 

Vol. XXX., 1897. The Institute 

Polynesian Society. Journal, VoL vi.. No. 4, 1897; VoL yii., 

Nos. 1, 8, 1898. The Society 

Winnipeg — Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba. Annual 
Beport for the year 1896. Transactions, Nos. 49 and 60, 
1897. 

Zurich — Naturforschende Qesellschaft. Neujahrsblatt auf das 
Jahr 1898. Vierteljahrsschrift. Jahrgang xui.. Heft 
8, 4, 1897 1 Jahrgang xliii.. Heft 2, 8, 1898. „ 

MlSCBLLANSOUS. 

(Names of Donors are in ItdUce,) 

Ashley, Qeorge H., Ph. d.- Geology of the Paleosoic Area of 
Arkansas, South of the Novacnlite Begion, 1897. 

J. 0. Branner, ph.D, 

Austrdlaeian Medical Qaaetie, Vol. xvii., Nos. 1 - 11, 1898. 

O. Lane MuUene, ILA., HJ). 

Ball, Sir Bobert, ll.d., D.8e.. f.b.s.— The Twelfth and oondoding 

Memoir on the Theory of Screws, with a Summary. ^Hie Author 

fiemioe Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and 
Natural History — Occasional lepers. Vol. i.. No. 1, 
Director's Beport. [8"^ Honolaln, 1898.] The Director 

Boletin de Estadistica del Estado de Puebla. Epoca ii., Nums. 

1 and 8, 1897. The Redactor 

Branner, John C, Pb.D.-G^logy in its relations to Topography. 
The former extension of the Appalachians across Missis- 
sippi, Louisians, and Texas. The Author 

Campion, Henry — The Secret of the Poles, 1898. „ 

Colen80,Bev. W.,p.b.s.,f.l.s. — ^A Maori-English Lexicon : being 
a comprehensiye dictionary of the New Zealand Tongue, 
1898. „ 

Conklin, Edwin Grant — ^The Embryology of Crepidola, 1897. ,» 

Dimmock, Dr. George, and Ashmead, William H.— Notes on 
parasitic hymenoptera, with descriptions of some new 
species, 1898. Dr, Qeorge Dimmock 

Dollf us, G. F.— Pal4ozoologie G^o^rale, 1897. <?. Ramond 

Eleetrieal Engineer, February 11 to October 21, 1898. The Publishere 

Fritache, Dr. H.—Observations magn^tiques sur 609 lieux faites 
en Asie et en Europe pendant la p4riode de<1867 - 1894. 

The Author 

Helioe, 15 Oct., 15 Deo. 1896, 1 Dec 1897, 1 Sept. 1898. 

The Publishers, Leipgig 



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lyi. ABSTRACT OF PBOGBBDINGS. 

Haoke, Jnline — Die G«ld-Verrichtangen in der Breis, Lohn-nnd 

Zinsgestaltung, 1897. The IvO^r 

Blustrirte ASronautische Mittheilongen, No. 8, 1898. 

The Publishers^ StrasAurg U. 

Kosmopolan—JjiBt of Contents, 1891 - 1897 incl. The PMiAr 

Leepagnol, G.— Sur de Charact^re D6sertiqae de TAostaralie 

interieure. The Avihsr 

Liversidge, A., m.a., ll.d., f.b.s. — Abbreviated names for certain 
crystal forms. Models to show the axes of crystals. 
Experiments on the waterproofing of bricks and sand- 
stones with oils. Experiments on the porosity of plasters 
and cements. Variation in the amount of free and albu- 
minoid ammonia in waters, on keeping. On the corrosion 
of aluminium. Crystallised carbon dioxide. On the in- 
ternal structure of gold nuggets. Contributions to the 
bibliography of gold. On some New South Wales and 
other minerals (Note No. 7). On the amount of gold and 
silver in sea- water. The removal of silver and gold from 
sea- water by Muntz metal sheathing. Papers and re- 
ports. Presidential Address at the Seventh Session of 
the Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science, January 6. 1898. „ 

Marcou, Jules — Jura and Neocomian of Arkansas, Kansas, Okla- 
homa, New Mexico, and Texas. Note sur le Tithonique- 
Wealdien. „ 

Mullins, George Lane, m.a., m.d. — Tuberculosis and the Public 
Health. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle— Guide dans la Collection de 
M^t^orites avee le Catalogue des chutes representees au 
Museum, 1898. Q. Bamofti 

Nangle, James, f.i.a. — Some Notes on Sydney Building Stones. 

The Avihor 

Peek, Cuthbert E., m.a., f.b. Met. soc-Meteorological Observations 
at the Bousdon Observatory, Devon, for the year 1896, 
Vol. XIII. „ 

Pelatan, Louis — Les Mines de la Nouvelle-Cal^donie. 0. Hedley, FJ^S, 

Piette, Ed., et Porterie, J. de la — Etudes d'Ethnographie Pre- 

historique fouilles a Brassempouy, en 1896. Ed, Pietk 

Bamond, Q.— Etude G6ologique de I'Aqueduc de I'Avre, 1896. 
Notice N6crologique sur Sir Joseph Prestwich 1812- 
1806. Trilobites, 1898. The Author 

Beport on the condition and progress of the G. V. Juggarow 
Observatory, Vizagapatam. including the results of 
Observations for the year 1896. The CommiiUi 

Beport of the Director of the Observatory to the Marine Com- 
mittee and Meteorological results deduced from the 
Observations taken at the Liverpool Observatory, Bid- 
ston, Birkenhead, in the year 1897. 

The Mersey Docks and Harbour Boari 

Boyal Societies' Club, London.— Foundation and Objects, Bules 
and By-laws, List of Members, 1897. 

Lieut. M. W. Campbell Hepworth, R.N.R., FJtA.8., F.RJLS, 

Schenok, Budolf , Pb. D.-Untersuchungen iiber die Krystallinisoben 

Flfissigkeiten, 1897. The Auiher 



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ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. IviL 

Tebbutt. .Iihn, f.k.a.s. — Results of Meteorolo^cal Observations 
made at the Private Observatory of John Tebbutt, The 
Peninsula, Windsor, N.S. Wales in the years 1891, 1892, 
1893, 1894, 1895, 1896 and 1897. The Author 

Tepper, J. G. O., p.l.s., &c. — ^The Influence of Vegetation on 

Climate and the Rainfall, 1898. „ 

The Library World, Vol. i., Nos. 1, 2, 1898. The LUyrary Supply Co,, London 

The Locomotive, Vol. xviu., Nos. 8 - 11, 1897. 

Kegcm, PavX, Trench, Trubner ^ Co., Ld, 

Westralia, South Western Districts, Parts i. and ii., 1898. 

Publishers of the QeraUon Express 

Pbbiodicals Pubohasrd in 1898. 

American Journal of Science, (Silliman). 

American Monthly Microscopical Journal. 

Analyst. 

Annales des Ghimie et de Physique. 

Annales des Mines. 

Annuls of Natural History. 

Aistronomisohe Nachrichten. 

Athenaeum. 

Australian Mining Standard. 

British Medical Journal. 

Bailding and Engineering Journal of Australia and New Zealand. 

Chemical News. 

Gurtis*8 Botanical Magazine. 

Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal. 

Electrical Beview. 



Engineering. 

Engineering and Mining Journal. 
Eng^eering Record and Sanitary Eng^eer. 
English Mechanic. 

Fresenius Zeitechrift fiir Analytische Chemie. 

Geological Magazine. 
Olaoialists' Magazine. 

Lodustries and Iron. 

Journal de M6deoine. 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiolog^y. 

Journal of Botany. 

Journal of Mor^ology. 

Journal of the Ghemiod Society. 

Journal of the Institution of Mectrical Engineers. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. 

SInowledge. 

* Aeronaute. 



L' AeroE 
Lanoet. 



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Iriii. ABSTRACT OF PBOOBBDINGS. 

Kedioal Reoord of New York. 
Iffifilfiff Joornal. 

Nature. 

Notes and Qaeries. 

Obeerratory. 

Petermaxm's Erg^anzungaheft. 

Petermann's G^ographisohen Mittheiliingen. 

Fhiloeophioal Magazine. 

Fhotog^phio Joornal. 

l^ooeedings of the Gkologiate' Amooiation. 

Qoarterly Joornal of Miorosoopioal Science. 

Sanitary Becord. 



Science Progress. 

Smentifio American. 

Scientific American Supplement. 

Zoologist. 

Books Pubohasbo zir 1898. 

American Journal of Science, (Silliman) 3 Ser., Vols. i. - x. and Index. 
Aostralian Handbook, 1898. 

Boolenger's Tailless Batraohians of Eorope, Parts i., ii. (Ra^ SoeUtf 1896-7J. 
Braith waiters Retrospect of Medicine, vols, gxti., ozvn., 1897-8. 
British As<)oclation Beports, 1896 and 1897. 
Bockler's Larvee of British Botterflies and Moths, Vol. vn. (Bay $oe. 1894). 

Oassell's French and German Dictionaries 1897. 

Glacialists* Magazine, Vol. m., Part ir.; Vol. !▼., Parts ii.-iT.; Vol. T , 
Parts i., ii., iii. 

International Scientific Series, Vol. lxxxv. 

Leprosy, Prize Essays on — ^Ashbnrton Thompson, Oantlie. {y$w 8yd. Soc, 
Vol. OLxn.) 

Medical Officers* Annoal Report for 1896-96. 
Medioo-Chirorgioal Society, Transactions, VoL lzxz., 1897. 
Milne, John— Seismology. (Int. Set. Ser., Vol. Lxxzy.) 

New Sydenham Society's Poblications, Vols. OLzi., OLxn., OLxxn..aLziT. 

Obstetrical Sodetr— Transactions, Vol. ttxtx., 1897. 
Official Year Book of Scientific and Learned Societies, 1898. 

PalflBontogranhioal Society, Vols, xux., l., li. 

Pathology, Atlas of lUostrations of, Ease. xz. (New 8yd. Soe,, Vol. aLxnz.) 

Bay Society's PobHcations for 1894, 1896, 1897. 
Boyal Colonial Institote, Proceedings, VoL m., 1872. 

Selected Essays and Monographs. (New 8yd, 8oe., Vol. glxi.) 

Vaccination and its Resolts. (New 8yd. 8oe., Vol. olxzy.) 

Whiuker*s Almanack 1898. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF SECTIONS. 



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PROOBEDINOS OF THE SBOTION8. hd. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS 

(IN ABSTRACT.) 



ENGINEERING SECTION. 
The first monthly meeting of the Session was held in the Large 
Hall of the Society's House on May I8th, 1898, at 8 p.m., when 
there were present Mr. T. H. Houghton, M.inBt.c.E., (in the 
Chair) and thirty-six members and visitors. 

The Chairman delivered his presidential address. 
A vote of thanks to the Chairman was moved by Mr. C. W. 
Darlby, seconded by Mr. T. B. Firth, and carried by acclamation. 

Monthly meeting held June 15, 
There were present Mr. T. R. Firth (in the Chair), and four- • 
teen members and visitors. 

Mr. C. O. BuRGB read a paper on *<The narrow gauge as 
applied to Branch Railways in N.S.W." 

Mr. J. 1. Hatcroft read a paper on " Engineering Construction 
in connection with Rainfall." 

Monthly meeting held July 20. 

There were present Mr. T. H. Houghton (in the Chair) and 
eighteen members and visitors. 

The discussion on Mr. Burgb's paper read at the previous meet, 
ing was opened by Mr. H. Deane and continued by Messrs. B. C. 
Simpson, E. W. Young, J. I. Haycroft, and the Chairman, and 
replied to by the author. 

The discussion on Mr. Hayoroft's paper read at the previous 
meeting was opened by Mr. C. O. Burge, and continued by Mr. 
B. C. Simpson and Mr. E. W. Young, and then adjourned to the 
following meeting. 

The Chairman announced that the roll of members of the 
Section was about to be revised, and requested members of the 



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bdi. PB0CSBDIN08 OF THB 8BOTION8. 

Society who desired to be enrolled to leave their names with the 
Hon. Secretary of the Section. 

Monthly meeting held Augtitt 17. 
There were present Mr. C. O. Burob (in the Chair), and twenty- 
two members and visitors. 

The adjourned discussion on Mr. Hatoroft's paper was con- 
tinued by Messrs. G. H. Knibbs, J. H. Oardew, J. Davis, 0. J. 
Merfield, B. C. Simpson, and the Chairman. 

At the request of the Chairman the Hon. Secretary read con- 
tributions to the discussion by Prof. Kernot and Mr. G. Ohamibr. 
The discussion was adjourned to the following meeting. 

Monthly meeting held September 21. 
There were present Mr. T. H. Houghton (in the Chair) and 
thirteen members and visitors. 

Mr. Norman Sblfe read a paper on " A Pile Wharf in Deep 

Water." 

The adjourned discussion on Mr. Haycroft's paper was con- 
tinued by Prof. Warren and Mr. 0. J. Merfield, and replied to by 
the author. 

Monthly meeting held October 19. 

There were present Mr. T. H. Houghton (in the Chair) and 
seventeen members and visitors. 

The Hon. Secretary read a paper entitled " Notes on Hydraulic 
Boring Apparatus," by Mr. G. H. Halligan, and the author 
explained in detail various pieces of boring apparatus which he 
had brought to illustrate his paper. 

The discussion on Mr. N. Sblfb's paper was opened by Mr. H. 
Deane, and continued by Messrs. Shaw, Ross, Haycroft, and 
Barraclough, and replied to by the author. 

At the invitation of the Chairman, Prof. David described 
various pieces of boring apparatus with which he had had practical 
experience, more especially in connection with the Funafuti bores. 



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PR0GBBDIN08 OF THB SECTIONS. Ixiil. 

Monthly meeting held November 16. 
There were present Mr. T. H. Houghton (in the Chair) and 
thirty-six members and visitors. 

The discussion on Mr. Halligan's paper was continued by 
Mr. Deane and replied to by the author. 

At the invitation of the Chairman, Prof. Thrblfall delivered 
an address entitled "Notes on Matters connected with Engineer- 
ing in England." 

Mr. H. Dbanb moved a cordial vote of thanks to Prof. Threlfall 
for his address, and expressed the deep regret of the members at 
his early departure from Australia. 

Mr. P. B. El WELL seconded the motion which was carried with 
acclamation. Prof. Threlfall in replying thanked the members 
of the Section for the cordial welcome they had always extended 
to him. 

The Chairman requested that members who were desirous of 
suggesting names for the Committee for the foUowing Session 
should communicate with the Hon. Secretary. 

Monthly meeting held December HI. 
There were present Mr. T. H. Houghton (in the Chair) and 
twelve members and visitors. 

The following members were elected as the Oommitte for the 
following year : — Chairman : H. R. Carlbton, m. inst. c.e. Hon. 
Secretary and Treasurer : S. H. Barraclough. h.m.e., Aasoo. m. inst. 
CE. Committee: H. Deane, m.a., m. inst. c.e., Norman Selfe, 

M. Inst. C. E., PeRCT AlLAN, Abboo. M. Inst. C. E., G. R. COWDERT, 
J. M. SmAIL, BCInstCE., J. I. HaYCROFT, M.E., M. Inst C.E. I. 

Mr. Carleton's paper on *' Lighthouses in N.S.W." was dis- 
cussed by Mr. Grimshaw, Capt. Hep worth, and Mr. Ollife. 

Prof. Warren read a paper on ** A Testing Machine for equal 
alternating stresses," which was discussed by Messrs. Grimshaw, 
Shaw and the Chairman. 



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Ixiv. PBOOBBDINGS OF THE SECTIONS. 

MEDICAL SECTION. 

I. 

A Special Meeting of the Medical Section of the Royal Society 
was held at the Society's House, 5 Elizabeth-street North, Sydney, 
at 8 p.m., on May 20th, 1898. 

The object of the Special Meeting being the election of officers 
for the Session 1898-9. 

Dr. J. AsHBUBTON Thompson the retiring Chairman presided. 

The following were elected officers of the Section, unopposed : — 
Chairman: Dr. G. E. Rbnnib. Committee: Dr. O. Lame Mullins, 
Dr. J. Ashbubton Thompson, Dr. F. H. Quaifb, Dr. Sydney 
Jamieson. Hon. Secretaries: Dr. J. Adam Dick, Dr. Fbank 

TiDSWBLL. 

The retiring Chairman was cordially thanked for his able services 
during the past Session. 

II. 

An Ordinary Meeting of the Medical Section of the Royal 
Society of N. S. Wales, was held at the above address immediately 
after the close of the Special Meeting. 

In the absence of the Chairman of the Section (Dr. G. £- 
Rennib) the meeting was presided over by Dr. J. Ashburton 
Thompson. There was a fair attendance of members. 

Dr. J. Adam Dick exhibited an apparatus of local manufacture 
for the production of Formic Aldehyde Gas for purposes of Dis- 
infection. The apparatus was made by Lichtner k Co. of Sydney. 
Dr. Dick explained the working of the apparatus and the applica- 
tion of the gas. Dr. Frank Tidswell discussed the subject of 
formic aldehyde and the various means employed in its production 
and its value as a disinfectant. Drs. Quaife, Jamieson, and Pope 
also discussed the subject. 

IIL 
An Ordinary Meeting of the Medical Section was held at the 
Society's House, on August 19th, 1898 at 8*15 p.m. Present the 



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PROCBEDINQS OF THE SECTIONS. IzV. 

Chairman of the Section Dr. G. E. Rennib and about forty 
members and visitors. 

Dr. Frank Tidswbll exhibited several microscopical specimens 
illustrating different varieties of Leucocytes. 

Dr. Sydney Jamieson exhibited several specimens recently 
added to the University Museum of Normal Anatomy. 

A paper upon ** Disinfection of Dwellings in Notifiable Infec- 
tious Diseases,"^ was read by Dr. W. G. Abhstrong the Medical 
Officer of Health for the Metropolitan Combined Districts. (By 
invitation). 

An interesting discussion followed the reading of the paper in 
which the foUowing took part : — Drs. Ashburton Thompson, 
W. H. Goode, Fiaschi, F. H. Quaife, Clubbe, Frank Tidswell, 
Hinder, Camac Wilkinson, and Spencer. 

The hour for concluding the meeting having arrived, on the 
proposal of Dr. Spencer, seconded by Dr. Wilkinson, it was 
resolved that the discussion be continued at the next meeting. 

IV. 

An Ordinary Meeting of the Medical Section was held at the 
Society's House, on Friday, October 2l8t, at 8'15 p.m. 

There was a small attendance of members due no doubt to the 
stormy weather at that time. 

In the absence of the Chairman of the Section (Dr. G. £. Rennib) 
it was proposed and carried that Dr. Walter Spencer be elected 
to preside. 

Dr. Frederick Milford exhibited and explained the use of a 
new form of " Interdental Splint," for use in cases of fracture of 
the jaw. The subject was discussed by Drs. Fiaschi, Camac 
Wilkinson, and Messieurs Lugg, (visitor) Reading, and Hodgson. 

A paper was read by Dr. Fiaschi, entitled "Notes on two cases 
of Amputation of the Rectum for Extreme Prolapsus."* Drs. 

1 Vide "Australasian Medical Gazette," Sydney, 1898. 

2 Vide "Australasian Medical Gazette," Sydney, 1898. 



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Ixvi. PBOOBBDIVOS OF THB SBOTIOire. 

Oamac WilkinaoDi Adam Diok and the Ohainnaii discuand tin 
subject. 

The oontinoation of the disooasion upoa Dr. W. G. Annstron^ 
paper upon ^* Disinfection of Dwellings in Notifiable Infectioai 
Diseases," was resumed by Dr. Walter Spencer, followed by Dr. 
Oamac Wilkinson, and J. Adam Dick. Dr. W. G. Armstrong 
replied. The meeting then terminated. 

Owing to there not being sufficient material forthcoming tad 
to the holidays other meetings of the Section were not held. 



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ANNUAL ADDRESS. 
By T. H. Houghton, M.in8t.c.B., h.i.m.e. 



[Delivered to the Engineering Section of the Royal Society of N. S, 
Wales, May 18th, 1898.] 



I HAVE to thank you for the honour you have done me by 
electing me Chairman for this session. My predecessors in the 
chair have done much to raise the importance of the Engineering 
Section of the Royal Society, and I feel sure that I shall have 
your cordial co-operation in my endeavours to maintain its 
present position. I cannot hope to increase its importance by 
anything I can do myself, but it lies with members to do that by 
attending the meetings, reading papers, and joining in the 
discussions. The prominent position held by papers on 
engineering subjects in the " Volume of Transactions for 1897," 
there being fully one- third of the book taken up by them, is 
greatly to the credit of this section. 

It is not necessary that papers should be lengthy ; short ones 
describing soitie particular feature of important works often 
contain a large amount of information. Few of us care to admit 
having made failures, but undoubtedly they do occur, and 
descriptions of them, together with their probable cause, would 
do much to spread information, and 1 think that the kindly 
criticism evoked would often be of assistance to the author. 

During the past year nine Engineers have joined, or been pro- 
posed, as members of the Royal Society, instigated chiefly, no doubt, 
by the advantage of attending the meetings of this section, and 
the Council, recognising the great importance of Engineering, 
have, for the past two years, printed the papers read before this 
Section as a part of their annual volume ; in fact, at all times 
they have shewn their readiness to help us as a body, whether 
members of the Royal Society or not, for they have always 
allowed the free use of this hall for meetings of the members of 



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II. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

the Inst. G.E. resident in this Colony, and this fact should 
induce those members of the Institution who are not already 
members of the Society to send in their proposals for membership, 
and so increase the roll of the Society which is so ready to oblige 
us in every way. 

The difficulty of finding a subject for my opening address bas 
confronted me, as it will, no doubt, my successors, for year bj 
year, with the multiplication of scientific societies, each one 
dealing with a speciality, it becomes more difficult to find s 
non-debatable subject of sufficient interest. I would, however, 
like, with your permission and consideration, to occupy your 
attention for a short while to-night. 

There have been few large works initiated or completed during 
the past year in this or the neighbouring colonies. In Western 
Australia the Fremantle £[arbour Works are still in progress, 
and work has been commenced on the great scheme for supplying 
the Goolgardie district with water. A considerable amount has 
been expanded upon railway construction, and furcher large 
extensions are under consideration, some by private enterprise. 
The expenditure for Public Works in Western Australia 
amounted in 1897 to £2,325,000, having risen {rom less than 
£800,000 in 1895. In addition to this large sum the amount 
expended by private companies upon works has been very large, 
so that, although as regards population it is the smallest of the 
6ve colonies, yet it has, during the past year, probably afiforded 
greater scope for the exercise of our profession than any of the 
others. 

In South Australia there is little to record. A scheme is being 
formulated to construct a large reservoir at Bundaleer to increase 
the supply in the area now supplied from Betaloo. In connection 
with the Adelaide Water Supply, some mains are being laid of a 
new type; they are made from steel plates without any riveting 
being required. As this is the first occasion upon which such 
pipes have been used in Australia, a short description of them 
and the method adopted in their manufacture will perhaps be 
interesting. 



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ANNUAL ADPBE88. III. 

The plates from which the pipes are made are of the length 
required for each pipe, and of the width nearly equal to the 
circumference for small pipes, the larger ones being made with 
two or more plates. In the first place they are bolted down in 
the bed of a heavy planing machine and planed to the exact 
width, the two longitudinal edges are, at the same time, pressed 
together or upset, as it is termed, so as to make them of a 
dovetail section; the plate is then a flat one with thickened 
edges. It is now put into a press which* bends a short distanoe 
from the edges to the radius of the pipe— as in rolling it is found 
that the rolls will not properly bend close up to the edge — and 
after this preliminary bending the plate is ready for rolling into 
the circular form. It is now necessary to join the two edges ; 
this is done by inserting between them a bar of soft steel of a 
X section, the sides of this X section are then pressed in towards 
each other under a heavy vertical pressure, and thus grip the 
thickened edges of the plate, forming a water-tight joint which 
has, I understand, withstood all the tests required. Time alone 
can prove whether this system of making steel pipes is more 
satisfactory than that of riveting them, which has been brought 
to such excellence in this city. 

The scheme for an Outer Harbour at Largs Bay is again being 
brought forward by influential people, and if carried out will 
mean the expenditure of a large sum of money. Electric lighting 
has not made much advance in South Australia, but recently 
large concessions have been granted to an English syndicate for 
supplying light and power. 

One of the most important Engineering works in South 
Australia, of recent years, has been the erection at Port Pirie of 
the smelting furnaces removed from the Broken Hill Mines, so as 
to be at the sea board, thus insuring, for many years to come, 
constant employment for a large population. 

Coming eastward to Victoria there is little to record, the 
construction of the Melbourne Sewerage Works being the most 
important of any works in progress; they are approaching 



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IV. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

completion, and already a large number of dwellings are connected 
to them; many difficulties have been met with daring their 
construction, and unfortunately some loss of life has occurred, 
but now all the serious difficulties have been overcome. 

In the Melbourne Main Sewers now being made, a system has 
recently been adopted which largely reduces the cost of 
construction in bad ground, by substituting for cast iron segments, 
previously used, others built of wood, forming ribs with outside 
lagging ; this improvement is said to reduce the cost by over 
20 per cent. Besides the lessening of the cost^ greater efficiency 
is stated to have been secured, owing to the new lining being 
much more impervious to the flow of water from the outside, 
than the joints in the cast iron. This is a very important factor 
in securing the water-tightness of the concrete or sewers proper, 
and will, no doubt, lead to its adoption in ground carrying water, 
even if it is not bad enough to require the protection of the 
the lining to enable the concrete to be put in. 

Melbourne has, up to the present, utilised electricity for lighting 
to a greater extent than any other Australian city. The Council 
having erected a large station for street lighting purposes some 
years ago, are now proposing to buy up the two large private 
companies who supply light in the City and some of the more 
important suburbs, thus securing the control of both street and 
house lighting. 

In Tasmania there are several railways being made by private^ 
companies, intended to develope the mineral wealth of the West 
Coast district, and the Tasmanian Government has recently 
finished a considerable length of narrow gauge line* through 
heavy country in the neighborhood of Zeehan ; on the railway 
connecting Mount Lyell with the coast the Abt system will bo 
used, on the heavy grades. 

' In Queensland the completion of the Brisbane Electric Trams 
has been one of the most important works. A large bridge ia 
being built at Rockhampton over the Fitzroy river to connect 

* See proceedings Australasian Society for the Advancement of Science, 189& 



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ANNUAL ADDRESS. V. 

the Ceatral Railway with Broadmount, at the mouth of the 
river, and a contract has been recently let for a large bridge over 
the Burnet at Bundaberg. 

A large amount of money is being expended in developing the 
Sugar and Meat industries in that colony, the Government 
advancing large sums to the various companies concerned; as 
to the wisdom of such a course I will not venture to express an 
opinion, but the result has been the stimulation of enterprise, and 
that is what we, as engineers, depend upon. 

To come to our own colony there is not much to add to the 
works to which Mr. Burge called your attention a year ago when 
taking this chair, and as we are most interested in what the 
future has in store for us, it is to works that still have to be 
carried out that I will first call your attention. Prominent 
amongst them is the City Railway. The proposal to bring it to 
Hyde Park was the one favored by those in authority, and who, 
from their position, were most likely to be acquainted with all 
the requirements of the service, but amongst many engineers 
unconnected with the Government there is a feeling that it 
would be better to adopt a more comprehensive scheme and 
avoid taking any of Hyde Park. The exhaustive inquiries held 
on this subject have resulted in the decision that Hyde Park, at 
least a portion, is to be given up for Railway purposes, and if no 
better route can be found, which will be acceptable to those who 
will have to work it and make it pay, it will be best to accept 
what will undoubtedly be a very great improvement upon the 
existing arrangement, instead of striving for what may be the 
perfect scheme, but one which will be delayed for years. 

Another work in which employment will be provided for our 
profession is that of lighting the city and the suburban districts 
by electricity and supplying motive power; the number of 
small installations is yearly increasing and may interefere with 
the success of a central station if allowed to multiply, for these 
installations are in the best paying blocks of the City. A large 
demand would arise for power for small industries where manual 



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VI. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

labor is now employed if such a readily oontroUed and easily 
installed power as electricity were obtainable. 

There is one advantage we possess in hastening slowly in 
Sydney, in that whatever authority constmcte the works for 
supplying electricity, they will, I hope, be able to avoid such an 
unsightly view as is seen in some cities with the overhead wires. 
The introduction of the incandescent gas burners for street 
lighting may have the effect of delaying the advent of electricity 
for a few years, for the streets of few cities are better lighted 
than are those of Sydney. 

The construction of refuse destructors, not only for the city, 
but for many other portions of the colony, is one that demands 
attention. It has been under consideration for many years, and 
much information is available on the subject; the reluctance 
displayed by the various councils to grapple with the subject 
may be due to their desire to await the development of such a 
system as will ensure them a supply of steam for the generation 
of electricity, but although it is possible in England and some of 
the cities of America to utilize surplus heat from the destructors, 
it is improbable that the refuse collected in Australian towns 
will have as high a calorific value as that in colder climates, 
where coal is chiefly used as domestic fuel, and, besides, it is only 
under exceptional conditions that the heat obtained would be of 
a large amount. 

A laige installation has been recently put to work in London 
with the destruction of refuse and generation of electricity com- 
bined, but 818 the burning of refuse has to be continuous day and 
night, and the maximum demand for electricity is only for a short 
period each day, storage has to be provided for the heat produced 
during the remainder of the day, so that it can be employed 
during the period of maximum demand. 

The sewerage of the larger towns of the colony will have to be 
taken in hand at some not far distant date, and should afford 
employment for many engineers ; in some cases it would most 
probably be found that where the population is fairly ooncentrated 



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ANIOTAL ADDRB88. Til. 

the annual cost to the ratepayer woald not be much in excess of 
the present unsatisfactory system, for the constantly increasing 
biological knowledge has shown us how the work of dealing with 
the crude sewage can be satisfactorily and cheaply performed 
by utilising the means nature has placed at our disposal. 

Among other matters, which, as an Engineer, I hope to see 
accomplished, is the passing of a satisfactory Local Government 
Act, and also of an Act dealing with steam boilers, but not, I 
trust, one to place the inspection in the hands of a Government 
Department, as proposed in the Bill brought l)efore the Parlia- 
ment recently. An Act modelled on the English laws would suit 
all requirements. 

Amongst the works that are in progress the most important is 
undoubtedly the Sewerage of Sydney which is being carried on 
by the Departments concerned, the number of houses connected 
to it being over 50,000, with an estimated population of 250^000. 
The total cost of the system when completed will, it is stated in 
the report of the Royal Oommissicm which sat last year, be 
J&3,463,486, of which the sum of £1,200,000 was unexpended 
last June. The North Sydney out-fall works at Willoughby Bay 
are nearly .finished, and as they involve several features which 
have not been used in Australia before, a short description may 
prove interesting. 

The sewer discharges into screening chambers, in which all the 
large floating matter will be screened out; lime will be then 
added to that portion which passes through the screen and be 
thoroughly mixed with it, the mixture then flowing into a tank 
in which to settle and deposit the sludge ; after settlement, the 
supernatant water will be drawn off by a floating ofl-take and 
delivered on to some portion of a large filter bed of about thirteen 
acres in extent, formed of sand dredged from the harbour and de- 
posited by the sand-pumps. At a depth of about 4ft., and half a 
chain apart perforated glazed earthenware pipes h^ve been laid in 
the sand and connected with a main drain to collect the filtrate and 
discharge it into the Bay. The trenches in which these pipes are 



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VIII. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

laid are filled for a portion of the height with small coke breeze 
so as to prevent the fine sand entering the holes in the pipes. 
The sludge which will be deposited in the settling tanks will be 
discharged into a sludge chamber, where, after further settie- 
meut, it will be forced into a filter press by compressed air, where 
almost all the remaining moisture will be driven out. Two 
destructors with a tubular boiler set between them have been 
provided for burning the matter caught on the screens and 
the cakes of sludge, but as neither material would burn without 
the addition of fuel it is intended to mix them with refuse coke 
from the gas-works. The steam generated in the boiler will drive 
the air compressor, which is used for elevating the sludge and 
pressing it. Probably the sludge will have some manurial value 
and may be disposed of to market gardeners instead of being 
burned. 

Many districts of Sydney are too low to drain into the main 
sewers, and in consequence the sewerage will have t>o be pumped 
from the low level to the high level sewer. At Marrickville, 
two large pumping engines, each capable of raising 3000 cubic 
feet of sewerage per minute, are to bo erected, with the necessary 
steam boilers and buildings. At the Double Bay Station a 
different system has been adopted. Shone's ejectors are to be 
used, the air for working them being compressed at the Station 
containing the ejectors by compressors driven by electric motors, 
the current being supplied from the Rushcutter Bay power 
house. Ingenious arrangements for stopping and starting the 
motor automatically, as the level of sewage in the sump varies, 
have been provided. At the other low level sewers reciprocating 
or centrifugal pumps driven direct by electric motors will be 
used, thus saving both in cost of working and first cost compared 
to the system adopted at Double Bay. 

The current for driving these motors will be supplied from the 
Harris Street (Generating Station, and, instead of there being an 
automatic controller at each pumping station, a man will be 
stationed in some convenient place where dials electrically con- 
nected to the sumps in which the pumps are to be placed will 



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ANNUAL AODBB88. IX. 

record the height of sewage in them ; he will then be able to 
regulate the working of the pump without leaving his station, 
thus concentrating the control all in one place. 

Power for the electric trams is to be generated at the station 
in Harris Street. It is, I believe, in the first place intended to 
erect engines of a total capacity of 5000 h. p. to be afterwards 
extended to 20,000, as the extension of the system of electric 
propulsion takes place, and sufficient power has been provided to 
•drive the various sewage pumps. 

There are npw at work or under construction a total of fifteen 
miles of single track electric tramway, and two short lines at 
North Shore are contemplated. Power for the Willoughby and 
Mosman Bay trams is provided at the Cable Power House, North 
Sydney, and for the Rose Bay line from the Rushcutter Bay 
Power House, the generators in both cases being driven by the 
engines driving the tram cables. On the completion of the large 
station at Harris Street, it is intended to close the power station 
at North Shore and convey sufficient current from Harris Street 
by a submarine cable to the opposite shore, the present cable 
tram being converted into an electrical one. 

There are many very important features in connection with what 
is termed the George Street tram, but which is, I hope, only the 
commencement of an improved system of trams throughout the 
city ; in an address like this I cannot refer to them all. I trust 
that we will have them fully described in a paper to be read 
before us by some member connected with their constructioD. A 
conduit for the injection water is being constructed , from 
Darling Harbour to the Generating Station, so that by making 
them condensing, the utmost economy can be attained in the 
engines. Owing to the large area of ground required for the 
station, it was cheaper to go to this expense than to build it on 
land adjoining the Harbour, and, besides, the question of con- 
venience in handling the large amount of coal that will be 
required when all the engines are at work, probably over 150 
tons a day, had to be considered, and as that requirement could 



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X. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

be best filled by the site chosen, the cost of a long oondait was 
justifiable. 

The poles for carrying the trolley wires are new to Anstralia, 
in fact, they have only recently been introduced in America. 
They are made from solid drawn weldless Mannesman tubes, eadi 
of three different diameters drawn out of one piece of steel, and 
will present a graceful appearance when fixed with the east iron 
base and ornamental brackets to carry the trolly wire, which is 
itself of a special form, being deep and narrow, instead of round 
as in the tramways previously constructed here. 

Preparations have been made in portions of the existing steam 
tramway system for the transformation of them into electric ones 
when they were re-laid, copper bonds having been inserted at the 
joints. A description of the special form of joint now being used 
on the 801b. rails in Phillip and Elizabeth Streets was read 
before this section by Mr. Cowdery last session. 

Several new railways have been completed during the past year, 
mostly of the light type introduced by the £ngineer-in-Chief, but 
I will only refer to a few of the works in connection with the 
railways that have come under my notice. 

The accommodation of the public has been greatly improved 
by the construction at Eveleigh of the corridor cars now running 
on the Melbourne express. Mr. Thow has shown that work 
equal to that turned out by the celebrated Pullman Company can 
be made here, and by the provision of second-class lavatory cars, 
which commenced running a year ago, a very necessary benefit 
was conferred upon what is really the largest number of 
passengers. 

The compound locomotives have not proved so economical on 
the N.S.W. Railways as they have in some other countries. This 
arises, I believe, not from any defect in the principle, but from 
the alternate ascending and descending grades, and they are now 
being converted into simple engines, as the slight saviog in fuel 
did not compensate for the smaller load that they drew. Some 
very large engines designed by Mr. Thow are now at work on the 



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ANNUAL ADDRB88. XI. 

railway. The engine and tender when in running order weigh 106 
tons 15 cwt8. ; the cylinders are 21 inches diameter by 26 inches 
stroke, and are, I believe, as powerful as any locomotives in the 
world. Theseengines can haul 207 tons up a gradeof 1 in 30, or 315 
tons up 1 in 40. The load hauled by the most powerful engines in 
1888 was only 144 tons up 1 in 30 and 198 tons up 1 in 40, an 
increase of about 50 per cent, in favour of the latest type. 

Some important works have been carried out by the Permanent 
Way department of the railway during the past year, the new bridge 
over Iron Bark Creek on the Northern line being one of them. 
The old bridge of timber consisted of 3 spans of 24 feet, each of 
compound girders resting on piles, and being in tidal water was 
completely destroyed by the teredo. Three new bridges having 
been built since the railway was first made, it was decided to 
replace the timber structure by one of steel resting on concrete 
foundations, and as this had to be done without interfering with 
the traffic, some difficulty was experienced in carrying out the 
work. The total length of the bridge is 110 feet, and the weight 
103 tons. Owing to the depth of cross girders necessary to carry 
a double line of road, the rails were raised 3ft. Gin. above the 
level of the old bridge. The embankment on each side of the 
bridge had to be raised for a considerable distance, and to a large 
extent this could only be carried out at the same time as the 
bridge was being fixed. The superstructure was built on a 
temporary staging alongside the old bridge, and on the day 
previous to fixing in position it was lifted on to small trucks near 
the ends of the main girders, rails were laid across the line, and 
by means of four ship-jacks the whole bridge was pushed over 
and placed in position over the bed plates ; it was then lowered 
into place. The actual time of travelling the span and lowering on 
to the bed plate was 1| hours. 

The work of replacing the timber viaduct at Wagga was fully 
dcsscribedin a paper by Mr. Shellshear, read before the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science. The original 
viaducts consisted of 317 spans of compound timber girders on 



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XII. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

timber piles, each span being 29ft. 6ia. in length ; they are now 
being replaced by steel trestles on concrete foundations, and ated 
plate girders under each rail. Viaducts 3 and 4, consisting d 
76 spans and 500 tons of steel, have been completed, and the 
foundations for a large portion of No. 2 are also finished ; these 
have been put in place without in any way interfering with the 
ordinary traffic. 

Considerable progress has been made in reducing the heavy 
gradients on the western and southern lines from 1 in 40 to 1 in 
75 or 1 in 80, the expenditure for the past year being about 
£100,000, and the increased loading thereby equals on an average 
about 75 per cent., which shows that the money laid out is a good 
investment. 

The harbour works referred to by Mr. Burge Ust year are 
still in progress under the direction of that branch of the Public 
Works Department. In Sydney itself, two new bridges, viz., 
Glebe Island and Pyrmont bridges, are to be built and the 
contract has been let for duplicating the 6ft. pipe conveying the 
water from the pipe head to Potts Hill Reservoir. 

The large 18-million gallon service reservoir at Centennial 
Park, into which water will be pumped from Crown-street, has 
several features in its construction which are worthy of our atten- 
tion, the large use of ashes for the concrete of the groined arches 
forming the roof being, I believe, new for such a large structure. 

I am not able to record the initiation of any large 
works of irrigation, the work of that department having been 
mostly confined to the collection of information of a valuable 
character for the formulation of future schemes. The report d 
Colonel Home on this subject is mostly a confirmation of the 
schemes recommended by the engineer to the department, but it 
does not appear from a careful perusal of it that he considers 
that any large scheme will be a financial success for many years 
to come, the flow of the rivers being at times too small to allow 
of any water being taken from them for the supply of irrigation 
canals, so that the water in times of excessive flow would have to 
be stored to make up the deficiency. 



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ANNUAL ADDRESS. XIII. 

A review of the engineeriDg works of the past year would be 
incomplete without reference to the work of the Telegraph 
Department, for, although none of the works may be of the 
highest magnitude, yet in the aggregate they present a large 
total. For instance, since May Ist, 1896, 4000 telephones have 
been fixed, and although we have not yet the advantage of the 
metallic return, the Engineer-in-Chief for Tel^[raphs has made 
arrangements in the new Telephone Switch Board, for which the 
contract has been let, for the adoption of that S3r8tem. The work 
would no doubt have to be done gradually, and would take time, 
but it is satisfactory to know that this much-needed improvement 
is contemplated. 

The completion of the tunnels for telephone wires in the city 
has done much to improve the appearance of the streets, by 
permitting the removal of many of the unsightly poles and over- 
head wires. These tunnels ara of an aggregate length of three 
miles, and cost £43,000 to construct. Where the tunnels have 
not been constructed the wires are in many places being laid in 
wrought-iron pipes under the footpath. 

The construction of a telephone wire to Newcastle has been 
successfully completed. The distance is 104 miles, a copper closed 
circuit being used ; and a line to Bathurst, 125 miles long, is 
now in hand. Although these appear long distances to speak 
over, yet they are trifles when compared with what is done in 
other portions of the world, and even in this colony I ain in- 
formed that conversation is carried on through 206 miles of 
uninsulated wire, forming one of the wires of the fences connect- 
ing Wonnaminta with two other stations belonging to the 
Australian Mortgage Land and Finance Company in the 
Wilcannia distnct. 

I have not much to call your attention to in reference to 
Mining, except to mention the application of the Cyanide 
Process for the extraction of gold from old tailings. One of the 
largest plants in this colony is at Mitchell's Creek, where about 
£2,000 has been spent upon it. They have there a heap of old 



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XIV. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

tailings estimated to contain 18,000 tons, each ton averaging 
S dwts. 4 grs. of gold, of which 75 per cent, is recovered ; the cost 
of treating it amounted to about 13s. 6d. per ton, of which 
probably 38. or 4s. is due to the presence of a little copper in the 
tailings. The shafts at Balmain for the Sydney Harbour 
collieries are now being sunk ; the ultimate depth will be about 
2,800 feet. Although this is deep for a coal mine, yet it has 
been exceeded in many places, the depth of the deepi^t coal 
mine in England being 3^474 feet, and a colliery in Belgium has a 
shaft 3,937 feet deep. 

The development of artesian boring during the last ten ytaars 
has done much to alleviate in some districts the distress caused 
by absence of water from other source& From a return issued 
by the Hydraulic Engineer for Queensland, it appears that up 
to the end of June, 1897, bores of an aggregate depth of 110 
miles had been sunk in Queensland in search of artesian water ; 
the average depth per bore being 1,084 feet, the greatest depth 
that had at that date been attained in any bore in Australia 
being at Bimerah, in Queensland, where a depth of over 5,000 
feet has been reached. In that colony there were at that date 
349 bores delivering water above the surface, the estimated daily 
flow being 190,000,000 gallons. At some of these the flow has 
only been estimated, so, making a reduction of 50 per cent, from 
the returns furnished where estimates and not actual measured 
quantities are given, there is a daily flow of 131,000,000 gallons, 
or more than seven times the average daily supply of water to 
Sydney. Many of these bores deliver water under considerable 
pressure, and at Thargomindah the flow from the bore has been 
utilized for driving a dynamo for electric lighting purposes In 
this colony I find from a return furnished me by Mr. J. W. 
Boultbee that there are 99 flowing bores in addition to a number 
which yield supplies by pumping. The daily flow from these 99 
bores amounts to about 62,000,000 gallons; the total depth 
bored being 154,173 feet, an average of about 1,600 feet per 
bore. There are a number of pumping bores, and a few of the 
bores sunk have proved failures. 



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ANNUAL ADDBB88. XV 

There are very few bores in Yiotoria, the geological formation 
of the coantry being apparently unfavourable. In South 
Australia a number of bores have been sunk, in all 55, of a total 
depth of about 7 mUes, and an average of 681 feet. In Western 
Australia a depth of about 4,000 feet has been bored to the end of 
June 1 897, divided over ten bores, two of which were failures 
and four in progress, the flow from five of them totalling 967,000 
gallons per day. In the United States, the practice of well- 
boring has been largely developed; bores are sunk not only for 
irrigation purposes, but so that the energy in the water flowing at 
a pressure can be utilised for providing power. A few examples 
of what has been done, taken from the report of the State of 
Dakota, issued in 1893, on "Artesian Water Supply and 
Irrigation " may be interesting ; for instance, a flow of 1,000 
imperial gallons per minute, issuing from a bore which showed a 
gauge pressure of 1541bs. when shut ofi^ was used instead of a 
25 h.p. engine to drive a 25-barrel flour mill. In another case, 
a flow of about 1,900 imperial gallons per minute, with a pressure 
of 1651bs., is reported to develop 100 h.p.; and in another case 
a flow of 2,700 imperial gallons per minute, and pressure of 
861bs., was sufficient to drive a 100-barrel flour mill. These 
examples could be multiplied if necessary, but I have given 
enough to show what is done in other places. There Is, however, 
one other place I should mention, and that is the city of Waco, 
U.S.A., where 11 bores have been sunk entirely for the supply 
of power; the daily flow being 7 J million gallons, with an average 
pressure of 60 lbs., the power developed from these bores being 
used for many small industries. 

I have mentioned these facts concerning American bores so as 
to bring more forcibly before you the great waste of power that 
takes place in N.S.W. owing to the neglect to utilise this energy, 
for there are bores in this colony which, Mr. Boultbee informs 
me, have pressures, when closed, ranging as high as 1871bs. Mr. 
J. B. Henderson, M. Inst, C.E., Hydraulic Engineer for 
Queensland, has, in the report previously referred to, proposed 



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XVI. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

an empirical fonnula for aacertaining the power that can be 
obtained from a flowing bore when the quantity of water 
discharged, and the pressure in the bore when the flow is stopped 
quickly are known. The results mentioned as obtained in America, 
as a rule, show that more power is obtained than Mr. Hendersoa's 
formula would indicate, but it may be that different geological 
surroundings affect the case, for ho adduces the case of the 
Winton bore, where, according to the formula, 13'5 h.p. 
should have been obtained, and the experimental determination 
gave 13*96 h.p., showing that the formula closely coincides 
with the results obtained. Applying Mr. Henderson's formula 
to some of the bores in this colony, I find that in one instance 
the potential energy is capable of developing 84 h.p. ; even 
allowing a large margin for overstatement of the flow, it 
may be safely assumed that 50 h.p. could be continuously 
developed day and night ; and from two other bores, where I 
understand the flow has been gauged with some accuracy, more 
than 20 h.p. can be obtained in each case ; these three bores are 
not far from townships. Many of the other bores are capable 
of providing from 5 to 16 h.p. 

Professor TJnwin in his lectures on the " Transmission of 
Power," delivered before the Society of Arts in 1893, estimated 
the cost of producing 10 h.p. in a small engine working for 1000 
hours per year as £114, or if working 3000 per year as £207, so 
that if only 10 h.p. can be utilized for 6000 hours a year by some 
method of storage, either compressed air or electricity, the value 
would be nearly £400 a year. I believe it can be safely 
assumed that the flow from an existing bore is not likely to be 
prejudicially affected by another one in its immediate neighbor- 
hood, so that for the production of power, bores could probably be 
put down in a locality having a good flow and a pressure suffi- 
cient to warrant the expectation that the required power could 
be developed. 

The difficulty of storing and transmitting this power would 
probably be best met by means of compressed air transmission,. 



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ANNUAL ADDRESS. XYII. 

specially on stations, as a yerj slight alteration to existing 
steam engines would allow of them being driven by air instead 
of steam, the air can also be used for driving direct acting 
pumps for irrigation or other purposes. 

The irrigation settlement at the Pera bore is, I am informed, 
progressing satisfactorily, the proximity to a market is no doubt 
a large factor in its success, and arrangements are now being 
made to use the power from the bore now going to waste for 
driving the machinery required by the settlement. 

Before leaving the question of artesian bores I would like to 
call your attention to the following remarks in Colonel Home's 
report on *• Irrigation," in which he refers to bores : " As a rule, 
sufficient attention had not been paid to the selection of a site, 
the ground at the bore being frequently much lower than the 
adjacent ground or than the general level of the country which 
might be served by the water, and the difficulty and expense of 
taking the water about was much enhanced in consequence." 
The above quotation, I think, shows, that had the advice of an 
engineer been obtained by the proprietor of the bore before 
it was sunk the saving would have paid many times over for the 
fees he would have charged. 

This subject is a large one and will well repay investigation, 
and now that so many bores have been sunk it certainly appears 
advisable that accurate gaugings should be made of the flow and 
pressure ; in Queensland the Government have taken the matter 
up, and I understand that the attention of the Minister of 
Mines has been drawn to the necessity of similar investigations 
being made in this colony ; if a commission were appointed to 
inquire into the question it would probably be able to establish 
with a close approximation to truth the hydraulic gradients of 
different lines of country, and also probably elucidate many of 
the questions which appear to be uncertain in connection with 
Artesian Boring. 

In industrial developments New South Wales has not lagged 
behind the other colonies, in fact it is, I believe, in the front ; 



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XVIII. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

the ^onitniotioii of steel works for the production of the ratls, 
bars and plates used here from local ores, which at one time 
seemed probable, has, for the present, apparently been dropped. 
New industries have started which it is to be hoped will flourish 
and be followed, as the demand increases, by the investment of 
more capita^ mmongst these may be mentioned the works for the 
productioii of anhydrous ammonia from gas liquor. These works 
have been constructed on the model of American works and are 
fitted with the best plant available ; they are a means of working 
up a bye product from the manufacture of gas into a valuable 
agent used in many refrigerating machines. 

The low rate of ocean freights and facilities for communication 
tend to place all countries on a level, and if we aspire to be a 
manufacturing country, or an exporting country, we must be 
prepared to sell as good or a better article than others at the 
lowest price; to enable that to be done it is necessary that 
there shall be no waste product unutilized, for it is out of these 
bye-products that the profit is generally made. 

A useful illustration of the saving of waste products is to be 
found in the sugar refining business. To whiten the sugar, 
filtration through bone charcoal is necessary, and when making 
the charcoal by the distillation of the bones a large supply 
of lighting gas is obtained, while ibhe ammonia is fixed by passing 
the gas through sulphuric acid, and sulphate of ammonia is thus 
made. Then the dust removed from the charcoal is worked up 
into boot blacking, and the charcoal when spent is turned into 
superphosphate by mixing it with sulphuric acid, the bones thus 
producing material for four trades, sugar refining, acid making, 
blacking manufacture, and agriculture. 

In the manufacture of sugar the only waste product is 
molasses (of which the mill-owner seeks to produce as little as 
possible), for the crushed cane all goes direct to the boiler fires, 
as it has about one-fourth or one-fifth of the calorific power of 
coal. A small part of the molasses made in Australia is used for 
distilling, but this trade is of little value, as the spirit has to be 



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ANNUAL ADDRB88. XIX. 

asAd agaiiuBt that produced in (Germany, on which a conaiderable 
export bounty is paid. Attention has, of late, however, been 
directed to the value of molassee as a food for stock, and I am 
informed that it is being largely used in the tropics as a sub- 
stitute for grain in feeding draught horses, while a demand for 
it is setting in for giving a relish to the dry fodder on which 
sheep are unfortunately only being kept alive in a large part of 
New South Wales at the present tima Arrangements are- also 
being made for burning this molasses in special furnaces to 
secure the large percentage of potash which it contains, and there 
is thus a prospect of its value being increased. It is, however, in 
the diminutions of the waste sugar in the manufacture and in the 
increase in the capacity of the factories that a great advance has 
been made of recent years. I understand that since the Sugar 
Company adopted the system of chemical check on this work the 
waste of sugar which takes place in extracting it from the cane 
has been reduced by more than two-thirds, while the working 
capacity of the factories has been raised by probably fifty per 
cent. ; these improvements being forced on manufacturers here as 
in Germany by the extraordinary and continuous fall in the value 
of this product, which has amounted to about £15 a ton in the 
last fifteen years. There has been no change of importance in 
the rates of wages to produce this effect, but it has been brought 
about by the application of brains, so as to obtain the maximum 
yield from the manual labour employed, by improving the 
arrangements of the factories and the condition under which the 
work was carried on. Indeed the only change of importance in 
the plant has be^n the tendency to increase the number of times 
that the steam is required to do evaporation duty from three to 
four, and even five, with a consequent material saving in fuel. 

Another illustration can be found in the meat export trade. 
About thirty years ago the hides and tallow were all that were 
obtained from the surplus cattle and sheep, the advance was then 
made by turning some oi it into canned meat and some into 
extract of meat, still leaving a large amount of waste product; now 



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XX. T. H. HOUGHTON. 

there is no need for any portion of the animal except that present 
as water to be wasted, the good meat is frozen and exported, 
tallow is of course obtained from other portions, and what was a 
few years ago considered as a nuisance and a source of expense to 
get rid of, viz., the blood, ofEal, and the liquid resulting from 
the operation of inaking tallow, have now been turned to profit- 
able uses. 

There is yet another waste of which I may say something, and 
this is the waste of skilled and unskilled labour. So far as can 
now be seen it appears probable that work of all sorts will be 
done here more on the American than on the European system, 
that is to say, by the employment of intelligent men at good 
rates of pay, and it will be well, therefore, to avoid as far as 
possible, the adoption of English trade practices quite unsuited 
to the system under which our factories will be run. 

The recent Engineers' strike in England, which was virtually 
a strike for and a lock-out against the perpetuation of a waste of 
skilled labour, will serve as an example of the extreme cost and 
difficulty of effecting changes in wasteful methods of work, and 
how impossible it will be for us, with dear labour and short 
hours, to produce engineering work at a reasonable cost, if we 
keep a skilled mechanic looking at an automatic tool, or refuse 
to permit another, who can attend to two laihes without 
difficulty, to attend to more than one, even when he is anxious 
to take the two for a small allowance on the wages he is 
receiving. 

The waste of life through bad or insufficient water supply or 
bad drainage is one of those preventible wastes which it is the 
duty of all (Governments to do their utmost to reduce to the 
smallest limits. What the value of a man's life is to the State in 
money I am unable to say, but it must be great, and when the 
cost of carrying out necessary sanitary works are considered by 
Councils and local authorities, it is to be feared that very little 
regard is paid to that aspect of the case. 



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ANNUAL ADDRESS. XXI. 

The great reduction in the death rate in the City of Sydney 
and the suburbs, due to improved sanitation, from 18-9 per 
thousand in 1888 to 13*4 per thousand in 1896 means the 
saving of 2,200 lives annually. The reduction of the rate in 
what may be termed preventible diseases hsis been much greater, 
for, taking the five years 1884 to 1888 inclusive, and comparing 
them with the five years ending 1896, the death rate from 
typhoid was only one-third of that of the former period. 

I might go on for a long time instancing the savings in cost of 
manufacture or in preventing loss of life that arise from a proper 
scientific knowledge, whether it is the knowledge of the Chemist, 
or Doctor, or the Engineer, but I have taken up too much of 
your time already with a very rambling address, and must leave 
unsaid much that I had intended to bring before your notice, 
and have now only to thank you for your kind attention. 



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XXII. a 0. BUBGB. 



THE NARROW GAUGE AS APPLIED TO BRANCH 

RAILWAYS IN NEW SOUTH WALES. 

By G. O. BuBOE, M.iDstCE. 



[Read hrfore the Engineering Section of the RoyaX Society o/N. 8. Wales, 
June 15, J898,-] 

On December 2l8t, 1892, the writer read a paper (Vol. XXVII , 
Journal Royal Society, N.S.W.), on " Light Railways for New 
South Wales," and in this, and in the discussion it evoked, there 
were four considerations mentioned as objections to break of 
gauge at branches, viz. : — 

1. Transhipment, and demurrage caused thereby. 

2. Closing the branch as an asylum for old rolling stock. 

3. Inability to draw upon the general system for extra rolling 

stock, to suit occasional excess of traffic, and hence 
the necessity of providing otherwise useless reserves. 

4. Isolation as regards repairs to engines and vehicles. 

It is now proposed to consider the applicability of a narrow 
gauge to the character of the goods and passenger traffic, to be 
dealt with, in this colony, by branch lines, independently of the 
question of the break. 

This gauge question should be approached, not from the stand- 
point of those who, on the one hand, consider the question 
settled, from the fact of many important colonies and countries 
having, with their own requirements in view, adc^ted a par- 
ticular gauge, or of those who are interested, financially, in 
narrow gauge material ; nor, on the other hand, of those holding 
"t:iat worst phase of conservatism, which thinks that what it has 
been accustomed to see working successfully in the past, must 
necessarily be the best in the future. It should be considered 
rather by the more cold-blooded method of figures, used by those 
who have had experience in both systems, and in the application 
of such figures to the particular case under view. Much of the 
evidence given before the Victorian Committee on this subject 



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NARROW GAtJOB AS APPLIED TO BRANCH RAILWAYS IN N.S. W. ZXIII. 

in 1895, was not of this latter character, and, jodging from the 
result, it would a}^pear as if the number of the witnesses, rather 
than their weight, from the uninterested expert point of view^ 
was taken into consideration. 

The great advantages to be gained by the adoption of a 
narrow gauge, apart from the question as to whether working 
expenses will be decreased or otherwise, are, firstly, its greatly 
cheaper first cost, and, secondly, its facilities for the further 
connection of the branch line with farm studs and wool sheds, 
etc., the sidings being easily laid through streets and round 
comers, and the road being readily removable to different points 
as required. No doubt, in many cases, these advantages obviate 
transhipment, now unavoidable at one end of a branch, if causing 
it at another. Hence, it is fairly obvious that if there be a 
break at all, the disadvantages of which are equal, no matter 
what gauge is employed, it is better to adopt the smallest gauge 
which has, by large experience elsewhere, proved to be at all 
practicable, and thus get the advantage of the cheapest con- 
struction, and, at the same time, the most manageable system for 
sidings to farms, etc. For this reason it is proposed to consider 
the effects to the working caused by 2ft. gauge branches, and, 
as it is agreed that the smallness of the traffic is the main 
argument for the smaller line, the matter will be considered in 
connection with as small a traffic as would justify, according to 
present criteria, the construction of a line at all. 

It is commonly and truly said, by the advocates of narrow 
gauge lines, that the proportion between the weight of their 
trucks and that of the maximum load which can be carried is 
much larger than in the case of the wider gauges ; for instance, 
the ordinary 2ft. bogie truck weighs only 2*70 tons and can carry 
10 tons, or a proportion of 1 to 3*70, while the newest and best 
proportioned similar one on the New South Wales lines weighs 
10 tons and can carry only 22 tons, or a proportion of 1 to 2-20. 

The reason for this is obvious. If the wskggons were stationary, 
and had merely to carry their load at rest, their strength, and 
therefore their weight, might be proportional to the load, but 



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XXrV. C. O. BUBGK. 

when roomentum, due to the combined greater speed and weighty 
as well as the greater inertia of the heavier stock in shunting, 
has to be considered, it is easily seen that the necessary strength, 
and therefore weight, of the waggon must increase in a much 
greater ratio than the weight of the load which it has to bear. 
//*, therefoie, a maximum load, in each case, could always be 
ensured, the advantage, as regards lesser proportion of non- 
paying or dead load, would largely lie with the 2ft. gauge. But 
there is a marvellous quantity of virtue in this particular ** if," 
especially in the particular case before us, a qualification of the 
principle not often enough brought forward when this supposed 
superiority of the narrower gauges is urged ; for maximum 
loading is quite exceptional ; such, for instance, as exists in the 
heavy slate carrying business of the Festiniog 2ft. line in Wales, 
the case of which, therefore, should never be quoted, as it often 
is, as an example for other projects under altogether different, 
conditions. The ore carrying 2ft. Zeehan line in Tasmania, 
which has been recently put before us as a pattern, has a traffic 
of a similar character. 

There are two points to be considered in measuring the capacity 
of a truck, weight carrying capability, and space. If we are 
called upon to carry a load of pig lead, for instance^ the space 
available is evidently excessive in either small or large trucks, 
and as the maximum weight can be carried in either, owing to 
low centre of gravity, the dead load is proportionately much 
smaller in the smaller gauge, and still more so if the conditions of 
the traffic necessitate the waggons returning empty, or nearly so. 

If, however, we have hay or straw to carry, we can load up 
in the large truck, without unduly raising the centre of gravity, 
about a third of the weight capable of being carried by it, but in 
the 2ft. gauge truck we are obliged to stop at about 5ft. 6in. 
over the floor, to avoid having the centre of gravity of truck 
and load, too high for stability, this height being little more than 
the sixth part of the height which the weight carrying capacity 
would allow. Again, as to the loading of sheep, regard must be 
had to overcrowding, so that this is a light load for the space 



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NABROW GAUGB AS APPLIBD TO BRANCH RAILWAYS IN N.S.W. XXY. 

which it takes up, and the two loaded tiers of the standard 
gauge truck is impracticable on the 2ft., owing to that, also, 
throwing the centre of gravity too high ; while to gain sufficient 
height for cattle, the floor of the 2ft. cattle truck has to be 
lowered between the bogies, the space over which is wasted. 
Hence a greater proportion of dead weight is necessary than in 
the larger 4ft. 8^in. vans. 

If we except coal and firewood, which are nearly all confined 
to the main lines of New South Wales, which latter, being 
already made, are necessarily excluded from our comparison, it 
will be found from the Railway Commissioners' reports that the 
bulk of the remaining up traffic, which we may fairly assume as 
generally applicable, as an all round average, to extensions, is 
divided, as to weight, in the following approximate propor- 
tion, viz. : — 

Grain . . 42% This loading occupying about 60 cubic ft. of space per ton 

Hay, Straw, (&c. 14 „ „ „ 800 „ „ 

Wool ..17 „ „ „ 150 „ „ 

€atUe ..14 „ „ „ 162 

8heep, &c. ..13 „ „ „ 406 ,, „ 

100 Average = 164 cubic feet per ton. 

The down traffic will be considered later. 

As goods occupying about 93 cubic feet to the ton, form the 
load in which the loading space, 2,040 cubic feet, of the standard 
^uge bogie goods waggon is fully utilized it is evident that 
there is an unavoidable waste of weight carrying capacity for all 
the above loading, except, in the case of grain, and still more 
must this be the case as the gauge decreases, for the cubical 
capacity is limited in both cases, but more frequently in the 
narrow gauge, as regards some classes of loading, by the height 
of the centre of gravity of the waggon and its load. This height 
is taken, as a maximum, at about 6 feet over rail for the standard 
gauge, and, proportionately, 2ft Sin. for the 2ft. gauge, though 
this unduly favours the latter, as, owing to the greater lateral 
overhang, the danger of lateral displacement of the centre of 
^;ravity, through careless loading, is greater. 



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XXVI. 



a 0. BUBGB. 



The maximum loading space of the similar 2 feet waggon is 
600 cubic feet, and its maximum weight carrying capacity is 10 
tons. 

Working out the proportions between the live and dead 
load (waggons only) for the two gauges, we find them to be as 
under, bearing in mind that we are now dealing with up traffic 
only : — 







Standard Gauge. 


a-f oot Ottoge. 


Live Load. 


Dead Load. 


Live Load. 


DeftdLoMl, 


42% 
14,. 
17 „ 
14 „ 
13 „ 


Grain 

Hay, <tc. 

Wool 

Cattle ) standard GauRe f 
Sheep j 4- wheel Truck! 


1-00 
100 
1-00 
1-00 
100 


0-46 
1-50 
0-63 
1-20 
2-90 


1-00 
1-00 
1-00 
100 
1-00 


0-38 
1-57 
1-00 
200 
40O 


100% 



Average, having regard to proportion I i .^n 
of each olMB of loading. J = i W 



1-06 I 1-00 



1-85 



We shall illustrate this now by an example. Assuming one 
Standard gauge train on a branch line, with a nett or paying 
load of 100 tons, made up in the proportions previously given, 
viz., 42 tons of grain, 14 tons of hay, and 17 tons of wool, 14 
tons of cattle, and 13 tons of sheep. Taking the dead ]oada 
corresponding to these, as above, we get 19 tons of truck weight 
for the grain, and 21 tons, 11 tons, 17 tons, and 38 tons respec- 
tively for the rest, summing up to 100 tons for the load, and 
106 tons for the waggons, total 206 tons. The railway reports 
show that the back or return loading in N.S.W. is, roughly, 
about ^ of the weight of the up loading, so that the average for 

100 + 20 
the double journey would be ^ = 60 tons live load, and 

106 tons dead. 

Suppose, now; for the branch, we take an average traffic of 
6 trains per week, each way. It is true that as small a traffic as 
is represented by half that running, exists on some lines which 
have been constructed, but either these have been mistakes, or 
they run through, as yet, undeveloped districts, with which our 



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NARROW GAUGE AS APPLIED TO BRANCH RAILWAYS IN N.8.W. XXVII, 

comparison has nothiDg to do, dealing, as we are, with the per- 
manent requirements of the future. 

This traffic represents, therefore, 624 train miles, per mile per 
annum, with an average gross load, behind engine, of 166 tons, 
equal to 103,584 tons gross annually, of which 66,144 tons is 
dead, and 37,440 tons live load. 

As to the comparative cost of this service, on lines of each 
gauge, we may omit, as independent of gauge, the general 
charges and the traffic department expenses, which vary with the 
volume of traffic, more than with the number of trains in which 
it is carried. The maintenance and locomotive expenses, in 
N.S.W., in 1896-97, were about 32d. per train mile. Hence the 
cost of working the above traffic, as regards these two depart- 
ments on the standard gauge, would be, annually, per mile, 
624 train miles x 32d. = £83 4s. 

Now let us see how this same volume of traffic would be con- 
ducted by a 2 feet line. 

Taking the up journey first, we have 31,200 tons to be conveyed 
annually, and for the dead load, each 100 tons has to be sub- 
divided, according to the proportions already given, into 
42 X 0-38, 14 X 1-57, 17 x 100. 14 x 2-00 and 13 x 400, so 
that for each 100 tons of goods, 134*94 tons of waggons will be 
required, equal to a total of 42,101 tons dead up loading. Then 
taking ^, as before, of the live up load, 31,200 tons for the 
down traffic, equal to 6,240 tons, we get, as the mean live loading 
annually, ^1,200 + 6,240 ^ ^g^^^O tons, and 42,101 tons dead 
load equals 60,821 tons gross. 

The comparison between ohe hauling capacity of an ordinary 
branch standard gauge engine, as regards load behind it, with a 
first-class 2 feet engine, ceteris paribus^ except as to speed, which 
will be referred to later, is about 3 to 1, therefore, if the average 
of 166 tons gross load be assigned to the former, 55 tons will be 

60 821 
that of the latter, and — ^- — tons = 1106 train miles will be 

DO 



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XXVIII C. O. BURGS. 

required to do the same work as the 624 train miles of the 
larger gauge. But this is assuming that each is travelling at the 
same speed. On reference to the experience of working oi exist- 
ing 2 feet lines, the ordinary most economical speed of the train 
might be taken at about one half of the standard guige 
economical speed, so that the train mileage, 1,106, must be 
doubled in order that the same work may be done ; hence, if the 
length were indefinite, 2,212 train miles of the 2 feet train would 
be required to do the work of the 624 train miles of the 4 feet 
8^ inch, line, but this would be only, strictly speaking, correct 
where the length of the branch is sufficient to utilize the 
speed of the standard gauge train. If a braneh line, for 
instance, with such a traffic as we have been dealing with, 
is too short for a standard gauge train to be fully oocnpied 
by one journey each way, travelling at its most economical 
speed, and including shunting, it is evident that credit 
cannot be taken for its full double capacity of speed, which has 
not been required to be used, while the speed of the corresponding 
number of slower 2ft. trains might be sufficient for the same duty, 
on such a short length. As some such short lines might be 
necessary, without prospect of extension in the future, it would 
be safer to take the general average of 2ft. train mileage at three 
times that of the standard gauge for the same duty, say 1,872 
train miles. 

We have not much information with regard to the locomotiTe 
and maintenance expenses per train mile of 2ft. gauge lines. In 
Mackay's book on " Light Railways " he gives 13d. as the average 
of the four English lines on this gauge, including the old established 
Festiniog railway, on which it is about 12d. That of French 2ft 
lines is 1 Id., and the Prussian lines somewhat less. Theee items, 
loco, and maintenance charges, on the standard gauge lines in 
Australia, are over 75 per cent, greater than the corresponding 
English standard gauge rates, owing to higher wages, &c., and, 
as we may fairly suppose the same ratio to exist in the ca^ of 
the smaller line, 22d may be safely taken, as an average, here 
for the 2ft. gauge similar expenses. Hence the cost of working, 



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WABROW OAUOB AS APPLIED TO BRANCH RAILWAYS IN N.S. W. XXIX. 

as regards these two departments, would be per mile, per 

annum : 

2ft. gauge 1872 train mUes x 22d. = £171 12 

Standard gauge 624 train miles x 32d., as before = . . 83 4 

Difference in favour of standard gauge per mile per annum £88 6 

Though written a quarter of a century ago, the following 
extract from a report of the Consulting Engineer to a main 5ft 
6m. gauge Indian railway, when it was proposed to introduce a 
narrower gauge, may be quoted as bearing, mutatia mutandis, on 
this question. 

The existing gauge was fixed under Lord Dalhousie's administration, 
after a most careful consideration of the relative bulk and weight of 
each of the characteristic classes of Indian produce which must be con- 
veyed along the ' lines of railway. From the record of two years* traffic 
carried over the Bombay, Baroda, and Central Indian Bailway, in 1870 and 
1871, consisting of forty-three classes of goods, of each of which the 
proximate specific gravity was given, they found the range to be, for 
Indian produce, from 224 cubic feet of bulk per ton of weight to 
5 cubic feet of bulk per ton of weight ; and that the averages of the two 
years* traffic were 75 cubic feet per ton in 1870, and 78 cubic feet per ton 
in 1871, which, making a slight allowance for waste in waggon stowage 
might be taken at a general average of 30 cubic feet per ton. This would 
giye an average space of 640 cubic feet for the stowage of eight tons in the 
ordinary waggon on the 5Jft. gauge, the height of the load above the 
platform not exceeding 6ft. and the centre of gravity of the gross load not 
exceeding 6ft. above the rails. 

He admitted the fitness of a narrow gauge waggon in a Welsh mining 
district, running with its eight ton load of minerals down an incline to the 
nearest port, or to a station on the general railway line, each ton measuring 
from 5 to 12 cubic feet, and the entire load being contained within 100 cubic 
feet of waggon space. But how were they to pack their eight-ton load of 
half-pressed Indian cotton, measuring 1,488 cubic feet, or eight tons of 
Australian wool measuring 1,120 cubic feet? Were they to build it up to 
20 feet or 30 feet high on a little waggon having only two or three feet 
transversely between the wheels, and, therefore, only one half of its proper 
stability? 

The plea of economy has been advanced as the motive for making the 
proposed disastrous cUige. While the S^ft. gauge might answer for the 
carriage of heavy minerals in special districts, the general commerce of every 
populous country mainly consisted of articles of low or medium specific 



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XXX. O. O. BUBGB. 

gravity, adapted to food, clothing, fuel, &c., aT«raging aboat 80 eabie feel 
per ton weight, for which the 6ih. gauge was in everj reepect moit 
suitable as regarded cost, stowage, safety, economy, the intricate elements of 
military defence, and the power of adopting tingle track lines of railwajfor 
the accommodation of a large amount of traffic. 

The reason of the comparatively small excess of the nmning 
expenses per train mile of the standard, over those of the SfL 
gauge, 32d. as against 22d., is to be explained in this way : — A& 
regards locomotive expenses, as many men are employed on the 
small train as on the large one, and, on account of the low speed, 
they are longer doing the same work, so that this, to some extent, 
compensates for the much lower fuel consumption, and repairs, 
per mile. The 2ft. maintenance of road expenses deal wiUi a 
lighter permanent way, and lighter renewals, but per contra^ the 
road has to be kept in much better order than the wider one, to 
ensure the same stability, with the greater lateral overhang of 
the smaller rolling stock. 

Taking the 2ft. line with a small traffic, of the character 
mentioned, about £88 per mile would be the extra annual 
working charge, exclusive of that due to break of gauge. This, 
capitalized, say £2,500 per mile, is therefore the amount of 
saving in construction, which, owing alone to the unsuitability ol 
the small gauge to the character of the traffic, must be exceeded 
to justify its adoption in country branches in N.S.W. Now, in 
the easier country of this colony, many of the recent standard 
gauge branches have already cost per mile, all told, if we except 
items unaffected by gauge, considerably less than this, so it is 
clearly impossible to save on them ; nor is it easy to conceive the 
possibility of saving this £2,500 per mile on any line exo^ 
those of such magnitude, as regards works, as would put their con- 
struction, even on the small gauge, out of the question, to earn 
the moderate traffic which we are alone considering. 

The almost chance adoption of what has been amply proved, 
since, to be the best gauge for their purposes, in England, the 
Continent of Europe generally, and America, on grounds which 
had been derived from little or no experience, is one of 



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NARROW OAUOB AS APPUBD TO BRANCH RAILWAYS IN N.S.W. XXXL 

the most curious facts in the history of mechanical science. 
Had the question been investigated at all, the comparatively 
high specific gravity of most of the goods loading to be expected 
in England, such as coal, iron, manu^tured articles, and general 
merchandise, would have pointed to the adoption of a narrower 
gauge than the 4ft. 8^in., as has been shown, had there been 
nothing but dead weight to be thought of ; but this would have 
been over-balanced by the necessity, then probably unforeseen, of 
high speed, which is only economically obtainable on the wider 
line — speed, which is not only now found to be indispensable for 
the large passenger traffic, and for special classes of goods, but 
also to enable the lines to be cleared of the enormous amount of 
general traffic which has to be dealt with in a limited space. 

Goods traffic only has hitherto been considered, and in New 
South Wales this must over-ride, from its preponderance, any 
passenger question, but it will be found that the branch 
passenger service will suffer also by the adoption of a small 
gauge. It must be remembered that in France and Prussia, 
where the 2ft lines are most prevalent^ the passenger traffic is 
more important than the goods, and it is largely made up of farm 
people, attending markets at the numerous and contiguous 
villages of thickly populated agricultural districts, to which there 
is no parallel in Australia. In the districts accommodated by 
these European branches, the average passenger journey would 
be probably only 4 or 5 miles in length ; then on account 
of the expense of horse-keeping there is no other alter- 
native between travelling by rail, or on foot, with the great 
majority, and even a speed of 9 miles per hour is a consideration. 
Far different are the colonial conditions, every small farmer has 
his horse and trap, and owing to cheap horse flesh and feed, few, 
indeed, are without easy means of travelling by road. If, there- 
fore, a passenger service of 9 miles per hour is offered to such a 
population, it is such a small improvement on its existing 
means, both as regards time and money, that, practically, the 
whole passenger traffic, on the 2ft. branches, would be lost, by 
the passengers driving themselves to the main line. 



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XXXII. C. O. BUROK 

The greater part of the figures in this paper are neceBsarilf 
approximate, and the various positions of the centre of gravitj 
of truck and load, on which much of the argument depends, are 
practically incapable of exact determination, so that to cover 
inaccuracies, a very decided advantage for one system over the 
other, in the particular cases dealt with, must be made out 
This has been done, and the margin is so great for possible 
overstatement, as regards the important matters of the amoont 
of the different classes of loading, and of the relative cost of 
working on the two gauges, that the conclusion to which the 
figures and the facts of this paper, as well as those of the previoas 
one, point, is that a certain combination of circumstances must 
exist, to justify the oonst ruction of branch railways in New South 
Wales, on a smaller gauge than that of the present lines. 

These circumstances are, firstly, that the district to be served 
must consist of rough country, in order that the economy of 
narrow gauge construction may be sufficiently felt to influence the 
choice, and hence a fairly large traffic must exist to pay interest 
on heavy construction; secondly, that such district be large 
enough to contain and require a narrow gauge system, considerable 
enough in itself to minimise the evils of isolation ; and, thirdly, 
a preponderance of traffic of high specific gravity, such as slate, 
coal, or ore, must be obtained, with an absence of dependence for 
profits on passenger or live stock traffic. 

It will be found that such a combination does not exist in New 
South Wales, and hence it is good policy not to depart from the 
existing gauge, but to seek economy in construction by other 
means, according to the nature of each particular case, such as 
sharper curvature, steeper grading, and care in alignment and in 
design, in which latter, utility should be the sole guide. 



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SNOINBBRINO CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. XZXUI. 

ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION IN CONNECTION 
WITH RAINFALL. 

By J. I. H ATOROFT, M. Inst O. E. I., Amoo. M. Am. 800. 0. S^ Anoa M. Cm. 800. 
aE.,M.U.andO.B. 

IRead before the Engineering Seetien qfthe Royal Society of N, 8. Wale9, 
June 15, 7898.] 

It is proposed to divide the subject into three parts, firstly, 
as applied to Road or Railway Engineering ; secondly, City or 
Municipal Engineering ; thirdly, Water Conservation. The latter, 
however, will be dealt with only sufficiently to show in what 
respect its consideration differs from that of the other divisions. 

The manner in which rainfall affects the railway engineer 
renders this branch of our profession the most liable to censure 
on the part of the general public. This has been the rule, and 
probably always will be, until either the law regulating rainfall, 
if such exists, be understood, or engineers be entrusted with 
sufficient capital to build absolutely safe structures; then, if 
qualified men are employed as engineers, the world will cease 
to hear of loss of life and property due to bad design in provid- 
ing insufficient waterways under or in place of banks. 

The Engineer who is called on to lay out a railway in settled 
country, such as the United Kingdom or the Continent of 
Europe, where maps showing the natural features of the country 
exist, is much more favorably situated than one who has to 
explore the country before even laying down a trial line, such as 
is the case in parts of America and Australasia. The latter is 
also naturally ignorant of a most important factor necessary to 
render his line a safe one, viz., the amount and duration of the 
maximum rainfall of the district through which the line is to 
run ; he has, for instance, no reliable means of deciding the size 
of required culverts at any particular place. The possession in 
a settled country, of all necessary information, enables a line to 
be designed with regard to ultimate cost, more cheaply than 
where that information is wanting. The ultimate cost includes, 
not only the first cost of construction but such additional cost 
as arises subsequently from accidents happening after the line 
has been opened to traffic. 



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XXXIV. 



J. I. HAYCBOPT. 



AUTHOB. 



Col. Dickens 
Byves 

Fanning 
C. O. Burge 
Dredge 

Jackson 

Steane 

Craig 

O'Connell 
McComb 



FOBMUL^. 



0=826 M* =100 CM* 
0=27 CM* 

0=CM* 



0=200 M^ 

f. 1300 M , 

^^^(Length of JJ'etch)* 



Breadth I 

Q__ 181 X Area in sq. chains 
^~1800 (Length in chains) i- as 

0=440 BN hyp. log.?^- 



0==-45-796+ (2097-28 x 457-96 A)i 
0=5-29376 A* 



Authority and RTiM^BKa. 



Jackson*s Hydraulic Manual 
Fanning*8 HydraoUc Engineering 

C = 8-25 
Wilson's Irrigation Engineering 
C= 400 to 600 in flat country 
= 660 in hilly country with 
mft ximiiin rainfall 
Fanning*s Hydraulic Engineering 
Prof. Kemot, A.A.A. Science, 1888 

Fanning's Hydraulic Engineering 
Patton*8 Civil Engineering 

Prof. Kemot, A.A.A. Science, 18^ 
Trans. Boyal Soc., Tictoria, 1887 

Min. of Proc. Inst. C.E., VoL 80 
B = Width of Catchment in mile 
L= Length „ >« 

N = l-16 

Patton's Civil Engineering 



Biirkli Ziegler 
McMath 

Adams 

Hawksley 

Chamier 



Prof. Kemot 
E. T.D.Myers 

Prof. Talbot 

B. M. Peck 

Cleeman 

Steane 



0=cbs*aJ 

0=CBSi A^ 
0=2-488 Bsi As 
0=ACb(^^) A=CBt At S A 

0=ACB(^)*=CBJAlsi 

0=ACb(^)=503CBAJ 



0=CMi 
0=CA* 

o=caJ 

0=^ 



0=Ca4 
0=A0«« 



"Trautwine." S = Slope in feet 

per 1000. C = -31to-75 
Trans. Am. Soc. C.E., VoL XVI. 

Patton's Civil Engineering 

., „ . C=l-035 

S = Sine of slope 
Patton's Civil Engineering 
C = 3-946. S = Sine of slope 

Chamier 



A. A Jl. Science, 1888. C= 40 to 80 

Committee of Ass. By. Superinten- 
dents. C varies from 1 to 4 

Committee of Ass. By. Superinten- 
dents. C from i to 1 

Committee of Ass. By. Superinten- 
dents. C from 4 to 6 

Proc. Inst. C.E.. Vol. LVHI. 
C = ltol-6 ^ 

Trans. Boyal Soc., Victoria, 1^. 



Q=Cubic feet per sec. from Catchment. 
B=Bainfall in Inches per hour. 
0=Area of Opening in Square Feet. 



A=Area of Catchment in Acres. 

M= „ „ Square Miles. 

C=A CDnstant depending on circumfltances. 



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ENGINBERIN6 CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. 



XXXV. 



Many formuke have been proposed from time to time to enable 
aa engineer to deal intelligently with this subject, but no 
absolutely certain general rule has been, or, indeed, can be laid 
down on this point. 

Appended is a list of various formulae proposed for determin- 
ing the discharge from any given area.* 




Acres. 



Discharge in Cubic Feet per Second. 



6 


7 


22 


25 


3 


17 


7 


6 


9 


22 


22 


4 


16 


10 


12 


36 


41 


6 


30 


11 


9 


15 


32 


32 


7 


28 


16 


16 


49 


53 


9 


40 


16 


11 


20 


39 


39 


10 


38 


20 


20 


61 


67 


11 


50 


20 


17 


25 


45 


45 


12 


47 


30 


27 


82 


85 


17 


68 


27 


22 


34 


65 


55 


16 


63 


40 


34 


103 


102 


20 


84 


34 


28 


42 


63 


63 


20 


78 


60 


40 


121 


119 


24 


99 


41 


33 


48 


71 


71 


24 


93 


60 


45 


139 


134 


28 


114 


48 


39 


64 


77 


77 


27 


106 


70 


61 


156 


149 


82 


128 


54 


45 


61 


84 


84 


31 


119 


80 


66 


173 


162 


35 


141 


60 


60 


67 


89 


89 


34 


132 


90 


62 


189 


176 


38 


164 


66 


66 


74 


95 


95 


37 


144 


100 


67 


204 


191 


43 


167 


72 


62 


80 


100 


100 


40 


156 


150 


90 


277 


247 


60 


226 


99 


84 


108 


123 


123 


54 


211 


200 


112 


344 


299 


76 


281 


125 


106 


134 


141 


141 


67 


262 


260 


133 


406 


347 


92 


332 


149 


129 


160 


158 


168 


80 


309 


300 


162 


466 


392 


107 


380 


173 


151 


182 


173 


173 


91 


355 


360 


171 


522 


434 


121 


427 


196 


168 


205 


187 


187 


102 


398 


400 


189 


677 


475 


136 


472 


217 


190 


227 


200 


200 


113 


440 


450 


206 


631 


614 


150 


616 


239 


207 


247 


212 


212 


124 


481 


500 


223 


683 


551 


163 


658 


260 


230 


268 


224 


224 


134 


620 


1000 


376 


1149 


875 


291 


938 


462 


409 


450 


316 


316 


226 


876 


1500 


518 


1587 


1146 


408 


1296 


626 


571 


622 


387 


387 


310 


1210 


2000 


631 


1981 


1389 


618 


1578 


787 


728 


757 


447 


447 


378 


1472 


3000 


865 


2617 


1820 


727 


2138 


1089 


1019 


1026 


545 


645 


613 


1996 


4000 


1061 


3247 


2205 


924 


2663 


1371 


1294 


1273 


632 


632 


637 


2476 


5000 


1256 


3839 


2565 


1112 


3137 


1639 


1557 


1506 


707 


707 


753 


2924 


10,000 


2110 


6460 


4061 


1982 


5276 


2856 


2872 


2532 


1000 


1000 


1266 


4923 



A review of these formulee shows that widely different results 
may be arrived at by applying any two of them under like con- 

*The author will feel much obliged for any other proposed formulse, and for any 
expression of opinion as to its reliability or otherwise. 



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XXXVI. J. I. HAYOROFT. 



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BNGINBBBING OONSTRUCTIOK AND RAINFALL. XXXVII. 

ditions, a fact that is well illustrated by the accompanying dia- 
gram. In many oases this is not to be wondered at^ as some 
of these formulse have been put forward as applicable only to 
particular districts. Take, for instance, that of Colonel Dickens, 
which was designed to deal with rainfall in different parts of 
India, and where the only quantity to be introduced, independently 
of judgment, is the area of the catchment ; this item can be 
ascertained with very fair approximation, but no engineer worthy 
of the name would think of applying such a formula to a country 
like Australia, without having first determined the suitable con- 
stant to use in the particular case under consideration ; these 
constants have a very wide range, reaching from the minimum 
0*03, to a maximum of 24. The localities from which each were 
derived are given in Jackson's Hydraulic Manual, and his state- 
ment as regards the value of the constant is as follows : " It can 
be determined and made use of within local limits only, as it 
depends on an average maximum local downpour, evaporation, 
quality, inclination, and disposition of surface of the area under 
consideration : it has hitherto been determined for very few 
districts, and not sufficiently satisfactorily for some of them. In 
some cases unfortunately doubtful flood marks have been used to 
obtain the flood gradients, and the velocities calculated according 
to very varied formulse. In others the obstructions caused by 
bridges and embankments have vitiated all the bases of the 
calculations of discharge." 

After such an explanation, it is evident that before using this 
formula in Australia, it is necessary to prove that the conditions 
are identical. Where flood marks are observable, as in catch- 
ments discharging by streams with defined channels, no such 
formula need be applied, nor, indeed, are they necessary ; if 
doubt exists as to the reliability of the marks, an experienced 
engineer can make requisite allowances. 

On consideration of the most approved formulse which include 
factors for absorption, rainfall, slope and area of catchment, it is 
at once evident that these can be applied only where these 
several factors are sensibly constant; this constancy cannot 



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XXXVIII. J. I. HATCROPT. 

exist in very large areas, when it is remembered that the slope, the 
absorbent nature of the ground, and the intensity of the rainfall 
vary considerably, even in the radius of a few miles. Even in 
small areas the maximum rainfall, which is here being considered, 
is what may be termed " patchy," and, although the slope is ever 
varying, still its value may be approximated to within reasonable 
limits, by suitable observations, but certainly not by independent 
aneroid observations, a method which the author hab known to 
be employed. On examination of the formulae, it will be seen that 
nine of them are supposed to give a means of determining the 
number of cubic feet per second discharged from a catchment 
area, in terms of that area, its length in some cases, and length 
and breadth in others, combined with various constants, but no 
account is taken of amount of rainfall, nor of the varying slope of 
different catchments, so that, according to these formulse, the 
same volume of water would have to be provided for, whether 
the ground was flat or hilly, or whether the rainfall was at the 
rate of one inch per hour, or twelve inches per hour. It is 
hardly necessary to state that such formulse cannot possibly be 
reliable. On the other hand, it would not be just to say that 
therefore these formulse are of no use ; on the contrary, it is 
probable they are applicable to conditions identical with 
those whence they were derived As, however, none of them 
have been designed for use in these colonies, they cannot be 
considered applicable to local conditions. 

Six other formulae give the area of opening required in square 
feet, in terms of a constant, and the area of the catchment. 
These also may be considered as of a specific nature, and not 
adapted to general use, with the exception of that of Professor 
Kemot, which has been shown to be applicable in portions of 
these colonies. 

Five other formulae give the discharge of the catchment in 
cubic feet per second, in terms of a suitable constant, determined 
by the nature of the surface of the catchment^ the rainfall of the 
district, and the slope and area of the catchment, thus embracing 
all factors necessary to make them generally applicable. 



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ENGINEERING CON8TEUCTION AND RAINFALL. XXZIX. 

It is noticeable how closely, for practical purposes, these 
formulflB agree, within snch limits as they would probably be 
used. 

Thus for a catchment of 100 acres, the run off is given as 
follows : — 

Adams ... 62 cubic feet per second. 

Biirkli Ziegler ... 67 „ „ 

McMath ... 72 „ „ 

EEawksley ... 80 „ „ 

The consideration of the factors, used in these formulae, will 
now be entered on. They are divided into four heads, viz : — 

1. The rainfall. 

2. The kind and condition of soil. 

3. The area of the catchment. 

4. The general character and condition of same. 

The rainfall, — The maximum rainfall during the most 
severe ram storms is what is to be considered. 

It will be generally conceded that rainfall of this description 
is limited in extent and of short duration, so that the size of the 
area must be considered. In the Southern portion of this colony 
a catchment of 10 acres might be subject to a rainfall at the rate 
of six inches per hour, but an adjoining catchment of, say, 500 
acres would only be partly affected by this local intensity of 
rainfall. 

There is considerable difficulty in dealing with this part of the 
subject in a general manner, since it hardly lends itself to such 
treatment ; each particular case must be dealt with on its merits. 
The only definite thing which may be predicated about each 
district is that it has its own peculiarities ; these must be 
thoroughly known and understood to enable the question to be 
treated intelligently. 

The run off from a catchment^ due to melting snow, is of the 
greatest importance in some districts. Its volume is always in 
excess of that caused by the maximum rainfall, but as its effects, 
in the shape of flood-marks, are invariably observable, the ques- 
tion of suitable formula need not be discussed here. 



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XL. J. I. HAYOROFT. 

The kind and condition of soil is a most important factor 
in dealing with this subject. For example, during a period of wet 
weather of, say, four days' duration, and of varying intensity, 
the run off from a given area will vary considerably in the 
extreme cases of a porous aiea, such as a sandy surface, and an 
area consisting of a clay surface. In the first case the four days* 
rain may never sufficiently saturate the soil to permit any of the 
rain to flow off during that period in such quantity as to need 
any provision but the smallest culvert, although the flow may 
continue for some weeks after the rain has ceased, whilst in the 
C8U3e of a clay surface, even after a period of drought, the area 
may be rendered impermeable, after, say, one day's rain, so that 
all the fall for the following three days must be provided for, 
while a day or two after rain ceases the creek in which the run 
off took place would practically bo dry again. 

In this connection it may be said that maximum rainfalls 
should be considered as falling on impervious ground, inasmuch 
as such rainfalls frequently occur during a continuance of wet 
weather. The experience of the writer is that such heavy rain 
falls form climaxes to periods of wet weather, which, commencing 
moderately, proceed in intensity (not, it is true, in any fixed 
ratio), come to a head in a very severe rainfall of short duration, 
and then fall In intensity gradually, until rain ceases for that 
particular period. 

Now, the difficulty with which coi engineer has to contend is 
that rain gauges, except those automatically registering, show 
nothing but the gross amount of rainfall between the periods of 
observation. As, for instance, a rain gauge observed at stated 
intervals, say 24 hours, showing, perhaps, that during that period 8 
inches of rain had fallen, does not indicate whether 7 inches of it 
fell in 23 hours and one inch during the balance, or vice versa. In 
such a case experience is of value in forming a correct judgment, 
and the most severe conclusion which may be drawn from 
observing such a gauge, guided, of course, by what has been 
learnt in regard to such rainfalls, either from recording gauges or 
from experience, will be the safest. The records of a self- 



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BNOIKBBBING 00N8TBU0TI0N AND RAINFALL. XLI. 

registering rain gauge, maintained for a number of years in a 
given catchment, are invaluable. Few catchments are thus 
equipped. In the absence of such a gauge the records of the 
nearest rain gauge, considered in relation to its proximity to the 
catchment and the physical geography of the locality, is the best 
substitute. In designing a means of egress for water from a 
catchment the maximum rainfall of the district is, of course, the 
chief consideration, but this must be considered in an intelligent 
manner. 

Let a typical case be considered. Say there are two towns, X 
and Y, about 40 miles apart, lying between which is a range of 
fairly high hills, practically parallel to the bee-line between the 
towns. Now suppose, during a period of wet weather, a rain 
gauge at X registers at the rate of 2 inches per hour, and a 
gauge at Y at the rate of 6 inches per hour, an engineer, in 
providing outlets for catchments, embracing the range and 
sloping ground at its base, is bound to consider those various 
catchments as liable to be subject to the greater rainfall per 
hour. The rainfall should not be graded for the several catch- 
ments between X and Y, so that at a point midway between 
these towns a rainfall of only 4 inches per hour would be con- 
sidered. Such a treatment would be very convenient if it was in 
accordance with natural law ; but, unfortunately, such is not the 
case. On the other hand, the rainfall on the range would 
probably exceed the record of the gauges observed at its ends. 

Nor, having fixed the probable maximum rainfall, as in this 
case at the rate of 6 inches per hour, is it permissible, 
because rainfall may take 6 hours to travel from the extreme 
point of a certain catchmennt to the outlet, to consider it as a 
rainfall at the rate of 1 inch per hour falling for 6 hours. 

It is very important to consider only those catchments whose 
area permits them to be affected as regards maximum volume 
produced at their outlets by such rainfalls. An area whose 
extent renders it unlikely to be wholly affected with the 
maximum rainfall of the district, can still be considered as suit- 
able for the application of some formula, by taking the conditions 



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XLII. J. I. HAYCBOFT. 

afi they occur in Nature — viz., the whole area affected by a 
rainfall of moderate intensity, during continuance of which 
occurs a maximum rainfall on portion of t^e area. Such cases 
occur, and are those which cause maximum volume at an outlet, 
and, therefore, are those to be provided for. 

T?ie area of the ccUchm&nL — This item, of great import- 
ance, can always be determined with a sufficient degree of 
approximation, either by marking the line of watershed on a 
reliable map, or, in the absence of such, making a rough travBrse 
thereof. It has been already stated that all formulse are limited 
to definite areas, but the determination of the extent of the 
maximum area to which a formula may be considered applicable 
is a very difficult matter. It has already been said that when the 
run-off from a catchment area takes place in a defined channel, 
formulse are unnecessary. No definite rule applies as to when 
formulas are to be put on one side, and flood-marks made use of. 

In connection with the subject of flood-marks there are certain 
liabilities to error, to which attention may be drawn. Jackson's 
remarks have already been referred to, but the writer eaUs to 
mind a case in this colony where a catchment of nearly 50 square 
miles, with a well-defined creek as an outlet, was observed by 
him within six days of rain having fallen as absolutely dry, &nd 
this in a country where one day's steady rain would render the 
surface practically impermeable. Flood-marks were observable 
on the railway bank, through which the culvert forming the 
outlet for this area was constructed, but such marks were useless 
to determine the discharge from that area, even if the rainfall 
were known, as, if the line had not existed, their height would have 
probably not been within 18 feet of where they appeared to be. 
Observation of flood-marks, to be of practical use, should be 
taken at such points on a stream where the flood-waters are 
removed from any chance of being unduly raised, owing to 
obstructions, insufficiency of structure, or other causes having a 
like effect. 

The longitudinal section in the case mentioned showed the 
inclination of the bed of the stream above the obstruction as 



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BNQINBBRINa CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. XLIII. 

fairly inclined, whilst the surface of the water as determined by 
the flood-marks was nearly level It is only when a stream is 
'* in train," as it is termed, that the slope can be used to deter- 
mine velocity ; the surface of the water and the bed of the 
stream are then, to all intents and purposes, parallel. The 
attempt to obtain velocity from the small difiPerence of level in 
backed-up water by ordinary slope formulae is useless, and 
co-efficients derived therefrom are incorrect. In the determina- 
tion of flood-levels, as a rule, there is little or no difficulty if the 
subject be properly approached, but very erroneous results can 
be deduced unless great care is taken. 

The general charaoter cmd inclincUion of ccUchinent — As 
regards these particulars, two areas, of the same extent, may 
vary widely as to the amount of rainfall discharged in a given 
time. The shape of a catchment is an important item ; thus, a 
catchment running back from the outlet, say, 4 miles, and 
averaging a quarter-mile wide, will discharge rainfall at a much 
more regular rate than a catchment of the same area and nature 
of soil, but greatly differing in shape, which, for instance, might 
consist of a central creek into which several side creeks dis- 
charged at different points, although the amount of run-off in 
each case from a similar rainfall might be identical when the 
flow ceased. The long, narrow catchment might even never 
experience rain of sufficiently long duration to cause a maximum 
run-off at the outlet, whilst the differently-shaped catchment of 
equal area, supplied with what might be termed " feeder " creeks, 
would very likely discharge a maximum amount under a rainfall 
of similarly short duration. Thus the shape of a catchment and 
its characteristics are often of equal importance to its extent. 

The shape of a catchment can be taken into account in the 
application of some formulae, such as BUrkli-Ziegler, McMath, 
Adams, and Hawksley, indirectly, it is true, as no direct means 
has been provided, whilst the formulae of Burge, Jackson, Steane, 
and Craig deal essentially with the shape. These latter, however, 
do not deal with the slope of a catchment, which also is of great 
importance; if this be uniform the discharge will begin from 



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XUT. J. I. HATOBOFT. 

zero, increasing to a maximum, providing the rainfall is oonstanfe 
and of sufficient duration to permit the water from the farthest 
poiat to reach the outlet, whilst it continues. As long as the 
rain continues, and the absorption is supposed constant, ih» 
volume at the outlet will be constant, and a maximum. When, 
however, in this case the rain does not continue sufficiently long 
for the water from the farthest point to reach the outlet, whilst 
it still rains, the maximum quantity will not be experienced. 

When the slope of a catchment is not uniform, suppose a case 
where a railway runs practically parallel to a hilly range : the 
upper portion of such a catchment would be steeper t^an the 
lower portion, and the water would run off quicker from such 
steeper portions, thereby increasing the volume on the flatter 
portion, so that in such a case the n^aximum quantity might 
arrive at the outlet, though the rain did not continue to fall 
whilst the water from the farthest part of the catchment was 
travelling thereto. 

The consideration of this question, from a theoretic point of 
view, as dealt with in the Encyclopedia BriUcmnica, would lead 
one to believe that the maximum flood at the outlet of a catchment 
will be continued when the rain continues long enough for the 
waters from the farthest point to reach the outlet while it still 
rains. This maximum volume will be the product of the number 
of acres in the catchment, by the rainfall in inches per hour, by 
the coefficient of run off. This is no doubt true as an abstract 
fact, and can be demonstrated mathematically on a suitably 
shaped catchment, but if the fetch of a catchment be so great, 
that no rainfall of such duration can be experienced, the slopes 
thereon are of the utmost importance, as may be seen on con- 
sideration of two catchments, one, ** A,";of uniform slope through- 
out its length, and another, ^' B," of gradually increasing slope 
from its outlet to its farthest point. If the fetch and nature of 
soil in both cases be equal and similar, *' A '' may never 
experience the maximum volume, whilst **B'' would probably 
do so, both being subjected to a rainfall of equal intensity, but 
the duration of which would not be sufficiently long to permit 



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X50I5BBRI5G CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. XLV. 

the water reaching the outlet from the farthest point of the 
catchment, whilst it still rained. 

In view of the above considerations, it is evident that not one 
of the formal» proposed is entirely generaV; are they then to be 
discarded, and, if so, what coarse should an engineer pursue when 
designing a waterway through a bank ? Before answering this, 
the following extracts from standard works and leading en- 
gineers as to practice in other parts of the world, may be noticed. 

In Patton's Civil Engineering^ under the head of •' Water 
Reaching Streams and Sewers," it is stated : — 

"The ran off depends on snoh conditions, that the variations of 
formulsB as well as the diffloolties of applying them to small city areas and 
large ooontry areas alike, make the application unsatisfactory; formnUB, 
now applying approximately well for city areas, do not apply to country 
areas, where the storm discharges are carried off by creeks and rivers ; the 
best formula now used seemed to be based on variable areas, variable slopes 
and variable rainfalls, the powers, roots, and constants, used in each, giving 
it its special merit.'* ** Even with the best 4 formulfls for run off, 8 of 
them give curves for areas under 5 acres, shewing more run off than rainfall, 
and yet Biirkli Ziegler and McMath are more generally used, because of 
better agreement with observed run off from areas, say above 50 or 60 acres ; 
none of these formulae, and still worse, none of the various flood discharge 
formulffi, are satisfactory in very large country areas." 

Professor Johnson, of Washington University, from whom the 
writer sought information, states, as regards design of water- 
ways : — 

** There is no fixed practice, and any engineer would find it hard to give 
any fixed rules for his own practice. Some roads always run out the 
watershed line, and find the drainage area of the stream or -draw crossed, and 
then assume a maximum rate of rainfall, and use some formula for getting 
the maximum rate of run off from the area ; character of surface and rainfall 
rate assumed, but in the end it is little better than a guess. We have a 
tradition here amongst our Bailway Engineers, that it is only a question of 
time before any culvert will * go out ' by a flood, so you see we have no * safe 
mle * to go by. Make them as big and as permanent as you can afford to do 
is the more common American practice, and if they go out * charge it up to 
Providence.* 

Mr. G. H. Pegram of the Union Pacific System, states : — 
** The general practice has been for the locating engineer to size up the 
situation at a glance, as he goes over the road, and put down a * 2 foot box * 



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XLVI. J. I. HAYCROPl'. 

or * 8 panel trestle/ as may appear to his judgment right, and subsequent 
experience generally proves that he was wrong." 

Mr. Foster Crowell states : — 

** There are all sorts of conditions requiring all sorts of provisions, in 
the matter of waterway design ; in unsettled districts the flood marks are as 
a rule more easily discernible than in the settled districts, and where the 
rainfall is known approximately, and the watershed can be conservatively 
estimated, even the absence of flood marks, itself a reassuring circumstance, 
need not preclude a correct diagnosis. A tentative treatment is, however, 
often resorted to in the adoption of a surplusage of opening, to be afterwards 
curtailed in the light of experience. In this country (America) reliable 
records are often lacking, even in settled communities, and where the 
consequences of erroneous conclusions would be mosfe serious, thorou^ 
investigation of the possible discharge becomes a necessity. In the matter of 
culverts, the usual practice is extremely conservative, especially as under high 
embankments actual economy may be secured by an increase of diameter of 
the opening. The question of waterways should not be left untU the time of 
actual construction, but be taken up with the preliminary surveys and in 
detail. It is, however, not good practice to steer very close to the theoretical 
requirements. Ample margin should always be allowed where practicable." 

From other letters received by the writer from America and 
Canada, the practice seems to be, when a doubt exists as to the 
reliability of the result of a formula, a trestle is put in, about 
the sufficiency of which there can be no doubt, and this structure 
is observed in flood times, during a course of years, and when 
needing replacement is substituted by a permanent culvert, the 
size of which is determined by the observations made during the 
life of the trestle. 

The formula most used in America seems to be that of E. T. D. 
Myers, President, Richmond, Fredricksburg and Potomac Rail- 
way. Mr. Myers states " that the co-efficient should be derived 
from careful and judicious gaugings, at characteristic points 
within the region under treatment, and applied with a liberal 
hand." 

A valuable paper on " How to determine size and capacity of 
openings for waterways " has been compiled and published by the 
committee of the Railway Superintendents of Bridges and 
Buildings, in America, in which it is stated, inter cUia, after 



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ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. XLVII. 

enumerating various formulae "all these features, therefore, 
emphasize the difficulties of the task and the necessity of 
employing specially trained engineers, or expert hydraulicians, 
for all important work of this kind, as the true value of the 
application of theory to this problem is directly proportional to 
the correctness of the assumptions borrowed from practice ; in 
the hands of a practical and experienced adept the data bearing 
on the case, consisting of part theory, part assumptions and 
observed facts, will be moulded into fairly good shape, and some 
tangible and valuable results obtained/' The formula known as 
Biirkli-Ziegler's, when intelligently used, is (judged by the 
experience of the writer) as reliable as a formula of such a nature 
can be, and is preferable for general use to any other of the 
indicated formulae. 

During a recent investigation of the applicability of these 
several formulae to local conditions, -it was found that the only 
formula devised for general Australian use, and proved to be reli- 
able in comparison with existing waterways, was that of Professor 
Kernot, of Melbourne University. Under certain conditions it is 
identical with that of Biirkli-Ziegler, the proof of which is as 
follows : 

Biirkli-Ziegler's formula is — 

Q' = R V -- where Q' = cubic feet per sec. per acre^ 
A 

reaching the outlet. 

C is the co-efficient of run off. 

K is the rate of rainfall in inches per hour. 

S is the average slope of the catchment, in feet per thousand, 
and A is the area of the catchment in acres. 

Now let Q = total run ofi^ in cubic feet per second, from the 

catchment, then Q = Q' A = K V^ S A^ 

Let S = 20 feet per thousand 

ThenQ = 21147 CR A* 

Now let the velocity of flow, through the proposed opening, be 
4^ miles per hour =6*6 feet per second. 



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XLVIII. J. I. HATOROFT. 

If O o area of opening in square feet, it 

Q_ « ?21i!cRA* 

Velocity 6 6 

= 0-32 OR A* 

= 0-32 OR (640 M)* 

= 40M^ 

= Professor Kernot's formula when 

C - -5 and R = 2" 
If C - 0-626 &R = 2" 

O = 60M* 

And ifC = lifeR = 2" 

O = 80 M * 

The question now arises, after having by some means deter- 
mined the amount of water to be provided for, what shall the 
nature of the provision be? This is a point about which 
engineers differ, though the scope for difference is much mcM« 
limited than in choosing a formula for run off. 

Let a typical case be taken. Say, for instance, where a catch- 
ment discharges 60 cubic feet of water per second, this quantity 
of water has to be passed under a railway or road bank, with 
safety to the bank and the structure itsel£ 

A low velocity of discharge, except in special cases, is prefer- 
able for several reasons. For example, when a culvert is to be 
constructed, the facility for getting sufficient grade to attain a 
high velocity is very limited, for the outlet should be designed 
to provide a rapid get away. Surcharged culverts are not here 
considered. Another and more important reason is as follows : 
Suppose engineer M in adopting a velocity of six feet per socond 
through his structure, requires ten square feet of section, and an 
engineer N adopting 18 feet per second, and, therefore 3^ square 
feet of opening ; then the latter will require less material, and 
design, therefore, a cheaper structure so far as first cost is con- 
cerned. Other effects, however, result, which may more than 
counterbalance the supposed advantage ; as, for instance, if the 
velocity as designed, for some reason cannot be realized, the 



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ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. XLIX. 

culvert will not discharge the required amount, the consequence 
of which may be that the water will rise on the bank and cause 
a washout, endangering life and property. 

In the case of M, however, if the assumed velocity be too low 
and it rises above 6 feet per second his 10 square feet of section 
only proves more than sufficient for the requirements, moreover 
the smaller culvert is more liable to become obstructed and 
rendered useless than the larger one. 

Engineer N may, however, say if for any reason the velocity 
falls below 18 feet per second, the result will be that the water 
will rise over the mouth of the culvert, until the head so acquired 
furnishes the required velocity. But by what means can the 
increase in velocity be calculated? Such an outlet cannot 
be considered as an orifice, an adjutage, or a pipe under 
pressure. No experiments, within the writer's knowledge, have 
ever been made to determine velocity of efflux in such a case, the 
reason being, no doubt, that such investigation not being con- 
formable would be unnecessary to good practice. The permitting 
of the flood waters to rise to formation level has been advocated 
by some, but what guarantee is there that they will not rise 
higher and cause a washout ? 

The attaining of a velocity greater than 4^ miles per hour, 
through a culvert of this class, by artificial means, such as by 
surcharge at the outlet is undesirable. If a greater velocity can 
be attained by a natural inclination of the bed of the culvert, by 
all means let it be availed of, taking care, however, of two 
things — first, that the outlet is left naturally clear, so that the 
effluent water can get away from the culvert at least as quickly 
as it passes through it ; and secondly, that the cross-section ot 
the opening be not made so small as to render it liable to be 
choked up, as the latter would inevitably lead to surcharge, and 
possible wash away of the bank. 

Now, as regards this velocity of 18 feet per second, supposing 
such could be attained by providing sufficient fall in the culvert 
with a free get-away at the lower end, as a general rule, in such 
structures, is it needed ? The negative answer may be s;iven, 



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L. J. I. HAYCROPT. 

not because injury would be likely to accrue to the structure^ 
through the occasional occurrence of such a high velocity, bat 
from the fact that the velocity of water approaching a culvert 
never reaches such a rate, and whilst decrying any attempt to 
reduce the natural velocity of approach, there does not appear to 
be any utility in increasing it for such a short length, as ordinary 
culverts reach. 

Now, what is the natural velocity of approach of a stream. 
Is it not determined by one of two things, or, perhaps, by both— 
viz., the inclination of the bed, and the material through which 
it passes? 

On page 164 of '^ The Australian Municipal Pocket Book of 
Engineering," compiled by J. H. Cardew, Assoc M. Inst. C.E., 
will be found the following information as regards limits <d 
velocity : — " To prevent injury to the bed and banks, the velocity 
of water, in feet per minute, in a channel should be proportioned 
to the tenacity of the soil." The minimum velocity is given for 
soft alluvial deposits as 25 feet per minute, rising to from 300 to 
400 feet per minute for shingly and rocky beds. On the next 
page the velocities in feet per second are given at which various 
substances are carried off, that at which hard rock will be affected 
being 10 feet per second. 

400 feet per minute, it is hardly necessary to remark, means 
6§ feet per second. Now, if this is correct, as undoubtedly the 
author of such a book would be, the maximum velocity in nature 
is 10 feet per second, and hence, except it is desired to shift 
creation, there can be no necessity for increasing this velocity of 
nature, especially when by doing so the only tangible result is to 
make the are theculvert so small as to render it liable to be 
obstructed. 

Jackson, in his *^ Hydraulic Manual," states that the velocity 
of slow rivers is 0*33 feet per second, of ordinary rivers is 2^ 
feet per second, and of rapid rivers is 10^ feet per second, and 
also that the safe bottom velocities for the softer rocks, brick and 
earthenware, is 4^ feet per second, and for hard rock from 6 to 
10 feet per second. 



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ENGINEERING C0N8TBUCTI0N AND RAINFALL. LI. 

Thoagh much more might be said concerning this part of the 
paper, the second part will now be entered upon. 

The question of providing for rainfall in connection with City 
or Municipal Engineering, is much more simple than the branch 
dealt with. The areas, as a rule, are of limited extent, the value 
of the coefficient of run off is much better defined, and no un- 
certainty should exist as to the rainfall. 

The question of area presents no difficulty, and can be cheaply 
and easily arrived at by means of maps. The method of treat- 
ment, however, differs somewhat from the case of a railway, for 
whilst in that instance the configuration of a catchment as 
regards the existence of " feeder " creeks, running into the main 
one, is only ccmsidered, as regards the volume of run-off at some 
point on the main creek, in this instance the extent of the catch- 
ments of these several ** feeder " creeks is of importance. 

Take, for example, the case of a creek running through land 
in the neighbourhood of a city ; whilst in this condition, rain 
water finds its way into the creek, at probably innumerable point, 
along its course. As population increases, the area within the 
catchment of this creek becomes subdivided and built on. The 
original condition, regulating the flow of rainfall into the creek 
is altered — streets are constructed, the water channels of which 
discharge the rainfall into the creek in % concentrated form, in 
fact, the original catchment, which formerly could be treated as 
a whole, must now be considered as consisting of a number of 
catchments, discharging at definite points into the creek. The 
extent of these sub- catchments must be ascertained, and if a 
storm-water channel be constructed to supersede the original 
creek, its size must be proportioned to the several volumes from 
these sub- catchments discharging into it at definite points along 
its course. 

Opinions differ as to the value to be given to the coefficient of 
run-off. As regards the City of Sydney and the western suburbs, 
the writer is of opinion its value should be a maximum, or in 
other words unity. There can be no question in regard to this 
in reference to a city — parks and open spaces being specially 



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UI. J. I. HAYCROPT. 

dealt with ; and as regards the western suburbs, considering the 
general nature of the soil and the fact that it is maximum rain- 
fall which has to be provided for, as a general rule the coefficient 
should be a maximum ; the mode of occurrence of maximum 
rainfall must be considered, as already pointed out, viz,, during 
the continuance of what may be classed as moderate rain, which 
latter, however, tends to saturate the ground, so that the maxi- 
mum rain should be considered as falling on impermeable surfe&ce. 
Even in the eastern suburbs, where the soil is sandy, and whilst 
in its natural condition calculated to absorb more than the soil 
of the other suburbs, still the coefficient should be high. The 
writer's practice, in such a case, has been to take unity as the 
coefficient, making an allowance in the extent of the catchment 
according to the nature of the dwellings erected, as, for instance, 
a catchment thickly built on, with terraces and asphalted yards, 
would be treated as impermeable, whilst an area of equal extent, 
on which detached residences with gardens, etc., predominated, 
would have a lower coefficient. 

As regards the rate of rainfall, greater diversity of opinion 
exists. A rainfall at the rate of six inches per hour should be 
provided for, and has been used in the writer's practice for 
Sydney and suburbs. On many occasions, in the courts of this 
colony, it has been maintained that it is sufficient to provide for 
a rainfall at the rate of two inches per hour, with only 50 per 
cent, of that flowing otf areas under 20 acres in extent. 

What local authorities have to guard against is, that damage 
to property does not accrue from insufficient provision for flood 
water, caused by rain other than that of a phenomenal nature, 
and this less allowance, viz., for 2 inches, has been found 
inadequate. 

Kow, it is known that rain does fall from time to time in 
the neighbourhood of Sydney at the rate of 6 inches per hour, 
and should therefore be provided for, since it cannot be classed 
as phenomenal. 

Chief Justice Darley, as reported in ** Browning's Municipal 
Digest," has spoken as follows on this point: — *'* Phenomenal ' 



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ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. LIII. 

rainfall meant a rainfall of an extraordinary nature, out of the 
common, and such as was not justified by past experience.'' 

The practice of the Works Department is to consider a rainfall 
of 2 inches per hour, with only a percentage, rising sometimes as 
high as 50, flowing off. Of course, where large sums are proposed 
to be expended in storm-water channels, it may be debatable 
whether, from a pecuniary point of view, it is not advisable to 
provide for less than the maximum rainfall, so as to reduce the 
cost. 

When the maximum quantity to be provided for has been 
decided, the engineer can easily provide facilities for its getting 
away in a safe manner, that is, so as not to injure property ; and 
the question resolves itself into the calculation of the necessary 
size of pipe-drain, culvert, or open channel to carry off a given 
volume of water in a given time on a fixed or determined grade. 
Many formulsB have been devised for this purpose, but none is so 
generally applicable as that of Ganguillet and Kutter. 

The question of rainfall, when considered from the point of 
view of water conservation, has to be dealt with in an entirely 
different manner. 

With the exception of the bye-pass from a storage reservoir, it 
is not the question of maximum rainfall in a limited period that 
has to be considered, but the available volume from the minimum, 
mean, and annual rainfall. 

The question of the length of time the water from a catchment 
will take to flow into a reservoir or channel need not generally 
be considered, so that slope or length of fetch has but little 
weight. It is the amount which may be expected to run off a 
catchment, and be available for conservation for future distri- 
bution, such as town supply or irrigation, which has to be 
considered. The question of evaporation does not under either 
of the other heads enter into practical consideration, but is here 
of vital importance. Percolation must also be taken account of. 
Both phenomena have been classed by recent writers under the 
bead of absorption. This varies with the soil and climate. In 
many cases, however, water which is apparently lost by percola- 



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LIV. DISCUSSION. 

tion can be recovered by means o£ boring, so bringing it to 
the surface again, if the physical features of the district lend 
themselves to such treatment. Whilst it is most important, 
under the former heads, to know the maximum rainfall, under 
this head the mean and minimum rainfall, the latter both in 
amount and duration, should be ascertained. The maximum 
period, during which the demand for water exceeds the natural 
yield, determines the amount of storage required. 

To properly deal with this branch of the paper in a thorough 
manner would occupy too much time. These few remarks will, 
however, sufficiently indicate how far its treatment differs from 
the other branches of the subject. 



Discussion. 

{Brief Abstract). 
Mr. C. O. BuRGB said that as his name had been mentioned 
as the author of one of the formulse quoted, he wished to say a 
few words about it, more especially as it had been included in a 
standard work — Jackson's ** Hydraulic Manual " — as one of the 
three best-known formulse in connection with flood discharge. He 
had been enabled, when in charge of about 100 miles of open line 
railway maintenance in India, to measure the maximum flood 
discharge for many years of a great number of large openings ; 
and from this, and the data of the several basins, he had put 
together the formula in question. This, after publication in an 
article in the " Professional Papers on Indian Engineering,'' had 
been quoted in the Manual, with a criticism with which he 
was disposed to agree, and from there had got into Moles- 
worth's Pocket-B<>ok. That was nearly 30 years ago, but his 
experience since led him to distrust all formulae on this subject 
In all of them the constant had too much to bear. For instance, 
in the formula in question the constant had to include maximum 
rainfall in a given time, concentration of rainfall, percolation, 
evaporation, dissimilarity of tributaries from main stream, the 
influence of ponds or waterholes, <bc., all of which varied so 



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BNGINEBKIN6 CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL, L7. 

maoh. But even when he published the formula he had acoom- 
panied it by a paragraph, which was quoted, to the effect that the 
evidence of flood marks and the experience of the engineer were 
to be preferred to any formula. 

Mr. B. 0. Simpson thought that all known formulsB were 
useless in determining the area of waterways for engineering works, 
since they were all empirical and founded more or less accurately 
on certain particular local conditions. The enormous discrepancy 
in the results obtained by different formulae, and the correspond- 
ence given by the author of the paper from American and other 
engineers, both indicate the unreliability of formulse. The author's 
assumption of a velocity of six feet per second was not in accord 
with facts. Ganguillet and Kutter gave many examples of 
rivers with a velocity of 13 feet per second. Professor Kernot's 
formula, founded on the success or failure of certain waterway 
works, could have no practical value unless the opening necessary 
for the outlet of a certain area of watershed had been determined 
by the success or failure of a very large number of such works, 
and the actual area of opening in each instance had been qualified 
by the constant which would be applicable to that particular 
watershed, according to his formula. The curve on which he 
based his equation was fixed at many points by only one or two 
examples. Mr. Haycroft's attempt to prove the similarity of 
Biirkli-Ziegler's formula and Professor Kernot's could only be 
described as mathematical juggling. Considering the unreliable 
nature of all known formulae, and that the engineer must after 
all use his judgment in the selection of his formula, and in the 
application of his co-efficient, it was better to take the quantity of 
water falling on the watershed during the period necessary for 
the discharge from its furthest limits, and modify the total 
resulting discharge per second by a co-efficient which would be found 
to vary from *05 to *5, except in the extreme cases of town 
drainage; such coefficient to be arrived at by considering the 
conditions of shape, slope, and porosity of watershed. 

Mr. Chamibr said that for different catchments, varying 
from one square . mile up to five hundred, the factor R in his 



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LVI. DISCUSSION. 

formula would decrease from 2 to ^. The author, in making 
the calculations shown in his table, had made R constant 
throughout. He wished it to be clearly uoderstood, therefore, 
that he rejected the whole of these calculations as erroneous. 

Prof. Kernot regarded the paper as a very complete and 
valuable compendium of what had been so far settled or con- 
jectured on a very complex subject. With regard to his own 
formula, it was at best rough, and to be used only under limita- 
tions, yet it very fairly corresponded to the most satisfactoir 
practice coming under his notice. Melting snow was a factor 
which, under certain circumstances, might be of great importance ; 
in the case of warm rain in spring falling on snow it might be 
allowed for by an increase of 50% in the constant of his formula. 
He thoroughly agreed with the authors advocacy of self- 
registering rain-gauges. Very little had been said with regard 
to 8tora>ge, but this in many cases appeared to give considerable 
relief, and permitted waterways to be reduced in size. As to the 
velocity of discharge through culverts, he had often gauged it in 
actual cases, and found it rarely to exceed 8 feet per second. 
Such velocities as 18 feet per second he considered utterly inad- 
missable, except in the case where everything in the vicinity was 
solid rock or masonry. The efficiency of culverts might be raised 
by making their inlets and outlets approximate in form to a vena 
corUracta. He agreed that the co-efficient of run-off should be 
unity when the catchment consists of roofs, pavements, and hard 
metalled roads. 

Mr. J. Davis thought that the author was to be compli- 
mented for his industry in collecting so extensive a list of 
formulae. The paper was, however, disappointing, because, while 
the author fully appreciated and weighed the difficulties of the 
case, he practically left it in much the same position in which be 
found it. In considering the provision to be made for the dis- 
charge of water under railways, streams should be divided 
into two classes — viz., (A) those flowing from catchments over 200 
acres, and, therefore, of comparatively large volume ; and (B) 
those flowing from areas less than 200 acres. Usually in the 



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ENGINEERING CONSTBUGTION AND RAINFALL. 



LVII. 



former (A) the discharge would be foand to be of sufficient 
volume to have created a fairly well defined channel, and where 
semi-tropical rains are experienced, as in New South Wales, the 
flooding would have left distinct marks behind. The safest 
course in all such cases would be to depend upon flood marks 
and other reliable data obtained locally. The information thus 
obtained should be checked by taking in conjunction the drainage 

STORMWATER DRAINAGE. 
Details of Radtfall pbovided fob. 



Name of Channel. 


•sii 


Rainfall allowed for 
in inches per hour. 


Lenjrth of Channel 
Constructed. 


Lengrth of Fetch 
above Ohannel. 


Wallsend and Plattsburg . . 


3040 


J inch . . 


53 chains 


3 m. 10 chns. 


Orange Stormwater Channel 


4600 


J inch 


25 chains 


— 


Newcastle Pasturage Reserve 










Stormwater Channel . . 


7787 


J inch 


2 m. 64 chns. 


2 m. 40 chns. 


Homebush Creek — 




1 1 inch Albyn St. 

1 branch 

\ IJin.RaUwaySt. 






Upper portion . . 


620 






Iron Cove Creek — 




( branch 


— 


— 


Upper portion . . \ 


1700 


riiinch.. 
\ 1 inch . . 


— 


— 


Lower portion . 


J 


— 


— 


Long Cove Creek — 












Upper portion . 


I 
J 


1000 


r 1 J inch . . 
\ 1 inch . . 


— 


— 


Lower portion . 


— 


— 


Johnstone's Creek- 












Upper portion . 


[ 


1147 


rijinch.. 
\ 1 inch . . 


— 


— 


Lower portion . 


— 


— 


Rnshcutter's Bay- 












Upper portion . . 


f 


330 


/ 2 inches 
\ li inch . . 


— 


— 


Lower portion . 


— 


— 


White's Creek- 












Upper portion . 


\ 


830 


riiinch.. 
\ 1 inch . . 


— 


— 


Lower portion . . / 




""" 



areas, the maximum rainfall, and the grade which the water 
course would be likely to give when in flood. To compute the 
discharge for the latter (B), when the slopes are great, and the 
surface rocky or impervious, the only absolutely reliable course 
was to assume that the maximum rainfall would flow off at once, 
and ma'xO provision in the culverts accordingly. Referring to the 
typical case quoted on Page xli., presumably the Author would 
make provision for &' of rainfall over the whole of the catch- 



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LYIII. D180U88ION. 

ment. To this he could not agree. Awroming tii&t some 
of the catchments to be provided for were small, then it 
mighty perhaps, be safe to base the calculation upon 6' of 
rainfall. This large provision, however, in his judgment, 
and in that of the authors of the formulie given, was quite 
unnecessary. With regard to the author's assumption of 
a co-efficient of run-off equal to unity when designing storm- 
water channels in towns, experience proved that this assumption 
was wide of the fact, in proof of which the cases illustrated in 
the foregoing table were produced. Such channels had been 
built in every part of the city, and had proved ample in capacity 
to carry off the most severe rains. 

Mr. C. J. Robs thought the author was to be commended 
for introducing a subject upon which such a diversity of opinion 
exists, and one which deserves more, and receives so little 
professional attention. Especially was this the case in 
Municipal Engineering, as his experience went to show that the 
matter was usually treated by the old '* rule of thumb " method 
of personal judgment. He would mention one or two points that 
bad occurred to him in dealing with the question. First, with 
regard to flood marks He had found that one might very easily 
be misled by accepting even apparently well-authenticated flood 
marks. Again, with regard to the basis of rainfall necessary to 
adopt for local municipal requirements, he agreed with the 
author in placing it at the six-inch rate, since this was not 
phenomenal, and (more especially as regards the immediate 
northern suburbs) the topographical features were very rugged, 
and, consequently, the gradients were, as a rule, steep, while the 
catchment areas were small. Again, the natural provisions for 
drainage were supplanted by artificial ones, and concentration 
was, therefore, made at every hand. 

Mr. Cardbw thought that the table of discharges in the 
paper compiled from the formul® of Bttrkli-Ziegler, Dickens, 
Fanning, and others, was, to a large extent, useless, either as a 
table of comparison or reference, since the author did not quote 
the factors employed in each — such as the rainfall, slope, length 



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ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. 



LXIX. 



of catchment, and co-efficient of discharge. The kernel of the 
whole question of discharge from catchments had been, in his 
opinion, entirely overlooked — viz , t?ie duration of the rainfall, 
and its effects, both as regards intensity of precipitation and area 
affected. The period of maximum flow at the outlet of any 
drainage area during the progress of a rain-storm occurred when 
the flood waters from the remotest confines of the catchment, as 
well as those from the nearer slopes, were reaching the outlet at 
the same moment. The duration should be proportional to the 
distance of the outlet from the confines of the catchment. The 
paper was unsatisfactory in this respect — that, while the author 
thoroughly reviewed the question, he came to no definite 
conclusion. 

Prof. Warren thought that the use of a formula, expressing 
the law of flow in so far as it depends on the area and the rain- 
fall, was desirable in estimating the discharge from a catchment, 
as the judgment of the engineer bad then only to be applied to 
the determination of the co-efficient in the formula. The result 
would then be as correct as could be expected from the nature of 
the problem, and more correct than would be obtained by 
attempting to exercise the judgment on all the factors of the 
problem combined, i,e,, by guessing the size of the waterway. 
The formulae of Dickens, Kernot, and Biirkli-Ziegler were 
identical, in so far that they each made the area of the opening, 
or the discharge, proportional to the three-fourths power of the 
area; but in the BUrkli-Ziegler formula, the engineer was 
enabled to exercise his judgment more in detail, and thus obtain 
more accurate results. The intensity of rainfall on areas of 
various sizes, and the time necessary for it to flow from the more 
remote portions of the catchment had been dealt with by Mr. 
Ohamier. He agreed with the general remarks on rainfall made 
by Mr. Chamier, but he disagreed altogether with his method of 
introducing it into a formula. If, for example, 6 inches of rain 
fell on a catchment in six hours, and it took 12 hours for the 
rain falling on the most remote portions of the catchment to 
reach the outlet, then he saw no objection in a problem of this 



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LX. DISCUSSION. 

Character to assaming that the 6 inches might have fallen in 13 
hoars instead of six, and that the rate of fall was one-half an 
inch per hour ; but having decided the proportion of the total 
rainfall which reaches the outlet, this should then be multiplied 
by the half-inch rainfall, to obtain the actual maximum flow of 
water in cubic feet per second per acre. The difficulty in this 
method was the determination of the time the rainfall took to 
run to the outlet from the extreme portions of the catchment ; but 
having decided this, no reduction factor was necessary, excepting 
the C in Mr. Chamier's formulte, which must include evaporation* 
percolation, and all retentions of flow. It was obviously absurd 
to divide the total rainfall by the time of flow from the remote 
portions of the catchment, and use the value so obtained for R 
in a formula of the Biirkli-Ziegler type. 

Mr. Mkrfield said he wished to add to the already long list 
of formulae another, that might be of interest* : — 

= 440 RM/V. 
The author of the formula says : <* The full amount of the 
rainfall per hour should be used in the formula, for areas of one 
square mile and less." This he assumes to be one inch per hour, 
but for larger areas he gives a table for the rainfall. He thought 
that the formula of Mr. Chamier might well have been eliminated 
from the author's list Although it might to the uninitiated 
appear to be new, it could be shown by a simple reduction 
to be essentially identical in form with that of Prof. Kemot. 

The Author, in reply, said he could not agree with Mr. 
Burge in a general condemnation of all formulse, except when 
they were of the type referred to, where the constant had so 
much to represent ; it was, indeed, for this very reason that 
formulae of the Biirkli-Ziegler type, when used intelligently, 
became useful. Mr. Simpson was in error in calling the various 
formulae referred to empirical ; as a matter of fact, these formulae 
were rational^ as they could be derived by the application of 
known laws, and there was a total absence of experiment, which 

* L Jour. N.Z. Inst. Surveyors, vol. III., pt. S. The notation is altered to atrree with 
that used by Mr. Haycrofu V^=vel. in miles per hour. 



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BNOINBBRING CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. LXI. 

formed the essence of an empirical formula. Mr. Simpson's 
quotation of Ganguillet and Kutter as giving many examples of 
rivers with a velocity of 13 feet per second, and stating the 
assumption on the part of the author of 6 feet per second as not 
being in accord with facts, were due to misapprehension on Mr. 
Simpson's part. As regards this particular subject, he was 
quite aware of the existence of rivers with a velocity of 13 or 
more feet per second, but in no part of his paper could he be 
accused of advocating the application of a formula in such a cmo. 
It was, as was pointed out, where a formula was applicable, and the 
velocity of the water was unknown, as in the case of a creek 
with intermittent flow, that he considered it better and 
safer practice to assume a low velocity, for the reasons given. 
As regards the charge of mathematical juggling preferred by Mr. 
Simpson against the author, the latter was quite content to 
leave the matter in the hands of those qualified to give an opinion 
on this point. He agreed with Mr. Davis, and, indeed, so stated 
in the paper, that reliable flood-marks were preferable to any 
formulae. He coald not agree as to the hard and fast 
division of catchment areas into two classes, as proposed by Mr. 
Davis ; and as an old railway engineer could assure Mr. Davis 
that such a course would be impracticable, however snitaible it 
might prove in the design of storm water channels. As regards 
the typical case put forward by him, and referred to by 
Mr. Davis, the latter was in error as to his meaning. 
The illustration was given to point out the absurdity of grading 
the rainfall: he had never intended that provision should be 
made for a 6-inch rainfall over all the catchments between the 
terminal points, but only such of these as, through the extent of 
their areas and other circumstances, would render them liable to 
such a rainfall. Mr. Davis's table of storm water channels, 
which he produced to prove his (Mr. Haycroft's) assumption of a 
co-efficient of run-off equal to unity, in the case of town 
drainage, as being wide of the fact, was not pertinent, 
as he would never think of proposing such a value 
for areas of the extent given in the table. An analysis 



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LXn. DISCUSSION. 

o£ this table, however, proved very interesting. Thus, 
taking Johnstone's Greek area, the rainfall provided for was 

1 ^ inches per hour, and the Rushoutter Bay area, the rainfall was 

2 inches per hour. He was aware that in the latter case 
the increase in rainfall was made on account of the relative 
smallness of this area compared with the former ; but Mr. Davis, 
in his practice, seemed to take no notice of the ruUure of the 
catchment. In the former case the catchment would be rendered 
practically impermeable after a gentle, soaking rainfall ; whilst 
in the case of Rushcutter Bay, the nature of the catchment was 
such that^ after several days' rain, very little would find its way 
into the channel. Mr. Davis stated that these channels had 
been constructed in every part of the city (Sydney) ; but 
he had yet to learn that any of those given in the table were 
within the city boundaries. Mr. Ross's remarks were apropos^ 
and valuable, as coming from an observer, who, like the speaker, 
had to deal with such questions in his daily practice. Mr. 
Cardew's opinion of the table of discharges in the paper was 
fallacious, as the very information which he said was not given 
was stated very fully on the diagram, accompanying the pi^r, 
which was compiled from the table referred to. Mr. Cardew's 
remarks on the subject of the duration of rainfall were entirely 
novel, and personal to himself. According to Mr. Cardews 
statement, if the duration of a rainfall were not sufficiently long 
to fulfil his conditions, maximum flow would not occur at the 
outlet. Nothing could be more absurd. The direction^ and not 
the duration, of the storm was the controlling factor. A storm 
travelling in the same direction as the water flows off a catch- 
ment towards the outlet, would cause a flood of much greater 
volume (and in particular cases the maximum volume for such a 
catchment) than the same rain storm travelling in an opposite 
direction, or one at right angles to the course of flow-o£^ though 
in each case there was tho same amount of rainfall. Again, the 
duration of rainfall by Mr. Cardew's method was pure guess 
work, which should be eliminated from all rational formulae. In 
conclusion, he desired to thank the various members for their 



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BNOIKBERING CONSTRUCTION AND RAINFALL. LXIII. 

outspoken criticism, and having been charged by some with not 
having propounded a definite solution of the matter, he begged 
to decline such a herculean task ; indeed, in the paper he stated 
that this subject did not lend itself to general treatment. 
Each particular case must be decided on its merits — not, how- 
ever, that he wished it to be inferred from this that formulse which 
were put forward for general use might prove useless on that 
account ; but that such formulte, if used intelligently, can and 
cannot, according to its nature, be applied to a particular case. 



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NOTES ON WHARF IN DEBP WATER, DAWES POINT. LZIV j| 

SOME NOTES ON A WHARF RECENTLY BUILT 
DEEP WATER AT DAWES' POINT, SYDNEY, 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 

By Norman Sblfb, m. inst c.e., m.i. Meoh.E. 



[Read he/are the Engineering Seotum of the Royal Society of N. 8. Wa 
September 81, 1898,] 



n % 



The commercial enterprise necessary to the provision of privatiK: ^ -'iV 
wharf accommodation appears to have been developed very earl; 
in the history of New South Wales. The first regular landiu] 
place was probably the " King's Wharf," still remembered as th( 
"Queen's Wharf" by old inhabitants, situated between th< 
Commissariat Stores and the Fire Station in George Street Nortl 
In a map of the town of Sydney, printed with the Sydney Direc-| 
tory for the years 1835 and 1833, every building then in existence, 
both public and private, is shown, and there are no less than six 
private wharfs at the North end of the town. They are Camp- 
bell's wharf, recently resumed by the Government ; Walker's 
wharf, adjoining Dawes' Point, still known under the same name * 
Lamb's wharf, a little south of Walker's, and the site of the jetty 
to be presently referred to ; Aspinall and Brown's, now the 
Central ; and Bettington's, now Dibbs' wharf. 

When the late Captain Lamb first established his business on 
the Southern half of what is now known as Parbury's wharf, 
there was a line of cliffs about 100 ft. back from the waterline; 
and although a small area (to straighten the frontage and give, 
room for landing goods) has since been purchased from the Crown, 
the front of the houses in Lower Fort Street are still only 250 
ft. from the old sea wall, and the street is 60 ft. above high 
water mark. With such a shallow depth to the property, and 
such a heavy rise to the street at the rear, a steep road was 
inevitable, and it was made worse by the sharp turn in it 
Consequently the outlet from this wharf has had the reputation 
for many years of being one of the worst in Sydney. 




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WVta, 








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NORBIAN SBLFK. LXV. 

When, a few months since, at the expiration of an old lease, 
the wharf' reverted to its owner, Mr. Chas. Parbury, it was 
understood that the lease was not renewed, owing to the sup- 
posed impossibility of building a jetty over such deep water and 
soft mud. Mr. Parbury thus found himself in possession of an 
isolated broadside wharf, with a water frontage of only 280 feet, 
of no use whatever in connection with modern ships ; he, 
therefore, with a view to modernise and utilise his property 
to its fullest extent, consulted the author, who formulated 
the scheme of improvements which have just been completed. 
These include a forty-ton sextuple-power waggon hoist, with a 
platform thirty feet long, and the jetty which is the subject of 
this paper. 

The dimensions of the jetty ultimately settled upon, and as 
built, are 350 ft. long and 60 ft. beam — as shown by the 
accompanying plan. When the position had been determined 
upon, two lines of soundings and borings were made, which 
showed that the rock was reached through about 50 ft. of mud 
or silt, and clay — approximately, about half of each. The upper - 
25 feet of silt is so soft as to be practically of no use as a support 
to the piles ; but the clay is extremely tenacious, generally, when 
down fifteen or twenty feet into it. The rock bottom was 
found to be irregular, and falling to the north side ; in some cases 
there was as much as nine feet difference in the width of the 
jetty. 

The borings, when plotted as per plan exhibited, made two 
things very clear, viz., that the rock, through a great part of its 
length, was more than 120 ft. below the deck of the jetty, and 
that diagonal piles would have to be 140 ft. long. It was also 
seen that until the clay was reached, there was no support, either 
vertically or laterally for the piles. Sufficient vertical support 
oould, perhaps, have been obtained by " collaring " the piles at 
the heavy clay line, but considerations of lateral stability deter- 
mined that all the piles should go to ihe rock. 

The specification stipulated that the piles at the toe might 
vary between 13 to 15 in. inside the bark, 14 in. being the 



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LXVI. NOTES ON WHARF IN DEBP WATER, DAWES POINT. 

mean diameter, and so long as that size was maintained the con- 
tractor could use as many single-tree piles as he pleased. 

The stipulations as to the heads were as follows (assuming, 
that they might be obtained in one length) : — 

Piles up to 40 ft. not less than 18 in. at the head 
60 ft. „ „ 20 in. „ 

100 ft. „ „ 22 in. „ 

120 ft. „ „ 24 in. „ 

There was found to be no difficulty in getting piles up to at 
least 100 ft. long to fulfil the conditions of diameter at the 
head, but such sticks of that length as were brought down for 
approval would not run more than about ten inches, instead of 
fourteen, at the point, which put them beyond consideration. 

In formulating a method for building the long piles from two 
trees, it was considered by the author that anything in the 
nature of an ordinary diagonal scarf would be certain to fail. 
The sti£fness of the bottom clay made it evident that there would 
be a lot of heavy driving, which would tend to burst ordinary 
scarfe, even if strongly hooped. It was, therefore, determined to 
make square butts, and to fish the two lengths together, instead 
of scarfing them. This was done as shown to larger scale on tiie 
plan. 

The specification for the long built piles, stipulates that they 
shall be made from two turpentine trees with their butts 
together ; these butts to be carefully fitted, when the two trees 
are " lined up *' and drawn closely together, by running a saw 
through ; which ensures contact all over the two ends. A 2^ 
in. iron dowell is permanently fitted aad keeps them taruly 
together while being " sided " for the fish pieces ; these ends 
were specified to be not less than 24 in. in diameter, and they 
never were less, but generally exceeded that size— owing to the 
stipulation for the small ends. These butts were sided by ship- 
wrights to 21 in. square as a minimum, or until there were 
four 12 in. faces, for each of the four fish pieces. The fish pieces 
were 14 ft. and 16 ft. long, 12 in. x 8 in. at the centre, and 



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NOBMAN 8ELFB. LXVII. 

1 2 in. X 6 in. at the ends, and they were put on the pile over 
*' Ruberoid ** pile covering. In the case of the bearing piles the 
" fish '' was secured by four hoops of galvanised iron, each 3^ 
in. X f in. section, and by twelve 1 in. galvanised bolts, nuts, 
and washers. The intermediate spaces between the fish pieces 
underneath the hoops were filled up with chocks driven hard the 
reverse way of the taper of the fish pieces, and kept from shifting 
by ^ in. spikes. 

In the case of the diagonal piles, which run up to 140 ft. in 
length, and which might be subjected to a tensional strain in the 
case of lateral pressure by a vessel against the jetty, there were 
no hoops used; but 24 1 in. bolts were inserted instead of 
twelve, as in the other piles. The stipulated minimum diameter 
of the top of the long piles (that is, the small end of tree), was 19 
in.; and, in order to secure this size, the timber was often 
much above the specified diameter at the butt» as just referred to. 

There is nothing unusual to note about the deck framing and 
planking, but as the piles were so large and heavy, 12 ft. 
centres were adopted, instead of the more usual distance of 10 ft. 
and the head stocks were 16 in. x 14 in. ironbark, instead of 
14 in. X 14 in., which is the more common scantling. 

These pieces of timber (every cme in one piece 60 ft. long 
16 in. X 14 in., and carefully hewn from selected ironbark 
trees), were magnificent samples of what our native forests can 
produce. The 12 in. x 12 in. ironbark joisting girders at 4 ft. 
centres were cogged down 2 in. ; and the 12 in. x 12 in. 
diagonal deck bracing was fitted up from below. The planking 
is 4 in., and the kerb 12 in. x 12 in. all very much as usual in 
the port. 

"With regard to the use of diagonal piles to support a jetty, 
instead of walings and braces above the water line, it is generally 
known that they were first proposed in Sydney by the author 25 
years ago, in connection with the improvements he designed for 
the Circular Quay ; and although his proposals were not adopted 
in their entirety. Parliament subsequently voted a gratuity of 
JC500 to him for his services in the matter, and this system of 



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LXVIII. NOTBS ON WHA.RF IN DBBP WATER, DAWES' POINT. 

staying a jetty by diagODal piles has since become common in 
Sydney harboar ; it was the only one possible in this case. In 
securing the diagonal piles, there are not only bolts to the head- 
stocks and girders at their heads, but also two 1^ in. galvanised 
bolts, put in by divers, right through at their intersections with 
the vertical piles. 

When the jetty was approaching completion, permission 
obtained from the (Government, and a few hundred tons of 
stone ballast were dropped on to the soft mud around a few of 
the pUes near the end, to act as a stififener. The author is 
indebted to Mr. 0. W. Darley, Engineer-in-Chief, for the sugges- 
tion to put this ballast on a mattrass, made of timber framing 
and ti-tree famines, in order to keep the ballast together, which plati 
was adopted. The line shown on the drawings (ascertained after 
it had had some weeks to settle) shows that it has not spread aa 
might have been anticipated from the softness of the mud. 

When the piles were 60 feet in the water, they were often 
more than 20 feet above the head of the pile driver, and bad 
it not been that the soft mud allowed them to be dropped from 
20 to 25 feet into it, that is from 80 to 85 feet below water line, a 
pile driver, with shears from 70 to 80 feet high, would have had 
to be built specially for the work. 

Probably the most interesting matter to many members in 
connection with such a work, is the pile driving, and the author 
regrets that he has not collected sufficiently accurate data to 
supply material for a new formula. Personally, he has no great 
faith in the practical value of any pile driving formulae, because, 
for actual work, the pile last driven generally affords informatioD 
to guide the engineer as to the treatment of its neighbour, which no 
theory can supply. Some particulars, however, were taken of 
a few piles, which may be a guide for future work of this kind 
The provisions of the specification as to ram or monkey, were 
that short and rapid blows would be preferred by Sissoa's 
Lacour's or Nasmyth's machine, and that the engineer was to be 
satisfied thiit all piles reached the rock, and have any pile drawn 
he disapproved of. 



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NORMAN SELFB 



LXIZ. 



Pile A. — Length, 117 ft. 3 in.; diameter at head, 20| in. ; 
toe, 16 in. ; girth at 63 ft. from bottom, 67 in. 

This pile went down about 30 ft. into the soft mad by its own 
weight when let drop from the slings, and required 18 ft. 3 in. of 
ordinary driving until the last 5 feet was reached. It was 
then driven home with the number of blows, and the height of 
fall as follows : — 



Number op Blowi. 


Height of Fall. 


Two 


6 feet 




Twenty-five 


7 feet 




Fifteen 


8 feet 




Ten 


9 feet 




Seven 


10 feet 




One 


11 feet 





The total fall was 478 ft., the number of blows 60, and the 
average distance driven was 1 in. per blow. 

PiLB B.— Length, 126 ft. 6 in. ; head, 18^ ; toe, 13 in. ; girth 
at 54 ft, 73 in. ; ram, 32 owt 

This pile is 58 ft 2 in. in the mud altogether ; say, 28 ft 2 in 
in the soft, and 30 ft. of driving, as follows : — 



First 5 ft— Ten blows 

Eleven blows . 


.. 3 ft. » 
. 4ft./ 


21 blows, 74 ft. dro] 


Second 5 ft.— Twenty blows . 
Seven „ 
Nine „ . 


.. 4ft.] 
.. 5ft.} 
. 6 ft. 


36 blows, 169 ft 
drop. 


Third 5 ft.— Two blows 


. 4 ft. ^ 




Seven „ 


. 6 ft. 




Nine „ - .. 
Five „ 
One „ 


. 6 ft. 
. 7ft. 
. 8 ft. 


52 blows, 202 ft 
drop. 


Five „ 


. 10 ft. 




One „ 


. 12 ft. 





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LXX. NOTES ON WHARF IN DEEP WATER, DAWKS^ POINT. 



Fourth 5 ft.— Seven blows 


... 8 ft. ' 




Eight „ 
Nine „ 
Threa „ 


... 9 ft. 
... 10 ft. 
... 11 ft. 


. 36 blows, 365 ft 
drop. 


Three „ 


... 12 ft. 


Six ., 


... 13 ft. 




Fifth 5 ft.— Twenty blows ' 


... 9 ft. ' 




Fifteen „ 
Fifteen „ 
Four „ 


... 10 ft. 
... 8 ft. 
... 11 ft. . 


54 blows, 494 ft. 
drop. 


Sixth 5 ft. — Seven blows 


... 9 ft.- 




Ten 

One „ 

Fifteen „ 


... 10 ft." 
... 8 ft. 
... 11 ft. 


33 blows, 336 ft. 
drop. 



Total 232 blows, 1,640 ft. 

This evidences great inequality in the strata passed throogh, 
and shows that it is softer at the bottom than it is some 
distance up. 

Pile D.— 130 ft. ; girth, 77 in. 56 ft. up ; toe, 15 in. ; head, 
20 in. (Heavy pile). Ram, 32 cwt. 

This pile was left over-night, after being driven for 15 ft. It 
took six blows from 10 ft. to 12 ft. before it would start to drive 
the last 15 ft. After extending the jetty out some distance the 
clay became stiffer, and, as the driving was harder, several piles 
showed that the high falls were severe on their heads. The 
author then insisted on a heavier ram (not less than 60 cwt.) 
being procured. This new monkey, when obtained by the 
contractor, actually weighed a little over 61 cwt., and from this 
time out no more trouble was experienced, and the driving was 
done in about half the time it previously occupied. 

Pile F.— 118 ft. ; head, 20 in. ; toe, 16 in. ; girth at 50 ft. up, 
68 in. ; length above the **fish," 42 ft. ; 61 cwt ram. 

No difficulty in driving. This pile is typical of most which 
were driven after the heavier ram was obtained, half an inch per 



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NOBMAN SBLPB. LXXI. 

blow being obtained in the last 10 ft. without requiring generally 
more than a 5 ft. fall, instead of 11 ft., 12 ft., and 13 ft., as was 
required for the same work with the lighter ram, and this with 
little or no tendency to split the piles. 

The only other departure from ordinary practice, perhaps, is 
in connection with the fender piles, which are secured into an 
ironbark bolster in the ordinary way, by a heavy strap and two 
4x>lts. Instead, however, of having a shallow iron cap, hooped, as 
usual, these tops are made to a section which shows three-quarters 
•of a sphere externally, and with a good taper conical interior; they 
are dropped over about eight inches of the piles' heads, which 
-are wrought conical to receive them, and they are thus enabled 
to settle down, and always fit tightly as the pile-head shrinks. 



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LXXII. NOTfS ON HTDRAULIC BORING APPARATU& 

NOTES ON HYDRAULIC BORING APPARATUS. 

By G. H. HALLIGAN, CmvSnEyiTOEPUBUOWOEESDlCPAATMUTN^WAUi. 



[Read he/ore the Engineer ing Section of the Royal Society of Ik\ 8. Wales, 
Oetoher 19, 1898,] 



In nearly all branches of engineering, it is desirable, if not^ 
necessary, where large works have to be carried out, to know 
what material underlies the surface, and various means bavr 
been adopted to obtain the information economically and speedily. 
The old practice of sinking shafts and thus exposing to view the 
strata passed through, has, under certain circumstances, much la 
recommend it. Shallow holes, from 10 to 30 ft deep, in staC 
loamy soil or clay, can be gunk for from one shilling to two- 
shillings per foot. When timbering is not necessary, and where 
only a few holes are required, or a small area is to be investigated,, 
it is doubtful if any boring plant could be got to do the work 
more effectively or for the same money. But it is seldom the 
engineer is fortunate enough to strike such ideal spots. If the 
lower strata should be sandy, or if water be met with, sinking, 
becomes expensive, if not impossible, and the boring plant is 
called into requisition. When the surface is swampy or wet^ or 
where the strata underlying a creek or river are to be examined 
a boring apparatus of some sort is necessary, and it is the object 
of this paper to indicate the methods adopted and the results 
obtained by the gear of which the author has immediate charge. 
Nothing new is claimed in the general design of the varions^ 
apparatus employed, but a brief description of the difficulties 
encountered, and the means employed to overcome them, a list 
and short account of the principal tools used in the work, and 
last, but not least, the cost of the outfit and the cost per foot of 
the work done, may be interesting. 

The system of deep earth boring by means of a diamond drill 
becomes difficult and very expensive, if it does not entirely &il 
in soft and especially in gravelly strata. A thin bed of this 



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6. H. HALLIGAN. LXXIII. 

nature very aerioasly retards the progress of boriDg, and it is. 
mainly this defect whioh prevents the diamond drill being used 
more extensively for many purposes for whioh it is otherwise so 
admirably suited on account of the solid core which it brings up. 
Another objection to the use of the diamond drill, in many in- 
stances, is the necessity for providing an absolutely rigid staging 
from which to work, and a solid foundation for the engine work- 
ing the rotating tool. When work has to be done afloat this 
objection is, of course, insuperable, and numerous devices have 
been tried to enable holes to be sunk from a moving stage 
or punt. Much ingenuity and ability have been expended in 
perfecting the methods of boring to great depths, on shore, by 
the many processes now in vogue, and the number of improvements 
continually being made in the machinery and apparatus used, ia 
perhaps, the strongest evidence of its imperfection even now. 
So far as the author is aware, nothing has been written on the 
not less important subject of boring in deep water, but though 
the means are not new, yet the results obtained are, in some re- 
spects, unique. 

Advantage has been taken of the experience of others in 
selecting the tools most suitable for the work to be done, but it 
'has been found that special circumstances called for special tools,, 
experience being the best guide in matters of this sort. 

The apparatus now in use by the Department was originally 
designed to ascertain the nature of the bottom of the Harbour 
down to about 40 feet below low water ; but as circumstances 
arose necessitating an extension of this depth for bridge founda- 
tions the gear has been gradually improved and added to, and 
the present outfit is capable of boring throngh any material not 
harder than the Hawkesbury sandstone to a depth of at least 
600 feet. In designing the gear at present in use it was neces- 
sary to keep in view the fact that no very extensive boring work 
is done in any one locality, so that the portability of the 
apparatus is of serious moment. The length of time occupied in 
putting together the material required to sink a few holes in 
distant parts of the country is also important, as a£fecting the- 



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LXXIV. NOTES ON HYDRAULIC BORING APPARATUS, 

•cost of the work, while the freight charges on cumbrous packages 
■are not seldom prohibitive when prospecting or other work in- 
volving an uncertain return is being carried out The diamond 
•drill is necessarily expensive when comparatively shallow borei 
of from 400 to 600 feet are to be sunk, and the Calyx drill ix 
scarcely less so. A suitable outfit to be worked by unskilled 
labour, under the guidance of one practical mechanic, would, 
undoubtedly, be in large demand in the Western country, where 
good work could be done by it ; and it cannot be too strongly 
insisted upon that the main success of any boring machine depends 



PlO. 1. 

not so much on the mechanical perfection of the* apparatus, or od 
the number of hands employed^ as on the ingenuity, resourceful- 
ness and energy of the directing mind. The value of a good 
foreman is not to be expressed in dollars ; he may save more in 
one hour than he receives in 12 months. 



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O. H. HALLIGAN. LXXV. 

Four men are employed on the ordinary boring apparatus 
«hown in Fig. 1. This illustration shows the sheer legs on two 
punts coupled together as used in boring afloat, and the tools 
here described are those employed on this work, though, with 
very little modification, they could be, and, in fact, are being 
used for land boring. There are, however, certain essential 
•differences, and these will be noticed as we proceed. The punts 
here shown are each 37 ft. long, 12^ ft. wide, and 3^ feet deep, 
and are large enough to enable any boring to be sunk within the 
•capacity of the apparatus. They are temporarily bolted together, 
having a space one foot wide between them. In this space the 
boring tubes may be lowered as required, generally in the centre 
•of the opening so that any strain caused by lifting or forcing 
down ttte tubes may be equally distributed and save injury to 
the punts. 

Four inch tubes are generally used, having an inside diameter 
of 3f in. This size has been found to be sufficiently light to 
allow of convenient handling, and large enough to allow fairly 
•coarse gravel to be picked up with the tools, without the necessity 
of too much pounding. With smaller sized tubes, the tools must 
be so small that sufficient strength cannot be given them to allow 
for wear and tear, while if larger tubes are used, the outfit 
becomes too heavy and unwieldy for convenient and economic 
working. 

The author would here like to say a word in favor of butt- 
joints for all tubes where much forcing down or hammering has 
to be done. Experience has not shown that the union joint 
offers any more obstruction to the withdrawal of the tubes than 
the swelled joints, but it is infinitely better as regards its ability 
to withstand driving, and it is not so liable to become unscrewed. 
Where it is necessary to purchase swell-jointed pipes, it is found 
to be economical to have the female screw cut off and union 
joints made before starting any deep boring. On several 
occasions the tubes have telescoped at the swelled joints, when 
subjected to severe driving through obdurate material such as 
Btiff clay, coarse gravel, or indurated sand. 



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LXXVI. NOTES ON HYDRAULIC BORING APPARATUS. 

It is better to buy good artesian well tubing than to use a 
cheap gas piping or boiler tabes. Not only is the artesian tabing 
straight, and of even diameter, bat it is free from knobs and is 
fairly homogeneous in structure ; but such cannot certainly be 
said even of the best gas pipe. The price of the best 4 in. 
Russian artesian well tubing in Sydney is 2s. 2d. per foot, gas 
pipe of the same size is Is. 2d. per foot, and boiler tubing Is. Id. 
per foot. 



Fie. 2. 



At the bottom of the tube is a hardened steel cutter to with- 
stand the driving through hard material. 

When the tube is lowered to the bottom, the flexible hose from 
the pump is connected to the top, as shown in Fig 1, and the 
pump started The tubes are then lowered as fast as the mud 



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G. H. HALLIGAN. LXXYII. 

or other material is scoured away, the rate of progress depending, 
of course, on the material to be passed through. 

The highest boiler pressure available to the author is 110 lbs. 
to the square inch, and this has seldom been required. Any 
suitable pump may, of course, be used, but a 6 x 4 x 6 Worthington 
ateam pump has beea found in every way satisfactory. When a 
band of material harder than the water jet will readily overcome, 
is met with, a drill is lowered to ascertain its nature. If it 
should be clay an auger is sent down and the material augered 
out till the sides of the hole begin to show signs of falling in. 
The tubes are then driven to the depth reached by the auger 
and the process repeated till a softer or harder material is met 
with. The pump is, of course, kept going to soften as much as 
possible the clay or mud, and to keep the material already passed 
through from settling round the tube. The clay auger has a 
pitch of 4 in., and this has been found to work best for clay 
similar to that overlying the Hawkesbury sandstone. For small 
gravel or shells a shell auger is used, and for large gravel or drift 
a double corkscrew auger is the best. 

When rock is met with it is drilled to a diameter of 3^ in., 
and under-reamed to allow the tubes to be lowered. The sludge 
is withdrawn by the sand-pump (shown on the diagram). The 
hinged-valved sand-pump is too liable to be clogged with grains 
of sand or small gravel to be reliable, so the ball-valve pump is 
now invariably used. 

An entirely satisfactory under-reamer has yet to be designed 
The best tool for under-reaming by percussion is that known as 
Bairs Under-reamer, or rather a modification of it, embodying 
two improvements. In the original Ball Under-reamer it was 
necessary to insert a plug of soft wood at A (Fig. 2) when the jaws 
closed ready for lowering into the tube. When the appliance 
reached the bottom this plug was supposed to be thrown out by 
the contraction of the spiral spring, thus allowing the jaws to 
open to the full extent (as shown on the diagram). This seemed 
feasible enough, bat the plug did not always answer to the call. 
It either fell sideways and thus allowed the jaws to open to only 



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LXXVIII. NOTES ON HYDRAULIC BORING APPARATUS. 



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G. H. HALLIGAN. LXXIX. 

half their full extent, or it became jammed between the tool and 
the side of the tube, and prevented any movement one way or 
the other. To get over this difficulty the improved appliance was 
provided with a sliding shutter C, flush with the outside of the 
tool When the jaws are cbsed a wooden plug is inserted in the 
conical hole B, thus keeping the jaws from opening until the tool 
strikes the bottom. The force of the blow shears the wooden 
plug, and the jaws at once expand. There is nothing to cause a 
jam in the pipe, and the appliance cannot fail to act. The second 
improvement was the lengthening of the distance from the ex- 
panding plug E to the cutters F, thus allowing for less spring in 
the steel jaws and less liability to injury at E. 

The method of driving the tubes through clay or soft rock, 
where under-reaming is difficult and slow, is shown in Fig. 3, 
and calls for no description. When it is necessary to keep the 
pump going while hammering the tubes, the arrangement shown 
in Fig. 4 is adopted. On account of the difficulty of getting any 
cramps to hold on the smooth tube, no heavy driving can be done 
with this appliance without injury to the pipe. 

The hinged spanner or cramp, shown in Fig. 5, was designed 
to save time on the work. Most of the fishing tools, augers, 
drills, etc , have already been described in detail in a report on 
<* Drilling and Boring Artesian Wells, as practised in the United 
States of America," by C. W. Darley, M. Inst. C.E., under 
whom the author has the pleasure to serve, and to whom he is 
indebted for much valuable advice and assistance in connection, 
with the work now being described. 

The sections of some of the bores carried out with the appara- 
tus here referred to (Figa 6, 7, 8), show that it is capable of valuable 
work, and the attached statement giving the cost will show that 
it is done at a reasonable rate. The cost of the work done out 
of Sydney includes freight charges by steamer, rail or dray to 
and from the work, as well as the fares of the men, repairs 
to gear and incidental expenses, and the cost of raising the 
tubes. 



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LXXX. 



NOTES ON HYDRAULIC BORING APPARATXJ8. 





1 No. 


Total ' Oo«t 


LOCALITT. 


Strata Passed Thsouob. 


OF 


Drtthi pn 






Boun. 


BORBO. 


Foot. 


* Manning River, Killa- | 
warra and Bungay ( 


For the most part through 
shale with a little sand 


ft 


8. d. 


13 


346 


5 


* Camden Haven 


Principally indurated sand 


77 


2035 


1 ^ 


•Moruya 


Sand, decomposed granite, 










etc 


7 


152 


3 8J 


•Camden 


Sand and gravel, with 










bands of stiff clay 


4 


207 


3 8! 


*Dunmore, Patterson River 


Drift and clay 

Alluvial, sand and drift ... 


6 


309 


2 7 


♦ Hinton, Patterson River 


4 


118 


3 1 


• MurwiUumbah. Tweed ( 
River . | 


Sand, clay and drift, bands 








of soft rock 


10 


540 


3 


Blue's Pt., Sydney Harbour 


Mud, sand, clay, and ballast 
Mud, day, and soft rock... 


12 


184 


2 5 


Pyrmont Bridge, do. ... 


82 


654 


2 QJ 


Dawes Pt. do. ... 


Mud, sand, and soft rock 


93 


380 


2 10} 


Sydney to North Shore ) 
Bridge 


Mud, sand, clay, and soft 








rock 


35 1818 


2 Oi 



* Hydraulic pretmire wm not uMd on thaae works. 

On the last mentioned work a careful record was kept of the 
progress of the work and from it the following information has 
been compiled : — 

Boring through 1161 ft. sand and clay, and soft 
sandstone by hydraulic pres- 
sure ... ... ... dd. per ft 

do. 320 ft. stiff clay and soft sand- 

stone by boring tools only... 3s. 4d. per ft 
Drilling through 337 ft. soft and hard sandstone... 58. 3d. per ft 

Total drilling 
and boring ... 1818 ft. ... ... ... 28. OJd. perft 

Under favourable circumstances the tubes have been sank 
through coarse sand or mud 30 feet in one hour, and through 
stiff mud or soft clay from 10 to 15 feet in the same time. The 
clay that cannot be pierced by the 4 in. boring tubes under 
hydraulic pressure of 110 lbs. to the square inch is very stiff 
indeed. At Funafuti a depth of 108 ft of coarse Halimeda sand 
and coral gravel was pierced in 22 hours, and from this time 3 
hours may be deducted for repairs to faulty hose, etc., giving 19 
hours of actual work. 

When the depth of water exceeds 80 ft, driving the tube! 
has to be conducted with great care even in perfectly smooth 



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O. H. HALLIGAN. 



LXXXI. 



water. If any moyement of the boring punt takes place, owing 
to the swell, variable current, or other causes, and a true blow 
cannot be struck, its force is lost in the spring of the tube and 
serious injury to the pipe is caused. This was particularly 
noticeable when sinking the bores lately at the atoll of Funafuti 
in 101 feet of water. The work was carried out by the author 
from the bow of H.M.S. Porpoise, kindly lent by the Admiralty 
for the purpose, but, although the water in the lagoon was as 
smooth as it generally is in Port Jackson, the oscillation of the 




FlQS. 6, 7 AHD 8. 

ship prevented a true blow being delivered, when it became 
necessary to drive the tubes, and the work could not be continued. 
From a double punt, such as already described, where, of course, 
no oscillation takes place, some heavy driving through stiff clay 
and soft rock has been done in 80 feet of water. It is, however, 
doubtful if the 4 in. tubes would stand much hammering in a 
greater depth of water, however carefully done. 

The author wishes here to acknowledge his indebtedness to 
Mr. H. Fleming, Resident Engineer Public Works Department, 
to whose skill and constant care a large measure of the success 
of the boring apparatus here described is due. 



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LZXXII. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 
By H. R. OARLETON, ii.a.l. m. in.t. c. b. 



I Presented to and dUcuued at the Engineering Section of the Mojfal S^cietji 
of N. 8. Wales, December 21, 1898.] 



Coast Surveys. 
If one of the early navigators could revisit the shores of 
Australia, he might well wonder how he could have done SBch 
good work without the lighthouses, lifeboats, pilot steamers, charts 
and sailing directions which we now look upon as necessiti^ of 
our maritime life. Those old mariners from Eredia in 1601, 
DeQuiros and Torres in 1606, Edel in 1623, Peter Nuzts in 1627, 
Dam pier and Cook in 1770, had rough work exploring and 
charting the broken coast line of Australia, and R. de Vaugondj's 
map of New Holland in 1752 shows how wonderfully these early 
chartographers could utilise the primitive appliances at their com- 
mand. It was not until 1799, or twenty-nine years after Cook 
landed at Botany Bay, that a systematic attempt to obtain a chart 
of the coast of Australia was made, but in that year Commander 
M. Flinders, in the sloop Investigator^ commenced a survey em- 
bracing the whole of the east coast, from Gape Howe to Gape 
York. His chart of Terra Australis was published in 1814, and 
copies are now very rare. Soundings were taken about every 
three miles on the ship's course, and the principal islands, reefs, 
shoal patches, land marks, etc.', sketched in. 

These early reconnaisance surveys have proved to be remai^- 
ably accurate when we consider the nature of the work and the 
class of instruments then available. Almost the whole of this 
work is done from the vessel's deck while working along the coast 
under sail, checking being done by astronomical observations as 
often as circumstances will permit. In these days of patent logSi 
sounding machines, and steam launches, such work is compara- 
tively simple and expeditious, but before steam vessels were 
known, or patent logs invented, the work required more seaman- 
ship, and more time to attain anything like a fair amount of 
correctness. 



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H. B. CARLBTON. LXXXIIl 

An accurate survey of our coast extending from the shore to 
beyond the 100 fathom contour, shewing all reefs, islands, nature 
of the bottom, and variations in depth, was completed by joint 
arrangement between the Admiralty and the Colonial Qovemment 
in 1889, and leaves nothing more to be desired in this respect. 
It is not unusual when a vessel has been wrecked to attribute the 
cause to striking on an uncharted rock, but when these statements 
have been investigated before the properly constituted tribunal, 
in no single instance have they been substantiated. 

Wrecks on Coast op New South Wales. 

A complete record of the wrecks on the coast of New South 
Wales has been kept by the Marine Board since the establish- 
ment of that body in 1871. Only the more notable wrecks seem 
to have been recorded prior to the creation of the Board. 

Between 1873 and 1896 419 wrecks occurred on the coast, 
consisting of 96 steamers and 323 sailing vessels. The total 
tonnage lost amounted to 68,817 tons, carr3ring in crews and 
passengers 4,344 souls, and the number of lives lost was 595, or 
an average of one person in every seven wrecked. The estimated 
value of the vessels lost during this period is £1,180,736, and 
134 vessels of those lost were insured to the amount of £335,345. 
The greatest number of lives lost in any one vessel was 71 in the 
Lyee-nwon, 

Ninety-nine wrecks occurred through foundering at various 
points along our coast line^ 34 wrecks have taken place at Port 
Stephens, which place is chiefly used as a harbour of refuge, 28 
wrecks occurred at Sydney, 27 at Newcastle, 24 at the Richmond 
River, and the others as shewn in the table (Appendix I.) 

Earlibst Liohthousbs on Coast. 
Macquarie Lighthouse was the first building of its description 
erected in New South Wales — the first lighthouse in the Southern 
hemisphere. Its foundation stone was laid on the 11th July, 
1816, by Governor Macquarie, as the following extract from the 
Government OazetUoi 13th July, 1816, seto forth :—" On Tuesday 
last, notwithstanding the severity of the weather, His Excellency 



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LXXXIV. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

the GoverDor and staff, accompanied by His Honor the lien- 
tenant Governor, the Judge Advocate, and Captain Gill, the 
Principal Engineer, proceeded to the South Head where (every- 
thing being in readiness for the occasion) His Excellency was 
pleased to lay the foundation stone of a most useful building in- 
tended for the several purposes of a signal and lighthouse, and a 
guard house and barracks for a small military detachment. The 
centre of this building, we understand, is to be raised 65 feet 
above the level of the tminence on which it is placed, and will 
form a square pyramidal tower, on the top of which a light is to 
be placed for the direction of vessels approaching the coast, which 
from its elevation will be seen at an immense distance at sea, and 
be an object handsome to behold from the town of Sydney. The 
wings of the building are to form the guard house and barracks. 
Huge blocks of excellent stone are prepared for the edifice, and 
afford the strongest assurance that it will prove a permanent 
security for all vessels that may approach the coast. To this 
building which opens the prosf>ect of a monument for future ages 
to contemplate with pride, His Excellency gave the name of 
Macquarie Tower, and when considered ^with a view to the com- 
mercial interests of this colony, il^cannot fail of proving a most 
valuable and important acquisition." A correction of the des- 
cription appeared in the Gazette of 20th July, 1816, and ran as 
follows: — **The centre of this handsome building is to be raised 
65 feet above the eminence on which it is placed, and will form a 
square base or pedestal with a circular tower crowned with a 
frieze, on which will be carved the four winds in alto relievo distri- 
buting their good and evil qualities from their drapery as they 
appear to fly round the tower, above which will be a cornice and 
lantern with revolving light, the whole forming an appropriate 
capital to the tower. On the inside is intended to be a geometri- 
cal stone staircase leading up to the lantern, and two basso relievos 
will be on the pedestal. The wings of the building are to form 
the guard house and barrack." 

The building was designed, and executed under the superinten- 
dence of Captain John Gill, Acting Engineer; Francis Howard 



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H. R. GABLBTON. LXXXV. 

Green way was the Architect. The tower was completed in 1817, 
but it was found necessary to repair it in 1822, as the construction 
was considered faulty. The light is said to have been of the third 
order catoptric. 

The second light erected appears to be the Beacon Light at 
Newcastle, the earliest record of which is 1828. The third is the 
floating lightship at the entrance to Port Jackson in 1836, and 
the fourth Gillibrands Point or Williamstown, Port Phillip, in 
1842. 

The Superintendent of Port Phillip selected Cape Otway as a 

8ite for a lighthouse on 21st April, 1846, and Mr. C. J. Tyers was 

sent to select sites for lighthouses at Cape Howe or Gabo Island 

in 1846. 

Administration. 

The first lighthouses appear to have been directly under the 
control of the Colonial Secretary's Department. 

In 1825 an Act was passed authorising the payment of tonnage 
rates into the hands of the Naval Officer for the use and main- 
tenance of the Port Jackson (Macquarie) Lighthouse. In 1832 
a similar Act was passed but directing that the payments should 
be made to the Collector of Customs for the maintenance of the 
Lighthouse. 

In 1843 Her Majesty was pleased to appoint Herion Marshall 
Moriarty, Esquire. Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, to be Port- 
master in the colony of New South Wales, and this gentleman's 
predecessor appears to be the Officer referred to in the 1825 
Act. 

The date of the appointment of the first Pilot Board is un- 
certain, but in 1862 there existed a Department of Harbours, 
Lighthouses and Pilots. This Pilot Board consisted of W. A. 
Duncan, Chairman; Captain T. Watson, Captain R. Towns, 
Captain Rountree, Captain Vine Hall and W. F. Norrie. This 
Board resigned their appointments 26th November, 1862, and the 
new Board appointed comprised — Pilot Board : — F. Hixson, R.N., 
John Crook, C. Harrold, for issue of certificates only. Superin- 
tendent of Pilots, Lighthouses and Harbours: — F. Hixson, R.N. 



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LXXXVI. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

Steam Navigation Board: — E. O. Moriartj, Chairman; B. Barley, 
0. Smith, J. Watson and H. T. Fox. 

The lighthouses are now under the jurisdiction of the Marine 
Board appointed under the Navigation Acts of 1871-96. 

Lighthouse Optics. 

Before describing the lighthouses it will be desirable to re-state 
a few of the principles of lighthouse optics. 

Three laws govern the change of direction in the incident 
light produced by refraction — 

1. Incidence and refraction in a structure such as glass occur 
in a plane perpendicular to the refracting surface. 

2. The sines of the angles of incidence and refraction have a 
fixed ratio, called the index of refraction, and a ray of light 
falling normally on a surface suffers no refraction. 

3. The effect on a ray of light passing from air into glass is to 
make the angle of refraction less than the angle of incidence, and 
the converse takes place on passing from glass into air. 

A ray of light passing from glass into air has its angle of re- 
fraction greater than its angle of incidence, and there is some 
angle of incidence whose angle of refraction is greater than a 
right angle. Beyond this no refraction can take place, and a ray 
is totally reflected. 

The index of refraction of glass is about f . This index is 
usually represented by the letter fi, and is equal to the 
sine of the angle of refraction divided by the sine of the angle of 

incidence = ^4. If. therefore, the incident ray make. . 
Sin * ' ' "^ 

greater angle than about 42^ with the normal, total reflection 

takes place. A ray of light passing through a plate of glass with 

parallel surfaces emerges parallel to its original path, suffering 

displacement only. 

When a ray passes through a triangular prism it is bent 
towards the base of the prism. 

The piano concave, double concave and double convex lenses 
need not here be considered, the piano convex being the one 
almost universally used in lighthouse apparatus. 



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H. B. CABLBTON. LXXXVII. 

The optical axis is the line in which a ray of light passes un- 
changed in direction through a lens, and the principal focus is 
the point from whence rays of light proceeding in a divergent 
course are so changed by refraction at the inner and outer sur- 
faces of a lens that they emerge parallel to the optical axis. 
The position of the principal focus in a piano convex lens is 

T 

found by the formula F = r, in which r = the radius of 

curvature of the lens, and /x the index of refraction, or it can be 
found by exposing the lens to the sun. As sphc rical lenses only 
parallelise those rays which are incident near the axis, this haft 
led to the building of lighthouse lenses in separate pieces 

The Diagram shows a vertical section through the focus of a 
first order dioptric fixed light. 

The focal distance determines the order of light. The focal 
distance of a first order light is 36*22 inches : the width of the 
central disc is 1 1 inches : the annular rings which surround the 
disc vary in width from 2f to 1^ inches, and are so arranged 
that the lenses shall be as nearly as possible uniform in thickness, 
and thus equalbe the absorption. They are 20 in number, 
placed half above and half below the central disc. Below these 
zones are six triangular rings of glass ranged in cylindrical form, 
and above are thirteen rings diminishing in diameter as they 
recede from the optic axis, thus forming a dome which completes 
the apparatus. 

Three or four problems in lighthouse optics will embrace suffi- 
cient of the subject to enable us to trace the path of a ray in any 
part of the apparatus before it leaves the lighthouse. The 
approximate solution of these problems, in which the curves are 
assumed to be circular arcs are given in Fresnel's work on light- 
houses, and have been taken from that book, but the author also 
submits what he believes to be a rigid solution in the case of 
the path of a ray through the upper and lower triangular prisms, 
in which the issuing rays of light are twice refracted and once 
reflected. Fresnel, in dealing with the approximate solution of 
this problem, assumes that the refracting sides of the triangular 



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LXXXVIII. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 



^— • Tv»t Cue** SccrioM - — ^ 




^W 



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H. R. CARLRTON. 



LXXXIX. 



prisms are right lines, but ia the process of grinding the prisms, 
it is found convenient for the workmen to give a curved form to 
the refracting sides, the one being made convex and the other 
<roncave ; so that both being ground to the same radius (about 
four metres), the convergence of the rays produced bj the first 
shall be neutralized by the divergence caused by the second. 
The author has also obtained an expression for the direction of the 
tangent to the curve at any point in the case of the piano convex 
lens, but so far has been unable to integrate this expression, and 
he asks those members of the section interested in the subject to 
assist him. 

Prob. 1. 

To find the section of a refracting zone or straight prism. 




ofszzs.-ri^ 



APPROXIMATE SOLUTION. 



ACDG is the section ; F, the radiant point; FX a perpen- 
dicular to the side CA produced. 

0D,0£, normals to the circular arc bounding the prii^ni, 
and making the angles i/r and 4^ with FX. 

a and p the angles of incidence and refraction at A. 

j8 and o- „ „ „ B. 

FM=/; CD = «; AC = 6; 

and 6=/ (tan ft — tan cx) + Man <r. 

fi sin p = sin a 

/A sin o- = sin P 



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xc. 



KBW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 



. . u sm p . , u Sin o- 

tan ^ «?- 1- — - : tan \b = r: ^ 

fi cos p - 1 fx cos <r - 1 

^ _ (6 - < tan p) cos p 

2 sin i (l/r-<;>) COs[i(l/r + <^)-p] 

a: = r cos ^ - < ; y » r sin ^ -/tan )8 - < ban <r 



PRoa 2. 
Having found the centre of curvature by the preceding 
formulae, — to determine the path of any ray. 




sin ^ « /A sin (<^ - p) 

/i sin p « sin a 

. u sin p 

tan <f> = ^- ^ — ^ 

/A cos p - 1 

Prob. 3. 
Pi'ism giving two refractions and one reflection. 



Pr-oS/e/TT 3 




\.^^-^ 



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H. B. OARLBTON. XCI 

p and ^ a angles of refraction at A and B. 

^ ^ angle of internal incidence of emerging ray CG. 

FA-/ 

Bin 0=>fi sin (20 + 3-90'). 

From this equation find 6 by trial. 

ft sin p s sin = fi sin ^. 

PROa 4. 

To find equation to tme carve of reflecting side of a 
triangular prism (two refractions and one reflection) 



" ylfi-t-mi 




V -/ 



/ sin 



sin()8 + i7) 
_ / sin ff 
^■"siii ()8 + i7) 

cos(ff + iy) = /tsincandtan()8 + c~a)-^ ^"^^!^i'y"^°^ 
^ '^ y-p sin (17 + a) 

y=»6 + (a-<rf)sin/:^+ [(a - c<) cos )8 + ( /- x)] x Un ()8 - a). 

Mean difference in length of sides of reflecting prisms of a 
1st order lights: 2| per cent. 

The only assumption made, and one which appears to be 
legitimate, is that the rays of light which fall on the first refracting 
side are proportionately distributed over the second refracting 
side. 



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XCII. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 



Prob. 5. 

PLANO-CONVEX LeNS. 



Pf-oitJem ^ 




Let F b6 the source of light. 

P, a point on curve. 

FI, the horizontal axis of lens. 

€ = angle of refraction at plane surface. 

9.0** - ^ — angle of refraction at curved surface, 

being angle of inclination of tangent at P to horizontal 
APB = RPH = 90'*-<^ 

APS = € 

.-. SPB = 90'-<^-€ 

and sin RPH = /* sin SPB 

!.«., sin (90'' - 0) = /* sin (90* - <^ - c) 

or, cos ^ = /A cos (<^ + €) (1) 

Also sin = /t sin e (2) 

Prom (1) : cos ^ = fi cos cos c - ft sin ^ sin € and substituting 
from (2) 

cos <^ = /i cos ^ V 1 — 5_ gin <^ sin ^ 

cos <^ = co8 <^ ^/Lt^'-sin* d-ain <^sin tf 

1 = y ft' - sin* B - sin e tan <^ 



tan <^ 



^ V^ft»-sin*<9-l dy 



sin B 



dx 



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H. R. CARLETON. 



XCIII. 



Prob. 6. 
spherical lens. 




Let F be the source of light. 
Let P be a point on the outer curve, 
and FT, the horizontiil axis of lens, 
a^the angle of incidence on outer curve. 
y3 = the aDgle of refraction from outer curve. 

The inner curve is described from F as centre, with radius 
depending on size of lantern. 

Required the equation to outer curve. 

and sin )8 = /i sin a 

.*. fi sin a = sin (tf + a) ... ... ... (1) 

FPT = ^=.^ + (i. .-.a-i/r-;; 

and from (1 ) /a sin f i/r - .-j j = sin ( ^ + ^ - o ) 
. •. /A cos ^ = cos (d + i/r) 

= cos B cos i/r - sin sin i/r 
. •. /m = cos ^ - sin B tan ^ 
cos 6 " tL 



tan ^=- 



sin $ 



But tan i/r =^ r-r 



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XCIV. NEW SOUTH WALKS LIOHTHOUSKS. 

. ^ de^ ooBe- /jL 

dr ain 
.: r sin ftcW = dr.(co« 0-fi) 
dr sin 



" r cos 0-/A 

, . . /• sin pdr 

and inte^^ratingy— ^— .cW=/ — 



cM 



=logr + logC ... (2) 

where C is an arbitrary constant, 
and from (2) 

- log (/Lt ~ cos $) = log (r C) 

1 



rO 



"ft-cos 6 



and r 



(3) 



/A -cos ^ 

which is the equation to the curve, C being an arbitrary 
constant depending on the radius of the lantern, and the thicknees 
of glass at centre. 

If FQ = a 

i,e, r=:a when 6=0 

we have from (3) 
C 

a = ; 

i.e., C =a (ft- 1) 

and the equation becomps 

*^~/i-cos^ ^*' 

When investigating the nature of the curvature of the 
different prisms used in the dioptric apparatus of our lighthouses, 
it seemed to the Author that as in none of the prisms used were 
there less than two refractionsi if the number of refractions 
could be reduced, a saving in light could be effected. It is 
possible to reduce the number of refractions to one by making 
the inner surface of the lenses spherical in form, the radiant 
point being the centre from which the sphere is described. The 
issuing rays of light will then strike the inner surface normally, 
and consequently there will be no refraction at this sur&oe. 



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H. R. CARLETON. XCY. 

It remains, therefore, to determine the form of the outer surface, 

so that all rays emerging from the glass shall be bent into a 

horizontal or any other required direction. 

_, . , . . a (u — 1) 

The equation to this curve is r = — i where r = the 

^ fi — cos 

radius vector, a, the value of r, when 6 = o, the vectorial 

angle, and /a the index of refraction. 

Description of Path op Rays in Dioptric Apparatus. 

In the dioptric apparatus the path of a ray issuing from the 
light through the central lens is twice refracted, and, generally 
speaking, emerges in a direction parallel to the optical axis. The 
same occurs on the passage of a ray through the annular zones, 
which are merely portions of a larger lens with the central 
portion cut away to reduce the thickness of the glass. The path 
of a ray through the triangular prisms is first refracted, then 
reflected, and then again refracted in such a manner as to emerge 
in a direction parallel to the optical axis. The paths are illustra- 
ted on the diagram. In holophotal lights the rays which emerge 
to the back of the focus are reflected back again through the 
focus by prisms having their inner faces normal to the outward 
and backward rays, and their outer surfaces constructed to such 
curves as to cause the rays to be twice reflected and thrown back 
through the focus on to the forward lenses and triangular prisms. 

If the section shewn on the diagram revolve round a vertical 
axis passing through the focus, it will generate the cage which is 
used in a fixed light, and if the same section revolve round a 
horizontal axis passing through the focus it will generate the 
apparatus used in revolving lights, but the extent of the revolution 
in this case is governed by the number of sides it is intended the 
cage shall have. 

Comparison of Dioptric and Catoptric Systems. 

The superiority of the dioptric over the catopric system is, of 
course, well established, but the following, taken from Stevenson's 
work, gives a measure of their relative values: — **From experi- 



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XCVI. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

ments made on silver plate of the kind used in lighthooae 
apparatus, it was found that at 45"* incidence only -556 of the 
incident light was reflected, and from experiments made with a 
reflecting prism of glass, it was found that the amount of light 
transmitted was '806 of the whole, which shews that by using 
glass a saving of one-fourth is effected, and establishes the 
superiority of glass over metal for lighthouse purposes " 

The catoptric mirror is formed by the revolution of a parabola 
about its axis, and if a light be placed in the focus of the para- 
boloid so generated, all the incident rays will be reflected in a 
direction parallel to the axis from the well known property of the 
parabola, that if from a point on the curve lines be drawn to the 
focus and pandlel to the axis, these lines will make equal angles 
with the tangent at the same point. 

The dioptric system was invented by Augustus Fresnel in 
France in 1822, and the first light on this principle was that of 
Ck>rdouan at the mouth of the Garonne. It was introduced into 
England in 1835 by Mr. Alan Stevenson. 

In 1845 M. Leonor Fresnel reported to the American 
authorities that lights fitted with dioptric apparatus were incon- 
testably superior to those fitted with catoptric apparatus, that if 
we take into account the first cost and maintenance we find in 
respect of the effect prodaced, the new system is from one and a 
half to twice as advantageous as the old, and in 1852 the 
American Board resolved that the Fresnel — or lens system modi- 
fied in special cases by the holophotal apparatus of Mr. Thos. 
Stevenson — be adopted as the illuminating apparatus of the 
United States to embrace all new lights now or hereafter 
authorised, and all lights requiring to be renovated by reason of 
deficient power or defective apparatus. 

Description of New South Wales Lighthouses. 

There are twenty coast lighthouses, twelve of the larger class 
of harbour lights, and two lightships. Six of the coast lights are 
of the first order dioptric, viz.: — Green Cape, Montagu Island, 
Macquarie (South Head), Sugar Loaf (Seal Rocks), Smoky Cape 



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H. R. CARLBTON. XCVII. 

(Trial Bay), and South Solitary I«land. Five of these are re- 
volving, and one fixed and flashing. There is one second order 
dioptric fixed, seven fourth order dioptric fixed, and six catoptric, 
two of which are revolving and four fixed. A table of these is 
Appended and their position on the coast i^ shown in the accom- 
panying map. 

The distance in nautical miles from Green Cape to Montagu 
Island is G2 miles, from Montagu Island to Jervis Bay 73, from 
Jorvis Bay to Macquarie Lighthouse 82, Macquarie to Seal 
Rocks 107, Seal Rocks to Smoky Cape 100, Smoky Cape to South 
Solitary Island 39. The average distance between these six main 
coast lights is therefore 77 miles. The distance from South 
Solitary Island lighthouse to Cape Byron, the most eastern point 
of Australia, is 99 miles, which points to the necessity of estab- 
lishing a first-class light at Cape Byron. 

There is so much that is similar in many of these twenty light- 
houses that the author fears reading a description of each would 
tax the patience of members of the Section beyond reasonable 
endurance. He has therefore placed the particulars of all the 
lights in tabular form in their order from South to North, and 
believes this arrangement will prove more convenient for those 
members who may desire information concerning the lighthouses, 
quarters, etc. (Appendix II ) 

Means op Illumination. 

The cylindrical- wick lamp in its various forms is the usual mode 
of lighting employed in lighthouses, gas and electricity being also 
used. For small lights and tho lamps of parabolic reflectors, the 
burner is about an inch in diameter, but for tho more po\ve»*ful 
lights the burner consists of a series of concentric wicks, two or 
more in number, with intervening air spaces, and the largest 
burners have concentric wicks up to ten in number. In the 
larger lamps the light can thus be adjusted to suit the weather by 
lighting or extinguishing one or more of the rings. The burners 
in general use are five and six wick. The outer diameter of a 
six-wick burner is 4J"; of a seven-wick 5y. The height of the 



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XCVIII. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 



Coast Chart of New South Walc& 
ihewind positions of Li^htlioi;»e6. 




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H. R. CARLBTON. XCIX. 

flame is about six inches, and great heat is given off, special care 
being necessary to prevent breakage of the glass chimney. 
Mineral oil is chiefly used in New South Wales, and the oil is 
made to flow into the burners by various means. FresneVs in- 
vention consisted of four small pumps worked by clockwork 
which forced the oil upwards to the flime. Other modes are by 
weights acting on a piston, by a spring doing the same office, in 
the pneumatic lamp by means of the pressure of air in the 
reservoir, and another plan is by placing the reservoir slightly 
higher than the lamp, the oil thus flowing freely by gravity to 
the required level. 

Characteristics. 

The increase of lights naturally leads to the necessity of dis- 
tinction between them. What is required is a well defined and 
easily recognised light. The main distinctions are Fixed and 
Revolving. Fixed, though less powerful than Revolving, is a 
useful distinction, as coloured sections can be shown from it to 
indicate dangers in the neighbourhood. With a Revolving light 
this cannot be effected, but Revolving lights are more distinctive 
than Fixed lights, the alternations of light and darkness are so 
marked as to strike the most careless observer. The tendency of 
late has been in the direction of shortening the interval of dark- 
ness, very few of the longest periods being now more than a 
minute, for with the increased speed of steamships a considerable 
distance might be traversed before the full character of a long 
period light could be made out. The characteristics in use are : — 
1. Fixed. 2. Revolving light, gradually increasing at equal 
periods to full power, and then gradually decreasing to eclipse. 
3. Fixed lights, varied by flashes ; shows a fixed light which at 
certain periods is varied by white or coloured flashes. 4. Flash- 
ing, shows a single flash at intervals of a few seconds. 5. Group 
Flashing, shows groups of two or more flashes in quick succession, 
separated by a period of eclipse between the groups. 6. Inter- 
mittent, which bursts instantaneously into full power, and, after 
remaining for a period as a fixed light, is suddenly eclipsed. 



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C. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

7. Alternating lights of different colours, generally white and 
red alternately. S. Double lights. 

Revolving Geak fok Lighthouse Apparatus. 

This is a clockwork motion, the motive power of which is a 
heavy weight suspended and working through a wrought iron 
tube in the centre of t!ie tower. The cage itself revolves upon 
and is supported by a roller base, consisting of a series of small 
rollers, kept equidistant, which revolve round the centre, and on 
their own spiadles, thus reducing the friction to a minimum. 
The gear is fitted with a governor to regulate the speed of rota- 
tion, and is of the conical pendulum centre weight type. The 
centre weight consists of a metal disc connected to the governor 
arms, and the lift and speed is regulated by two set screws pro- 
jecting from the main framing. The motion can also be stopped 
at any time by means of a similar set scrfew which can be made 
to press on the edge of the disc. The weights, which are sus- 
pended by a pulley from an endless chain, are wound up periodi- 
cally according to the speed of rotation of the cage, the act of 
winding having no effect upon the revolving gear. In case 
of accident or repair to the gearing, the cage can be discon- 
nected and caused to revolve by manual power from a winch 
handle. 

Cost. 

The total capital expenditure on the Lighthouses up to the 
present has been about £200^000, and the present annual cost of 
attendance, stores, tkc, about i/1 1,500. The total expenditure 
on repairs and maintenance and additions during the last forty 
years has been £24,000. 

The design, construction, uiaintenance and repairs of the Light- 
houses were originally undor the Colonial Architect, Mr. Bamet, 
but were transferred to the Harbours and Rivers Department in 
1889, and placed under Mr. Cecil W. Darley, M. Inst. C.E., 
the present Engineer-in-Chief for Public Works. 



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h. r. oarlbton. ^ ci. 

New Lighthouse, Point Perpendicular. 

It has long been known that the Cape St. George Lighthouse 
was not erected in the most suitable position, and a lighthouse is 
now in course of erection at Point Perpendicular which, when 
completed, will take the place of the Gape St. George Lighthouse. 
This establishment, a description of which will serve as a type, 
consists of a lighthouse with quarters for a principal lightkoeper 
and two assistant keepers, with all the necessary storerooms^ 
workrooms, stabling, cartshed, and other outbuildings, also a 
flagstaff and flag house for signalling purposes. The site of th(^ 
lighthouse is situated in Lat. Bo"" 5' 5" S., Long. 150° 50' 0" E. on 
the extreme point of Point Perpendicular, distant about 1 50 feet 
from the edge of the cliff, which is here 284 feet above H.W., 
and has a sheer vertical face with deep water at the foot. 

A service road has been cut and formed from the lighthouse 
site to a sheltered Bay in Montagu Road, Jervis Bay, distant 
about five miles, where a jetty 200 feet long and 12 feet wide is 
constructed with turpentine piles and hardwood girders and 
decking. The jetty is L shaped and has at its outer end a depth 
of nine feet at L.W. It is sheltered from all but the west and 
north-westerly winds, so that goods and passengers can be landed 
safely. A lock-up storeroom is provided adjacent to the jetty so 
that goods landed may be left in safety until it is convenient to 
transport them to the lighthouse. The storeroom is 15' x 12', 
and 9' high, and is constructed of hardwood framing, and the 
walls covered with tallow wood weatherboards of special design. 
The roof is covered with red tiles and the floor is laid with stout 
tallow-wood boards. The building is raised on concrete blocks 
to a height of two feet from the ground, the space being left open 
for ventilation. The rain water from the roof is collected and 
stored for use of persons who may be detained at the wharf. 

The lighthouse establishment is situated on a level plateau 
with but little depth of surface soil, so no difficulty is experienced 
in obtaining a solid rock foundation for the whole of the walling, 
and advantage has been taken of the abundance of good, hard, 
coarse sandstone in the immediate neighbourhood to construct 



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CII. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

the building, as far as possible, of concrete ; the walling through- 
out being of concrete blocks cast in moulds of suitable size and 
shape to the various portions of the work, mostly in courses 12^ 
high. These blocks, when moulded, are cemented on all external 
faces, then stacked until fit for use, when they are set in the 
same manner as is used for ordinary stonework, being bedded and 
jointed with cement mortar and having a margin of painters' 
putty on the outer edge of all beds and joints. This class of 
work, while novel to the colony, is largely used in other parts of 
the world, and has the advantage of obviating the disfiguring 
cracks caused by shrinkage of material usually seen on the faces 
of structures built with mass concrete. 

Lighthouse Buildings. 

The lighthouse buildings proper comprise, the tower with 
entrance lobby and porch, and two large rooms for use as store 
and workrooms. They face the south-east, the tower being in 
the centre and having half its diameter clear in advance of the 
rest of the buildings, the work and storerooms being on either 
side with the lobby and porch in the central rear. The tower is 
ir 9" diameter in the clear inside, and 44' high from the 
ground to top of walling. It stands on a footing of mass con- 
crete let into the rock as far as is necessary to insure solidity, 
the external face of walls rising from a bold moulded face and 
with a concave batter to the top, which is fitted with a massive 
cornice supporting the projecting gallery round the outside of the 
lantern. The tower is divided into three stories by concrete 
floors, 12'' thick, the level of the lowest floor being kept up 
3' above the ground. Access to the various floors is gained 
by staircases 3' wide extending from floor to floor, constructed 
of concrete blocks built in as the work proceeds, and fitted with 
rubbed slate treads, similar slate being fitted round the margin 
of all well holes, the treads being fixed with strong brass screws 
for the convenience of renewal when worn. The handrail to all 
staircases is of 2^ heavy brass tubing, the balusters are of orna- 
mental wrought iron, and the newels are of cast iron. All the 



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H. R. CARLBTON. CIII. 

concrete floors are paved with small black and white tiles, and 
the internal face of tower walls, together with the concrete ceil- 
ings and staircase, are smoothly rendered with cement and 
decorated with paint work. The various windows, six in 
number, which are necessary to light up the floors of the tower, 
are small in size, and are made very strongly of gun-metal cast- 
ings to a perfectly waterproof design, and glazed with polished 
plate glass, §'' thick. 

The entrance lobby on the ground floor is 10' long 6' wide 
and 12' high, having a tile floor and cedar entrance door 
with embossed plate glass panels and side lights opening 
from a porch, 6' x .6', which has an open entrance and side 
windows, and is paved with trachyte, and has a flight of trachyte 
steps. The storeroom and workroom are each 18' x 15', situated 
on each side of the entrance lobby, and entered from the same by 
cedar doors. These rooms are 12' high, and are roofed over 
with flat concrete, 12" thick, supported where necessary on 
rolled iron girders. The flat roof thus formed over the whole 
area of store and work rooms, lobby and porch is paved with Val 
de Travors asphalt, and is entered from a door opening from the 
iirst door of the lighthouse tower, the door being protected from 
the weather by wing walls and roof of concrete, and the whole is 
surrounded by embattled parapet walls 4' high, ample provision 
being made by surface gutters and down pipes for remov- 
ing the heaviest downpour of rain. The internal walls and 
ct*ilings of all these rooms are cemented, the walls are painted, 
and, together with the tower, have a sunk dado moulding. The 
lower portion, or dado, being painted a darker colour and 
varnished. The outer walls of this block of buildings are 
finished with channelled joints to all concrete blocks in plain wall 
surfaces, and a bold splayed battered plinth and a massive cornice 
with plain fascia and architrave moulding is carried all round ; 
the whole being painted in plain colours. The floors of the 
store and workrooms are paved with Val de Travers asphalt, 
the windows are of cedar, having the lower portions fixed and 
the upper portions made to open as fanlights with strong brass 



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CIV. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

fanlight openers. These rooms are fitted up with strong pine 
shelving for lamp glasses and other stores, strong stands for oil 
tanks, work table with drawers and shelves, and a wash sink 
with pump connected with an underground rain-water tank of 
3,000 gallons capacity, having a manhole with raised trachyte 
kerb, and galvanized wrought iron cover and wrought iron foot 
holds built into the tank walls for access. The tank is sunk in 
the solid rock and lined all round the walls with [mass concrete 
12" t^ick, and the floor with concrete 9" thick, the roof being 
formed with flat concrete 12" thick flush with the surface of the 
ground, the whole being carefully rendered with cement inside. 
A margin 6 " thick and 6 ' wide is'put all round this building at 
the ground level, and having a fall from the walls outward 
rendered with cement to protect the foundations of the 
buildings. 

At the top of the tower tho lantern room is surrounded by an 
open gallery with a clear space all round, 4' 4" wide, the floor of 
which is of trachyte 16'' thick, in sixteen stones with radiating 
joints and moulded outer edge. The upper surface of these stones 
or floor of gallery is paved with Val de Travers asphalt to 
prevent any feoakage of water into the walls below. The outer 
edge of the gallery is protected by a parapet wall of trachyte 
3' 6'' high, having a moulded coping and panelled front. The 
whole of the trachyte work is strongly put together with copper 
cramps and dowels in all joints, and the floor stones are bolted 
down to the tower walls with wrought iron rods. The lantern 
room with its floor and domed roof, also the lantern and 
illuminating apparatus weighing altogether about 33 tons, have 
been manufactured by Messrs. Chance Brothers <fe Co., to the 
order of the New South Wales Government, and have been 
imported at a cost of nearly £4,000, and are not included in the 
contract now let for the buildings, the contractor for which, 
however, has to convey them from Sydney and erect them in 
position. 

The lantern room is circular in plan, 12' IJ" clear diameter 
inside. The floor is of wrought iron chequered plate supported 



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H. R. CARLBTON. CV. 

on rolled iron girders. The walls are of cast iron to a height of 
7 ', lined on the inside with sheet iron, the space between inner 
and outer surfaces being utilised for the admission of fresh air to 
the lantern, gratings being placed at intervals on the outside, 
and brass hit aud miss grating on tho inside for regulating the 
quantity and direction as required. Above the cast iron base is 
jvn open framework 10' 3" high, having astragal bars paved with 
polished plate glass ^" thick in lozenge-shaped squares, so that 
no vertical bars can obstruct the beam of light. A cast iron 
gallery supported on cast iron ornamental brackets is carried 
round the lantern both inside and out at the base of the glazed 
framing to facilitate t^leaning operations, the gallery has 
perforated cast iron floors and light wrought iron handrail for 
protection, and is accessible by means of short flights of step 
ladder of wrought iron. The lantern room is roofed bf a dome 
having sixteen cast iron ribs covered inside and out with strong 
copper sheeting, and surmounted by a strong copper ventilator, 
6' diameter, with a weather vane in the centre which, acting 
upon a dial visible in tho room beneath, indicates to the keeper 
on duty the direction of the wind, and so enables him to regulate 
the admission of fresh air. 

The apparatus itself is of prismatic glass in gun-metal framing, 
nine sided with concave sides. It is about 6' diameter and 
9' high, partially domed or contracted at top to a diameter 
of 2' 3^. It is a first order dioptric revolving white light, triple 
flashing every 20 secohds, and making one complete revolution 
each minute and a half. The apparatus is attached to a cast iron 
base or carriage fitted with a gun-metal toothed driving wheel, 
and revolving on conical steel rollers, the driving wheel being 
operated on by a gun-metal driving pinion worked by a clock- 
work arrangement of steel and gun-metal, the motive power for 
which is obtained by weights suspended on chains working in a 
wrought iron tube 16" diameter passing through the whole 
height of the tower, and having doors for access on each floor. 
Should any accident occur to this machinery provision is made 
for continuing the revolution of the lantern by hand gear. 



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CVI. NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

The height of the focal plane above the ground will be 56', and 
above H. W. 304', the visible horizon at this, level being 23 J miles. 

Due south of the lighthouse and distant 100' therefrom is 
the Signal Station. The flagstaff is within 60' of the edge of 
the cliff. It is 60 ' from the ground to the top of the track, 
and consists of a mainmast, topmast and four radiating spars 
with the necessary rigging. The flag house is situated 25 ' to 
the eastward of the flagstaff. It is a circular structure 6' in 
diameter, built with concrete blocks and cemented inside. The 
roof is of concrete and conical in shape, slightly concave on its 
outer surface. The roof terminates at the eaves with a moolded 
cornice and at the apex with a cast cement ball terminal. 
Provision is made for ventilation by gratings, and the hoase is 
fitted up with 39 pigeon holes, each 12" x 12" x 9", to hold the 
signal flags, and there is also a small fixed table. 

Quarters. 

The keeper's quarters are situated due south of the lighthouse 
and distant about 70' to the nearest point. The buildings 
are constructed throughout of concrete blocks on mass concrete 
foundations. The roofs are framed of hardwood covered with 
red tiles of the French pattern, manufactured by Messrs. Goodlet 
and Smith, of Oranville, each tile being secured to the roof timber 
by a loop of strong copper wire. The external walls are plastered 
throughout, and have cement polished skirtings. A fireplace is 
provided to each room, and these are lined throughout with 
colored glazed bricks and finished with cement mouldings and 
slate mantels and hearths. An underground rain water tank, 
similar to that described for the lighthouse building, but capable 
of holding 6,500 gallons, is supplied to each house with a brass- 
barrelled lift pump and sink inside the scullery. The verandah 
and laundry floors throughout are paved with Val de Travt^rs 
asphalt on concrete, and they are roofed with tiles. Each cottage 
has a fair allowance of garden ground enclosed by concrete block 
walls 7' high, and having concrete paths and edging to the 
soil beds, the soil for which to a depth of 18" is carted from a 



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H. R. CARLBTON. CYII. 

distance. The entire area enclosed for the three bouses is 
203' X 130', all in one block, the front fence wall being rather 
lower and finished with an iron railing on top. Earth closets are 
provided to each house, and a stable with coachhouse and work- 
room for carpenters or other work. The rain water from the 
roofs of these buildings is collected in three 400 gallon tanks. 
The drainage from the buildings is carried away in stoneware 
drain pipes, discharging over the face of the clifi' where they are 
fitted with cast iron bends turned downwards. Inspection pits 
fitted with raised trachyte kerbs and wrought iron manhole lids 
are placed at intervals along the line of pipe, and doors are fitted 
to the pipes at certain portions to allow of a collection of waste 
water in the higher levels of the pipes which can be suddenly 
discharged for flushing purposes. Ventilating pipes for foul air 
U\re connected with the drains and taken up to discharge above 
the roofs of cottages. 

The entire premises are enclosed from clifi* to cliff on the N.E. 
and N.W. sides by a paling fence 6' high, and a fence is also 
placed along the edge of the cliff. A three-rail fence is also put 
across the promontory from cliff to cliff, enclosing an area of 
about 80 acres to provide pasturage. 

The whole of the detail plans, specification, bill of quantities 
conttaning 400 items, and the estimate, have been prepared by 
Mr. Charles Harding, the architect in charge of lighthouse design 
in the Public Works Department, under the direction of Mr. 
O. W. Darley, M. Inst. C. E., Engineer-in-Ohief for Public Works, 
and are so complete that Mr. Darley has decided to adopt them 
as the standard for lighthouse work in the future. Mr. Harding's 
estimate of the cost of tho work was £10,266 5a. 8d., and a 
tender has been accepted for £10,719 16s. lOd., which shows 
remarkable care and accuracy when the isolated position and 
difficulty of access to the lighthouse is taken into consideration. 

A sum of money has been placed on the estimates for the 
construction of a first order lighthouse and equipment at Cape 
Byron, 17 miles north of the Richmond River, the most eastern 
point of Australia. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CVIII. 



Appendix I. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

PARTICULARS OF LIGHTHO^S£^ 



No. 



Lighthouse and 

Date of 
ConttrucUon. 



Latitude nnd 
Longitude. 



-SS-ai Vinible 
UescripUon of sl^ 5 **^|J«»" 



Keepnv. 



= ^^ 



2-5^ 



miles. 



Annual 

2^alari«9^ 






• Green Cape. 
1883. 



37^ 15" r S. 
150" 4' E. 



Ist order diop- 
tric ; revolving 
white light, 
flashing every 
minute; visible 
between S. ^ W. 
and N. f W. 



144 ft. 14 



£508 £I9.fl 



Twofold Bay, 
1862. 



ST 4' 5" S. 
149- 55' 6" E. 



Catoptric; fixed 133ft. 
red light, visible 
seaward between 
N. 39° E. and 
S. 62^ E. 



}S\ Pilot £160 



fl.t* 



Montagu Island, 36" 15' 3" 8. 
1881. 150n4'5''E. 



Ist order diop- 262 ft. 
trie fixed, and 
flashing bright 
light ; fixed for 
33 seconds, then 
a flash of 5 se- 
conds, between 
two intervals of 
1 6 seconds dark- 



181 



£463 tn.'i 



4 UUadulla, 1873 35^ 22' 3" S. 
150" 31' 3" E. 



£150 



^.^i: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. R. CARLETON. 
;OAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



cix. 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



Quarters. 



i on the extremity of Green or Bundoora 
>isaster Bay. Tower is 68 feet high from 
t<> floor of lantern, divided into 4 stories, 
ith concrete mass walls, cemented inside 
t. Iron staircases and floors. Bluestone 
roujid lantern, with gun-metal railing. 
>il store attached to tower, also built of 
e, with domed concrete roof. Detached 
id workroom is also provided, of similar 
iction to quarters. 



Quarters are provided for head keeper, con- 
taining 5 rooms, with kitchen and storeroom, 
also a room for visiting officers; and quarters 
for 2 assistant keepers, each with 4 rooms,, 
kitchen and storeroom ; all built with brick walls, 
cemented outside, and with galvanized iron 
roof covering. Underground rain-water tanks 
of 6000 gallons capacity are provided to each 
house. Stable and cart shed are also provided, 
and a timber jetty with storeroom at Bittangabee 
Bay. 



d on the southern extremity of Lookout 
The tower is 28 feet high from ground 
r of lantern room, built of hardwood 
on stone foundations, walls being covered 
tlly with weatherboards. Tower 10 feet 
at base, and 6 feet hexagon in upper 
;, w^ith projecting hardwood gallery round 
I, with iron railing, Painted white 

aiy. 



Quarters are provided for pilot or harbour 
master (who has charge of the light), consisting 
of three rooms with out offices ; and also for his 
boats crew and customs landing waiter, con- 
sisting also of 3 rooms with out offices. The 
quarters are situated at the rear of the tower, 
and attached to same, and are constructed of 
hardwood timbers on stone foundations, covered 
with weatherboards on the outside, and plastered 
inside. The roofs are covered with ironbark 
shingles. A verandah 5 feet wide is carried all 
round the building (except kitchen) supported 
on wood posts and roofed with galvanized 
corrugated iron. 



id on a large granite boulder on the 
t of the Island The tower is circular, 

diameter inside, 40 feet high from top of 
r to floor of lantern, the boulder being 
, high from the ordinary ground level, 
by a flight of granite steps. The tower is 
I "into B storeys, built with dressed granite 
3 feet thick at base, battering to 2 feet 
at top, with iron staircases and floors. 
t» f^allery round lantern, with gun-metal 
The oil store is a detached building at 

the boulder, and is built as described for 



Quarters are provided for head keeper, contain- 
ing 5 rooms, with kitchen and storerooms; also 
a room for visiting ofticers. and quarters for 2 
assistant keepers, each with 4 rooms, kitchen, 
and storerooms, all built with brick walls and 
cemented outside, and with galvanized iron roof 
covering. Underground and rain-water tanks 
of 6000 gallons capacity are provided to each 
house. Stable and cart shed, built of timber, 
are also provided, and a timber jetty with crane 
and boathouse at the lauding place. 



ally situated on the pier at Ulladulla 
iir. Was removed to Warden Head in 
The tower is constructed of inm, circular 
1,11 feet diameter at ground, diminishing 
«.et diameter at top ; 27 feet high from 



(Quarters were erected in IrtDO for 1 keeper at 
Warden Head, containing 4 roonis and kitchen 
with out otlicts, all with brick walls cemented 
outside, on concrete foundations, and with 
galvanized iron roof coveiing. An undergronnd 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ex. NEW SOUTH WALB8 LIGHTHOUSES. 

PARTICULARS OF LIGHTHOUSES OX H 



No. 



"*^*'S[2?!ff*"'* I Utitudeand Description of i|pS 

= 11? 



UlladuUa— 
OtmtxHved 



°a:?gl Horixon 
" ^ ^ in 



KeepecB. 



nautical ^^ ' Annual 
miles. ^^- I Salaries. 



Costai 
beetioi. 



5 Cape St. George, 36° 9' 3" 8. Catoptric ; re- 224 ft. ' 17 3 £465 £1^ 

1860. 160" 47' 4" E. volving, white, 

green, and red, 
' alternating every 

! h minute. , , 



Point Perpen- 
dicular, 
'i897 
(now building). 



85° 5' 5" S. 
150°50'0"E. 



Ist order diop- 304 ft. 
trie ; 9 - Bided, 
revolving, bright 
light, triple 
flashing every 
20 seconds, and 
making 1 com- 
plete revolution 
in 1} minutes. 



20 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. R. CARLETON. 
r OF NEW SOUTH WALES.— C(m«i»«/?rf. 



CXI. 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



Quarters. 



to floor of lantern, divided into 3 stories, 
rood floors, connected by iron ladders, 
ot of tower enters the ground to a depth 
feet, and is bedded in a solid mass of 
« 9 feet deep. 

id about 1 mile north of Cape St. George. 
wer is 53 feet high from ground to floor 
ern, divided into 3 stories. It is circular 
., 10 feet diameter inside. Walls 3^ feet 
Ekt base, tapering to 2 feet thick at top. 
it sandstone, dressed both sides, bedded 
B mortar. The floors are of wood, and 
temal staircases of iron, with a stone 
Be from ground to 1st floor, forming 
5e to tower. The gallery round lantern 
of sandstone, with a wrought iron hand- 
Ln oil-store is provided in part of quarters 



I 



id on Point Perpendicular, Jervis Bay. 
)wer is 44 feet 4^ inches high from ground 
: of lantern, divided into 3 stories It is 
r in plan, 11 feet 9 inches diameter 
Walls 3^ feet thick at the base, 
ig with a concave batter to 24 feet thick 
Built of concrete blocks, bedded in 
, mortar, the beds being crossed with a 
, fillet ; the faces of walling are cemented 
and out ; the floors are of concrete, with 
irfaoes. The internal staircases are also 
Crete, with slate treads, and having 
it iron balusters and brass tubular hand- 
The floor of lantern room is of ironwork, 
rejecting gallery outside lantern is of 
te, supported on concrete oversailing 
i and paved with asphalt, and has a 
be parapet wall. The tower is entered 
I lobby, 10 feet x 6 feet, having a tiled 
nd outer porch 6 feet square. On each 
lobby are the workroom and store, each 
X 15 feet ; the floors paved with asphalt, 
ofs of the stores, lobby, and porch are of 
te, flat, supported on rolled iron girders, 
kved with Val de Travers asphalt, a door 



rain water tank of 6,000 galls, capacity is 
provided. 



Quarters were originally provided for the head 
keeper, and assistant keepers, in a block of 1 
storey buildings round the tower, which rises 
from the centre of them, 3 rooms being provided 
for head keeper, and 2 each for under keepers, 
inclusive of kitchens. The walls are of sand- 
stone, dressed both sides. The roof is of stone 
flagging laid flat, supported on cast iron girders, 
and covered on top with asphalt. Additional 
rooms and verandahs have since been added to 
this block of buildings, and it is now devoted to 
the use of the 2 under keepers only; a new 
weatherboard cottage on hardwood piles, con- 
taining 7 rooms, being erected for head keeper 
in 1877. 

Quarters are provided for head keeper in a 
detached cottage, containing 4 rooms, with 
kitchen, laundry, and storerooms, also a room 
for visiting officers ; and quarters for 2 assistant 
keepers in 2 semi-detached cottages, each 
containing 4 rooms, with kitchen, laundry, and 
storerooms. The walls are of concrete blocks, 
cemented outside, and plastered within. The 
roofs are covered with red roofing tiles, of the 
Marseilles pattern. Verandahs, 8 feet wide, are 
put round all principal fronts, paved with Val 
de Travers asphalt, and roofed with tiles. 
Underground rain water tanks, of 6,500 galls, 
capacity, are provided to each house A 
detached workroom is provided, as also is a 
2-6tall stable, a coachhouse, and the usual out 
offices. The fence, walls, enclosing gardens, 
(fee, are all of concrete blocks, and the yards 
and pathways to houses and gardens are paved 
with concrete. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXll. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

PARTICULARS OF LIGHTHOUSES OS H 



Lighthouse and 
No. Date of 

Construction. 



Point Perpen- 
dicular — 
Continued 



Latitude and 
Longitude. 



De^^'ription of 
Lght. 






Visible 
Horizon 

in 

nautical 

miles. 



Keepers. 



No 



AoDoal 
Salaries. 



Cart' 
Irect!" 



Shoalhaven, 

1882. 



34^ 51' S. 
150^ 47' E. 



Fixed red light. 



t^\ 



8 Klama, 1887. 



34M0'4" S. 
150' 5' E. 



4th order diop- 119 ft. 
trie, fixed green 
light. Red dan- 
ger, and green 
on breakwater ; 
lit by gas. 
Also one fixed 
green light on 
extremity of 
breakwater. 



12i PUot. £236 



Wollongong, 
1872. 



34° 25' S. 
150%55'5'E. 



4th order diop- 
tric, fixed white 
light, shewing 
between N N E 
and E by S) E. 
A fixed red light 
is shewn from 
NE side of light- 
house, where it 
is dangerous to 
to enter the 
harbour. 



56 ft. 



8 J PUot. £21.5 £2.2.»1 



Macquarie(Old), 33^ 51' 2" S. 3rd order cata- 340 ft. 
1817. 15ri8'3"E. dioptric, white 

li-ht. 



2U 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. R. CARLBTON. 
BT OF NEW SOUTH WAI^S.— Continued. 



CXIII. 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



it floor of tower opening on to same. A 
(in of concrete paving, 6 feet wide, is put 
Dond the outside of the building, and an 
rgronnd rain water tank of 3,000 galls, 
city, with pump, Ac, is provided for the 
>f the worloroom, &c. A timber wharf and 
room are also provided at the landing 



ited on the north point of entrance. 



Quartera. 



kted on the hill above Blowhole Bock. The 
r is 38 feet high from ground to floor of 
trn, divided into 3 storeys, with wood floors 
iron ladders Circular on plan, 5^ feet 
teter inside, with brick walls 2^ feet thick 
te bottom, battering to I4 brick thick at top, 
feet diameter externally at base, tapering to 
eet diameter at top, having a gallery of 
ted freestone round lantern, with iron 
ig. The foundations of tower are of 
rete. Qas laid on from town supply. 

ited on end of breakwater. The tower is 
eet high from the ground to the floor of 
am, constructed throughout of iron, circular 
ilan, 13 § feet diameter at foot, diminishing 
concave batter to 8 feet diameter at top ; ; 
led into 3 storeys, with wood floors, con- | 
Bd by iron ladders, the bottom one being on 1 
>Qtside, giving entrance to the tower on the | 
loor. The lantern has an outer gallery of > 
, with iron railing. The foot of tower 
is on a base of dressed stonework, and is 
ned to the ground by 12 wrought iron 
lor rods, each 2 inches diameter and 12 feet 
, having large washer plates; the whole 
3d in a mass of concrete 12 feet deep. 

ated on South Head of Port Jackson Taken 
1 m 1883. The tower was 58 feet high 
I ground to floor of lantern, divided into 8 
es, the lower floor being domed over with 
cwork, and utilised as an oil store. Circular 
Ian, 11 feet diameter inside, built of dressed 



Quarters are provided for 1 keeper, containing 
4 rooms and out offices. The walls are built of 
brickwork, cemented outside, and plastered 
inside, on concrete foundations, and roofed with 
galvanized corrugated iron. Verandah on one 
front. An underground rain water tank, of 
6,000 galls, capacity, is provided. 



No quarters provided. 



Quarters were provided for 2 keepers in 2 wings, 
each about 24 feet square, one on either side of 
tower and attached to same. These wings 
being 2 stories hish, with 1 room on each floor, 
ani entrance lobbies, staircases, landings, &c. 
The bedrooms on upper floor were surmounted 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXIV. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

PARTICULABS OF LIGHTHOUSES OX H 



I 'I loin's I Visible 

No ^*Di2??f"^ I Latitude and Deecription of t^fs^^|^° 

^'' OoiSiSdion. I ^^'^^'' Light. !^^||l„,^eal 

I I I W||g! miles. 



l!l||l ^^ deepen. 
•&»•«£ I in 



r-«"| in"'" ^^ 

!-S''3|5' nautical > «^ Annual ! '■**^** 
aj|g! miles, j ^^ Saljirie^ 



Macquarie (Old) | 
Continued i 



I 



1 1 i (Macquarie New) , 33° 51' 2" S. 
1883. 151° 18' 3" E. 



12 



Horaby, 1858 



33° SC 2* S. 
l5ri8'rE. 



1st order diop- 
tric ; holophotai, 
revolving white 
light, electric 
light, gas or oil ; 
visible between 
N. by E. I and 
S. by E., shew- 
ing a flash every 
minute and 
making a com- 
plete revolution 
in 16 minutes. 



345 ft. 



2li 



£867 ' £19,631 



1st order catop- 
tric ; fixed white 



90 ft. 



11 



£518 



£^8S 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. B. CARLBTON. 
AST OF NEW SOUTH WALES,— Continued, 



CXV. 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINOS. 



Tower. 



Qoartera. 



dstone, the base of tower extemaUy is 24 
; square to a height of 16 feet, above which 

bailding is circular, the walls being 3f feet 
^ at the bottom, tapering to 2f feet at the 
The tower is entered by a stone staircase 
n an adjoining lobby, landing on the 1st 
*r above oil store 13^ feet high, from which a 
ular stone staircase with iron railing rises 
he next floor 34 feet 8 inches above 1st floor, 

lantern being reached from this level by 
ooden ladder. The upper floors and lantern ' 
ery are constructed of wood, with iron 
ing. The lower position of lantern 4J feet 
ve floor is also of wood, circular on plan, 
ered outside with copper. The lantern itself 
ig duo-decagonal, with vertical and hori- 
tal framework for glass, surmounted with a 
per dome and vane. 

lated immediately in the rear of the old 
ithouse at South Head, of Port Jackson. 
i tower is 61 feet high from ground to floor 
an tern, divided into 4 stories All floors and 
rcases are of iron It is circular on plan, 

feet diameter on the inside, built of sand- 
le, dressed both sides, designed to resemble 
closely as possible the old lighthouse. The 
B of tower, externally, is 23^ feet square, to 
eight of 17 feet, above which it is circular, 

walls being 4 feet thick at the bottom, 
3ring to 3 feet thick at the top. Bluestone 
ery round lantern, with gun metal railing, 
pne room, oil stores, and workrooms are 
vided in 2 one storey wings, one on either 
t of tower and attached to same, the wings 
ig each about 24 feet square, surmounted by 
les constructed of woodwork and covered 
1 lead. The engine room contains two 8-h p. 
Bsley's gas engines, and two De Meritens 
pieto-eleetrio machines, weighing 2^ tons 
h. A gasholder, containing 4 or 5 days 
ply, is also provided, connected with the 
ins of the Australian Gas Light Ck). 



lated on edge of cUff at inner South Head, 
t Jackson. The tower is 25 feet high from 



by domes, 12 feet diameter, framed of wood- 
work and covered with lead, light being admitted 
by small glazed lanterns in the apex of each 
dome. The walls were built of dressed stone- 
work, designed to work in with base of tower. 
Two detached rooms, each 13 feet square inside, 
were also provided, one at each extremity of the 
ground on the road frontage, for the accommo- 
dation of the military guard. 



Quarters are provided for 1 engineer superin- 
tendant, 1 assistant engineer, and 3 under 
keepers in 5 one storied houses, in 3 blocks, 
1 single house, and 2 blocks of semi-detached. 
That for the superintendent containing 5 rooms, 
and all others 4 rooms, and all with kitchens, 
storerooms, &o. The wails are of dressed stone- 
work, plastered inside. The roofs covered with 
galvanized iron, and verandahs round all 
frontages. Underground rain water tanks, of 
6,000 galls, capacity, are provided to eadi 
house, and water is kud on from the mains of 
the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. 
Stable and cart shed are also provided. 



Quarters are provided for head keeper, con- 
taining 6 rooms, with kitchen and storerooms, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXVI. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 

PABTICULARS OF LIGHTHOUSES ON H 



No. 



Lighthouse and 

Dat«of 
CoDstractioii. 



Latitude and 
Longitude. 



Hornby — 
Continudd 



Description of 
Light. 



light, shewn 
from SE by S 
eastward to NE^ 
E. Lantern 
originally im- 
ported for King's 
Island. 



Sill 



Visible I ir,.,..,^ 
Horison Keepew. 

in 

nautical 

miles. 



No. 



Anoxial 
Salaries. 



CkHtof 



13 



Barrenjuey, 
1881. 



38** 85' 8. 
16r20'5"E. 



2nd order diop- 
tric ; fixed red 
light, shewn be- 
tween SSE and 
NE through E. 



371ft. 



22 



£431 £\tm 



14 



Nobby's (New 
castle), 1858. 



32^ 65' 3" S. 
, 16r49'3"E. 



Catoptric; fixed 115ft. 
white light, with 
fixed red light 
over breakwater. I 



I 



12J 



£513 



£4,4§S 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. R. CARLRTON. 
AST OF NEW SOUTH WALES.— Continued. 



cxvn 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



Qaarters. 



and to floor of lantern, painted outside in 
and white stripes. Circular on plan, 10 feet 
meter, with wails of 2^ feet thickness at the 
U)m, tapering to 1^ feet thick at the top. 
Ided into 2 floors, the lower floor used as an 
store, an external flight of stone steps leading 
to the first floor, the inner staircase, from 
5 level to floor of lantern, being of iron. The 
rs are of wood ; the walls are built of sand- 
le, dressed both sides. The gallery round 
tern is of stone, with an iron railing. 



and for 2 assistant keepers, each containing 4 
rooms with kitchen, laundry, <fcc. The walls 
are of dressed, coursed, rubble stone, plastered 
inside. The roofs covered with gtdvanized 
corrugated iron. Verandahs are put to all 
principal fronts. One underground rain-water 
tank was provided, holding about 6000 gallons, 
also several 400 gallon iron tanks for the 
general use, but the water from the city mains 
has since been laid on. 



lated on Barrenjuey Head, Broken Bay. 
i tower is 39 feet high from the ground to 
lantern floor, i ircular on plan, 10 feet 
meter inside. The base externally is 
agonal to a height of 13 feet, above which the 
er is circular. It is divided into 3 stories, 
h iron floors and staircases. The walls are 
It of local sandstone, dressed on both sides, 
eet thick at the bottom, tapering to 2 feet 
:k at the top. The gallery round lantern is 
> of sandstone, supported on massive stone 
ti levers, and having a gun-metal railing. 
s oil room is 13 feet square, attached to the 
e of tower, both it and the tower being 
ered from a passage leading down by an 
n stairway to the head keeper's quai*ters. 



Quarters are provided for the head keeper in a 
detached house containing 5 rooms with 
kitchen in the basement, and storerooms, the 
quick slope of the ground making the building 
2 stories high on one side ; also for 2 assistant 
keepers in 2 semi-detached cottages, each 
containing 3 rooms, with kitchen, storerooms, 
etc. The walls are of dressed, coursed, rubble 
stonework, plastered inside. The roofs are 
covered with galvanised corrugated iron. 
Verandahs are put round aU the principal fronts. 
Undergroxmd rain-water tanks of 6,760 gallons 
capacity are provided to each house. 



uated on south side of entrance to Port 
nter. The tower is 13 feet high from ground 
loor of lantern. Circular on plan, lOf feet 
meter inside, in one storey, which is used as 
oil store, etc., a step ladder of wood giving 
ess to the lantern above The walls are 
It of dressed stone 2 feet thick at the base, 
ering off to 1 foot 5 inches thick at the top. 
e gallery round lantern is of wood, supported 
iron cantilevers. The floor of oil store and 
tern are also of wood. The stone walls are 
ried up 3 feet 9 inches above the lantern floor, 
1 upon this is set the iron framework, having 
tical and horizontal bars for glass. The 
nwork framing is duo-decagonal on plan, 
1 surmounted with a pointed roof, framed of 
n, and covered with copper. 



Quarters are provided for the head keeper in a 
detached cottage containing 5 rooms and kitchen, 
and for 2 assistant keepers in 2 semi-detached 
cottages, each containing 2 rooms and kitchen. 
The walls are of brickwork on stone foundations, 
plastered inside. The roofs are covered with 
galvanized corrugated iron. Verandahs are 
put to the principal fronts. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXVIII. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES 

PARTICULABS OF LIGHTHOUSES ON T^ 



No. 



Lighthotwe and 

Date of 
Cooitniotion. 



Latitude and 
LoDiptude. 



15 



I Point Stephens, 
1862. 



Description of 
LiRlit. 



^ 9JSM I 

nil' 



Visible 
Horiaon 

in 
nautical 

miles. 



Keepen. 



No. 



Annual 
Salaries. 



Coat of 
Ereoticm. 



32° 46' 2" S. 
162M3'3"E. 



3rd class catop- 
tric ; revolving 
red and white 
light, alternat- 
ing every min- 
ute, with a short 
eclipse between 
the colours. 



126 ft. 



124 



£410 



£7,400 



Nelson's Head 

(Port Stephens), 

1872. 



Catoptric; fixed 
white and red 
light, bright sea- 
ward, eclipsed 
over entrance 
shoal, red after 
shoal is passed, 
and bright to 
S.W. 



176 ft. 16i 



£134 



£2,837 



17 Sugarloaf Point I 32'' 26' 3" S. Ist order diop- 268 ft. 18 
(Seal Rocks), 162° 33' 7" E. trie ; holophotal, | 
1876. I 16 sided, revolv- 

ing bright light, | | 

flashing every ^ \ 
minute, and i 

having a 4th { | 

order dioptric | | 

fixed green light I 
lower in tower 

I as warning from 

I ; Seal Bocks. 

Cost of above in 
London, £3400 ; 
ditto of green i 
light, £80. 



£622 



£18,97$ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. R. CARLBTON. 
LST OF NEW SOUTH WALES.— Continued. 



CXIX. 



DESCRIPTION OP BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



tated on south side of entrance to Port 
)hens. The tower is 62 feet high from 
md to floor of lantern. Circular on plan, 
eet diameter inside, divided into 4 stories, 
floors and interval stairs are of iron. The 
ir floor is utilized as an oil store, the tower 
if being entered by a flight of stone steps, 
ling at 1st floor level. The walls are built 
sandstone imported from Sydney, dressed 
I sides. They are 6 feet thick at the ground 
, diminishing by a concave batter to 2 feet 
k at the top. The gallery round the lantern 
{ stone, guarded by an iron railing. The 
Is are carried up 4^ feet above the lantern 
r, and upon this is set the metal framework 
glass. 

tower is an octagonal structure, 11 feet 
rnal diameter, 1 storey in height, attached 
he keeper^s residence, and entered from the 
indah of same. The walls are built of brick 
ement, 14 inches thick, cemented outside and 
The room is vaulted with coke concrete 
ches thick, over which is the pointed timber 
: framing, covered with galvanized iron, and 
1 the copper ventilating cowl for lamps in 

centre. Present structure erected 1876, 
inally of wood. 

lated on Sugarloaf Point. The tower is 
feet high from ground to floor of lantern 
n. Circular on plan, 11 feet diameter inside, 
ded into 2 storeys. The lower floor is used 
\n oil store. A flight of external bluestone 
>8 with gim-metal railing leads from the 
imd to the first floor level, at which point the 
it tower is entered, a flight of iron stairs 
ling up to the lantern. The floor of the 
tern room is of iron. The 1st floor over oil 
•e is of concrete, it and the oil store being 
ed with asphalt. The walls are built of 
dstone, imported from Sydney, dressed both 
is. They are 2 feet 9 inches thick at the base, 
ering to 2 feet at the top. The outer gallery 
nd lantern is of bluestone, with gun-metal 
ing. A ring fence wall of stone, 4 feet high, 
h gate, is placed round the tower, leaving a 



Quarters. 



Quarters are provided for the head keeper and 
assistant keepers, in a terrace of 3 one storied 
cottages, the head keeper having 4 rooms, and 
the others 3 rooms each, all with kitchens, 
storerooms, &c. The walls are built of dressed 
Sydney stone, plastered inside. The roofs are 
covered with slates. A wide verandah is put all 
round the terrace. Two underground rain- 
water tanks, each of 7,650 galls, capacity, are 
provided, also a stable, and a boatshed with slip. 



Quarters are provided for 1 keeper in a one-storied 
cottage, containing 4 rooms, with kitchen, and 
with verandah on 3 sides. The walls are built 
of brickwork, cemented outside and plastered 
inside. The roof is covered with gtdvanized 
corrugated iron. An underground rain-water 
tank, of 6,000 galls, capacity, is provided. 
Erected in 1875. 



Quarters are provided for the head keeper in a 
detached cottage, containing 5 rooms with 
kitchen, storerooms, &c ; and for 2 assistant 
keepers in 2 semi-detached cottages, each 
containing 3 rooms, with kitchen, storerooms, 
<&c. The walls are of sandstone, imported from 
Sydney, dressed on the outside and plastered 
inside, on local stone rubble foundations. The 
roofs are covered with galvanized iron. Wide 
verandahs are put aU round the houses. 
Underground rain-water tanks are provided to 
each house, that for the head keeper containing 
6,750 galls., and the others 4,7^ galls, each. 
The sites for quarters have been excavated out 
of the hiUside, heavy retaining walls being 
erected at the back and sides of excavations, 
and to the pathway to lighthouse. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cxx. 



NEW SOUTH WALES LIGHTHOUSES. 



PARTICULARS OF LIGHTHOUSES OK THl 



No 



Lifcbthoase and 

Date of 
CoDBtructioD. 



Latitude and 
Longitude. 



Deecription of 
light. 



mil 



Visible 
Horizon 

in 
nautical 
milee. 



Keepers. 



No. 



18 



Sugarloaf Point 
— Contiuued 

Crowdy Head, 
1879. 



31** 61' 2" S. ,4th order cata- 

162' 46' E. 1 dioptric ; fixed 

I bright light, 

shewing Red 

1 over Mermaid 

i Reef, northward 

to the land. 

270" and 90° , 

reflector. | 



185 ft. 



16 



AnntXAl 
Salaries. 



Ooetof 
ErertioQ. 



£116 



£4,365. 

exclusive 

lantsn. 



19 



Tacking Point, 
1879 



20 Smoky Cape, 
1891. 



31" 28' 7" S. 4th order cata- 195 ft. 
1 52'' 57' 3" E . ' dioptric ; fixed 

I bright light. 

j 270' and 90° 

I reflector. 



30'' 55' 7" S. 
153'' 6' E. 



Ist order diop- 420 ft. 
trie; bright light, 
shews 3 flashes 
in 10 seconds, 
followed by 20 . 
seconds eclipse. 
A subsidiary red ' 
light is provided 
on the first floor 
of tower, to cover 
the Fish Rock 
danger, with 1 
mile clear in all | 
directions. | 



16 



23 



£126 



£427 



£4,000. 
exclusive 

of 
lantern. 



£12,400 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. R. CARLETON. 
iST OF NEW SOUTH "WALES.— Continued. 



OXXI. 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



Quarters. 



Quarters are provided for 1 keeper in a detached 
cottage, containing 4 rooms, with kitchen and 
store, &c.y and with back and front verandahs. 
The walls are built of brickwork, on local 
rubble stone foundations, the walls being 
cemented outside and plastered inside. The 
roof is covered with galvanized iron. An 
underground rain-water tank, of 6,000 galls, 
capacity, is provided. 



r space of 9 feet all round, paved with glazed 
ing bricks. 

lated on Crowdy Head, Manning River. ' 

tower is 12 feet high from the ground to 
r of lantern room. Circular on plan, 6 feet 
aeter inside, in 1 storey, with an internal 

staircase. The walls are built of brickwork < 
K>t 7 inches thick at the base, tapering to 
K)t 2 inches thick at the top. The outer 
ery round lantern is of bluestone, supported 
)luestone corbels, and with an iron railing. 
1 floor of lantern room is of iron. The tower 
ids on a bed of concrete, 2 feet 6 inches 
k, forming floor and foundations. Annexed 
he tower is an enclosed porch, and 2 rooms, 
ting an oil store, and the other a room for 

keeper when on duty ; all built of brick, 
'ed with galvanized iron, the rooms having 
rded floors, and the porch a concrete floor. 

walls are cemented outside and plastered 
de. 

lated on Tacking Point, Port Macquarie. Precisely similar quarters to those provided at 

istruction precisely similar to that at Crowdy Crowdy Head. 

kd. 



lated on Smoky Cape, Trial Bay. The tower 
2 feet high from ground to floor of lantern 
n, 12 feet diameter inside, and octagonal 
}ide, divided into 2 stories, with iron floors 
staircases. The walls are built of mass 
Crete, cemented inside and out, 3J feet thick 
he base, tapering to 2J feet thick at the top. 
) gallery round lantern is of granite, sup- 
ted on moulded granite cantilevers, and 
ing a gun-metal railing. The tower is 
ured from an enclosed passage 4^ feet wide, 
a which also 2 storerooms are entered, each 
feet X 10 feet The walls of which are also 
t of mass concrete. A screen wall of 
:rete, 4 feet high, is built all round the 
sr, at a distance of 74 feet from same, the 
ye thus enclosed, also the floors of store- 
ns, being paved with concrete, and cemented. 



Quarters are provided for the head keeper in a 
detached cottage, containing 4 rooms, with 
kitchen and stores, also a room for visiting 
officers; and quarters for 2 assistant keepers 
2 semi-detached cottages, each containing 4 
rooms, with kitchen and stores. The walls are 
built of mass concrete, cemented outside and 
plastered inside. The roofs are covered with 
galvanized iron. Verandahs, 8 feet wide, are 
put all round the buildings, roofed with 
galvanized iron, and paved with concrete. 
Cemented underground rain-water tanks, of 
6,000 galls, capacity, are provided to each 
house. A stall stable, with cart shed and forage 
room, are also provided. Extensive excavation 
and stone retaining walls were necessary in 
preparing the sites for these buildings. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXXIL 



NEW SOUTH WALES UOHTH0U8B8. 

PARTICULARS OF LIGHTHOUSES ON TH^ 



No. 



21 



Uffhthoute and 

Date of 
Conrtruction. 



Smoky Cape — 
Continued 



South Solitary 

Island, 

1880. 



Latitude and 
Longitude. 



Description of 
Light. 



•Sg'&'Sl Vlrible 
'•*»^M fl^ Horizon 

naatical 
mUea. 



Keepora 



Goat of 



No. 



30** 11' 8" S. 
153" 17' 3" E. 



I 



Ist order holo- 
photal, 8 sided 
dioptric ; revolv- 
ing bright light, 
with eclipses 
every 4 minute. 



192 ft. 



16 



Annoal 
Salaries. 



£373 £31,259 



22 



I 



Clarence Heads, 
1866. 



29° 26' 5" S. 
153" 23' 2" E. 



23 Richmond Heads, 28" 51' 5" S. 
I 1866. , 153" 35' 9" E. 



4th order cata- 
dioptric, fixed 

i bright light. 

: 270" and 90" re- 
flector. 



4th order cata- 
dioptric, fixed 
bright light. 
270" and 90" re- 
flector. 



35 ft. 



6f Pilot £106 £1,097 



116 ft. 12i 



24 Fingal Head, 28" 11' 2" S. 4th order cata- I 80 ft. 
I 1872. ; 153" 35' 5" E. dioptric, fixed I 

bright light, ob- 
scured by Cook 
Island between 
N.E. iE. and 
E.N.E.;270"and 
90" reflector. 



16J 



£106 



£106 



£4,112 



£4,357 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H. B. CARLETON. 
!IST OF NEW SOUTH WALES.— Ck}nHtived, 



CXXIII. 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS. 



Tower. 



Quarten. 



} roofs of storerooms are covered with 
ranized iron. 



lated on the summit of the island. The 
ver is 40 feet high from ground to floor of 
tern room. Circular on plan, 11 feet 
meter inside, divided into 3 stories, with 
1 floors and staircases. The walls are built 
mass concrete, 4^ feet thick at the base, 
ering to 2^ feet thick at the top, cemented 
ide and out. The gallery round lantern is of 
estone, supported on a massive oversailing 
aided concrete cornice, and furnished with a 
i-metal railing. The tower is entered from 
enclosed passage 5J feet wide, with 2 store - 
ms opening from same, one being 20ft x 13 ft., 
I the other J Oft. by 6 ft , the walls of which 
also built of mass concrete, the roof being 
ered with galvanized iron. A screen wall of 
icrete, 4 feet high, surrounds the tower at a 
tance of 9 feet from same, the space thus 
losed, also the floors of storerooms, (fee, are 
red with concrete. 



Quarters are provided for the head keeper in a 
detached cottage containing 4 rooms, with 
kitchen and stores, also a room for visiting 
officers ; and quarters for 2 assistant keepers in 
2 semi-detached cottages, each containing 8 
rooms, with kitchen and stores. The walls are 
built of mass concrete, cemented outside and 
plastered inside. The roofs are covered with 
galvanized iron. Verandahs 7 feet wide are 
put all round the buildings, roofed with 
galvanized iron, and paved with concrete 
cemented. Underground rain-water tanks of 
6,000 gallons capacity are provided to each 
house. A skeleton wharf, with tramway, 
travelling crane, and storeroom, are provided at 
the landing place. 



uated on South Head, Clarence Biver. 
istruction and design precisely similar to 
-t at Crowdy Head. 



No special quarters provided. 



uated on North Head, Richmond Biver. 
Qstruction and design precisely similar to 
bt at Crowdy Head. 



Quarters are provided for 1 keeper. Precisely 
similar in design and construction to that at 
Crowdy Head. 



uated on Fingal Head, Tweed Biver. Con- 
action and design precisely similar to that 
Crowdy Head. 



Quarters are provided for 1 keeper. Precisely 
similar in design and construction to that at 
Crowdy Head. 



NOTE.— Nos. 1, 3, 4, 11, IS, 10, 17, IS, 19. 21, 22, 28 and 24, were constructed by Mr. Barnet, Oolonial Arcni- 
fc. Noe. 2, 6, 12, 14 and 15, were constructea by Mr. Dawson, Colonial Architect, h'o. 8 was constructed bv Mr. 
triarty, Engineer in Chief for Harbount and Rivers. No. 10 wsa constructed by prison labour, under direction of 
Otain J. Gill, Bnfdneer, and F. H. Oreenaway, Civil Architect. No. 20 was oommeuced by Mr. Barnet, Colonial 
3hitect, and completed by Mr. Darley. Engineer in Chief for Public Worlcs. No. 6 is being constructed by Mr. 
riey. Engineer in Chief for Public Workn. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Appendix II, 



STATEMENT SHOWING WHERE WRECKS OCCURBED 
NORTH COAST. 





Year. 


s 

1 


1 


a 

s 

ffl* 


1 

X 
X 


1 
§ 


X 

i 


i 


^ 


33 


2 

u 

1 


I 

i 


i 

s 


1 


T 

s 


1 


i 

s 

c 

V 

1 


> 
s 
1 

1 


6 

t 

SB 

1 


• 




1 
1 

1 

1 

i 


■ e 


!i 


Year. 


PUce. 


6|i 


S s 


V 

3 




Outer S'th H'd, Syd. 


1807 
1808 
1813 
1814 
1828 
1829 
1833 
1834 
1885 
1836 
1839 
1854 
1867 

1862 
1863 
1864 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 

1873 
1874 
1875 

1876 

1877 
1878 

1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 

1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 

1891 

1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 






















... 




... 






... 


- — i 


1813 


... 




•• 




... 


• 






. 


1 ...j .. 




























1868 


Inner S'th H'd. Svd. 


... 




... 


... 

i 


... 


1 
1 

i' 

1 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 

i 

1 

1 

i 
1 




... 


... 


1 


i 

1 

3 

1 


1 


i 

1 




... 


... 


i 

3 

■• 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 

1 

i 

2 

1 

2 
17 


... 

1 

... 

I 
1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

'• 
1 

i 

i 

* 
11 


1 

. 

1 


i 

i 
1 

*i 

1 

1 

1 
1 

i 

9 


- 


.7 T 
1 ... .- 


1858Nobby8, NewcasUe 
1860 Cape St. George, 

JervisBay 

1862 Port Stephens 


1 
1 

2 

1 

I 

i 

1 
1 

i 

10 






i ..'.'. 


1872;Pier h'd, WoUongong 

1873lpier, UUadalla, since 

removed to Warden 

Head 


i 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

• 
2 

i 

1 

1 
1 

13 


1 

1 

i 

4 

1 

i 

1 

10 


1 
1 

2 
2 

1 

1 
2 

1 
2 
1 

3 

1 
1 

i 

2 

i 

24 


i' 

1 
i' 


2 p.. .. 

1 3 

i'lC 2 

: "i : : 

1 ; 
1 
1 










1 |4 . 




1 
1 

1 
1 


1 
i 








2 1 2 


1876 Sugarloaf Pt, (Seal 
Rocks) 

1876 Nelson Head (Port 
Stephens) 


2 




4 

1 
1 

i 

1 

i 

i 
11 


3 
5 

1 

1 
1 

4 

1 

1 
2 

2 

34 


2 1 . 


1879Fingal Head (near 

Tweed River) 
1879 Richmond River . . . 


1 


i 

2 


2 
2 

4 


1 

• • 
3 

1 

2 

8 


3 ... e 
1 


1879 Clarence River 
1879 Tackmg Poitat 

1879 Crowdy Head 

1880 South Solitary Island 
1880Baranjuey (Broken 

' Bay) 

1880,MontiEigu Island ... 
1880 Twofold Bay .. . 
1882,Shoalhaven River ... 

1883 Green Cape 

1886Kiama 

1889 Warden Head, UUa- 

dullft . . 


i 


•• 


3 

1 

5 


1 [ . 

' "." 1 
. .. 1 
1 1 

1 .; 

2 


1891 


Smoky Cape (neai 
Trial Bay) 


1 

8 


5 


i 

6 


.. : . 1 

1 1 .. 

2 . 1 
1 . 

"i" . 


Totals ., 




3 


16 


373 


li 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ON THE COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

SOUTH COAST. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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^t*t*t*I>t*t*XX 

xxxxxxxxx 



S.HO« CO-**© 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TI8TING MAOHINB FOB EQUAL ALTBR1IA1150 8TBB88B8. CXZIX. 

A TESTING MAOHINB FOU, EQUAL ALTERNATING 
• STRESSES. 

By Prof. W. H. Wabbbn, m. im. a«., wh. sc. 



\Readhrfore the Bitgineering Section of the Royal Soeietf ef N, 8. Walee, 
December St. 1898,'[ 



Thu machine was designed and oonstnioted in the Engineering 
School of the University for the purpose of subjecting test 
specimens to equal alternating stresses, and thus determining the 
vibrating strength of the material* 



b\Q, L 



As will be seen from the diagram (Fig. 2), three specimens are 
tested at the same time ; and spare test pieces are kept in stock 
to replace those that are the first to fail, so that all the spindles 
may be maintained in continuous rotation. The three pedestals 
on one side of the base plate can be moved transversely, to 
allow of different lengths of^ test pieces being used. For example, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cxxx. 



PROF. W. H. WARRBN. 



hi « 

Z 5 

o !; 

< 



-H 



Ul 



< 
< 




SIDK KLCVATION 




Z 





i) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TB8TINO MACHINE FOB EQUAL ALTBBNATINO 8TBB88B8. CXXXI. 

it will be obeerved that in the illustration (Fig. 1) one of the test 
pieces is considerably shorter than the other two. The extreme 
lengths between the shoulders of the piece are 18 inches and 3 
inches respectively. The specimen to be tested is screwed at 
each end into the overhanging spindles, and these rotate in 
bearings supported on knife edges. In this way the bending 
moment is constant over the span from knife-edge to knife-edge, 
and the test piece in breaking will therefore select the plane of 
greatest weakness throughout its length. 

The machine will be used in the first place for determining the 
vibrating strength of materials, and the effect of alternating stress 
upon the position of the elastic limit. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(xxvii) 



INDEX. 



A PAas 

Acetylene lifrht zxxi. 

Add reagents for blue pi^^ment 
in corals etc. — Bnl^nc ... 262 

Caprylic acid 262 

Citric acid 268 

Ethylidene lactic acid 



Formic acid 


... 262 


GlycoUic acid ... 


... 262 


Heptoic add 


... 262 


Hydrochloric add... 


... 260 


Lactic add 


... 262 


Nitric add 


... 261 


Konylic add 


... 262 


Oldcadd 


... 262 




... 268 


Proprionic add ... 


... 262 


PropionitrU 


... 262 




... 261 


Tartaric acid 


... 268 


Addrees to Engineering Section i. 


Adelaide Water Supply 


... u. 


Aeronautics 


66, X. 


Agriculture, Department of 


... 28 


-^— Chemical Laboratory 


... 24 


Dairying 


... 26 


Entomology 


... 26 


Pathology 


... 27 


Vine culture 


... 25 


Alg«, brown 


.. XV. 




... 170 


Anniversary Address ... 


... 1 


Antarctic research 


... 89 


Antedonin 


... 266 



Aplysiopurpurin 266 

Armstrong, Dr. W. G., on Dis- 
infection of Dwelling^ in 
Notifiable Infectious Dis- 
eases... Ixv. 

Artesian Bores 80, xiv. 

Water in N.S.W.... 88, xi 

Artifidal silk ... xxxi. 

Auditors xli. 

Auditory ossicles, model demon- 
strating action of xix. 

Australian divisional systems 66, x. 

Museum 88 

Australasian Association for the 
Ad vancement of Sdence ... 42 



B PAas 

Baker« B. T.« f.l.8., and Smith, 
H. G., F.C.8., On the " Stringy- 
bark " trees of N. S. Wales, 
especially in regard tothdr 
essential oils ... 104, xiiL 

Barkunjee tribes ... 241, xlL 

Barradough, S. H.« u,u,m., Amoc 
x. inrt. aB.. and Warren, Prof. 

W. H., Wh. So.. M . IiMt C.B.. te.. 

On some phydcal properties 
of nickel steel ... 150, xix. 
Bastow, Richard A., Key to 
tribes and genera of Melan- 
oepermen (Olive-green sea- 
weeds) ... 169, XV., XXV. 
Bemier, Julien, Etude sur les 
dialectes de la Nouvelle- 

Cal6donie 178, xxv. 

Biology 40 

Blue coral ... 266, xxxi, xlii. 
pigment in animal organ- 
isms 259 

Books purchased in 1898 ...IviiL 

Botanic C^ardens 88 

Boultbee, J. W., On artesian 
water in N.S. Wales 88, xL 

Bridges in N. S. Wales xi. 

" Brown Stringybark " 105, 106 
Building and Investment Fund iv. 
Burge, C. O., m. in«t cb.. The nar- 
row gauge as applied to 
Branch Bailways in New 
South Wales ... xxii. 

O 

Carleton, H. B., m.a.i.. m. lut aa.. 
New South Wales Light- 
houses Lxxxn. 



Chemistry 

Circumcision 

City Railway 

Clarke Medal, awards ... 

Memorial Fund ... 

Conversazione 14 Jan., 1898 
Copper nug^ts, sections of 
Coral, blue pigment in 266, xxxi., xlii. 

rock cores, from Funafuti xxxi. 

Current observations on Cana- 
dian-Australian route 120, xiv 



... 31 
... 245 
... 18 
(xxiv.) 

V. 

... 11 
xxi. 



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r 



(xxviii) 



Current papers 280, 

CTanide Process in K. S. Wales xiii. 



Deep water wharf ... lxiv. 
Deane, Henry, m-a.. m . in^. c.b.. 

Anniversary Address ... 1 
Dialeotes de la Nonvelle-Cal^- 

donie 178, xxv. 

Disinfection of dwellings ... Ixv, 
Divisions of native tribes, Bar- 

kiinjee, N. 8. Wales 241, x., xli. 

North Queensland . 260 

Donations xi., xvi.,xxiii., xxvii., 

xxxii., xxxviii., xliv. 
Doris 266 

B 

• Edible earth ' of Fiji ... xliv. 

Electric Tramways ix. 

Emn egg shell 268 

Engineering Section, Committee vi. 

meetings in 1897 10 

procee<Ungs ... ... Ixi. 

conslmction in connection 

with rainfall ,.. xxxiu. 

Essential oils of the N. S. Wales 
•♦ Stringybark " trees 104, xiii 

Eucalyptene 207 

Eucalyptus amygdaUna 195 

Bailey ana, F.vM 104 

Bridgesiana 200 

capiteUata, Sm. 104 - 107, 

112. 114, 115 

coriaeea 196 

dextropinea... 197, 199, 201. 205 

eugenioides, Sieb 104. 106 

-108, 113-115 

fastigata, Deane & Maiden 104 

globulus 198-200 

goniocalyte 200 

IcBVopinea ... 196-198,202 

macrorhyncha, F.v.M. 104 

-108, 110. Ill, 114-117. 198 

ohliqua, L'Her. ... 104, 198 

oil, anew xxvi. 

mperita. Link., 104, 116. 

196, 198 
punctata, DC. 105, 107, 108. 

111,117 

triantha. Link 104 

Eudesmene 207 

Eudeemol 116 

Exchanges H 



PA0B 

F 

Fiaschi, Dr., Notes on two cases 
of amputation of the Kectum 
for Extreme Prolapsus ... Ixv. 

Financial Position ll.iiL 

Fiji 'edible-earth' xliv. 

Formic Aldehyde Gas as a dis- 
infectant lxiv. 

Funafuti coral boring expedition 86 



Galena, artificial xli. 

Geological Survey of N.S.W... 28 

"Grey gum" 106 

Group divisions of the Barkunjee 
tribes 241. xlL 



Harbours and Bivers Branch... 14 
Hargrave, L.. on Aeronautics 55. x. 

on Soaring Machines 209, xxxv. 

Haycroft, J. I., m. n-t. c. k i, *c. 
Engineering constrnction in 
connection with rainfall xxxiii. 

Hsemocyanin 267 

Ueliopofa ccsrulea 256, xxxi.. xiii 
Hepworth, Capt. M. W. Camp- 
bell. F. B. Met Boc. F.B.A jS.. B.M. 

S. "Aorangi/* on Current 
observations on the Cana- 
dian-Australian route 120. xir. 

High Carbon Bails 14 

Hormosira Banksia 170 

Houjfhton, T. H.. m. iiut c.a. 
Annual Address to the En- 
gineering Section i. 



lanthina 266 

Imperittl Institute, London ... ix. 

Indigo 267 

Infectious dispases and disinfec- 
tion of dwelling^ Ixv. 

Initiation ceremonies of the 

Barkunjee tribes ... 241 
Intercolonial Engineering works il 
Interdental splint ... .. Ixv. 
International Scientific Cata- 
logue ...xvii, 

K 

Euranda ceremony, the ... 248 

Ij 
Larmer. Mr. Surveyor, Native 
vocabulary of miscellaneous 
N. S. Wales objects 223. xxxt. 



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PAOB 

Lenoocytes .< Ixv. 

Library 11 

Lighthouses, N. S. Wales lxxxii. 

Liversidge, Professor, m .a., ll.d., 
r.B.s., on The blue pigment 
in coral (Heliopora ccmtUa) 
and other animal organisms 

256, zxxi., xlii. 

Native silver accompanying 

matte and artificial galena xli. 



M 



41 



rxiiii.) 
(xxiii.) 
...(xi:) 
... 27 



Madeay Bacteriologist 

Maori net sinkers xx. 

Mathews, B. H., l.s., on Austra- 
lian Divisional Systems 66, x. 

on The group divisions and 

initiation ceremonies of the 
Barkunjee tribes ... 241, xli. 

Medal, awards of the Clarke (xxiv.) 

Society's, and money prize 

(xxiv.) 

Medical Section, Committee ... ix. 

■ meetings in 1897 10 

procee<ungs Ixiv. 

MelanospermesB 169, xxv. 

Melbourne Sewerage Works iii. 

Members, Corresponding (xxiii.) 

Honorary... 

Obituary 1898 

Ordinary ... 

Mining notes for 1897 . 

Monier system of combined con- 
crete and steel construction 16 

Myriodeftna querc\folia ... 170, 172 

• N 
Narrow gauge as applied to 

Branch Railways in N.S. W. xxii. 
Native names of runs in the 

Lachlan District xxi. 

silver accompanying matte 

and artificial galena ... xli. 
Native vocabulary ... 223, xxxv. 

Net sinkers of barytes xx. 

New Colony Map ... 37 
Hebrides, communication 

with 41 

South Wales Lighthouses 

LXXXII. 

Nickel steel 150, xix 

Nouvelle-Cal6donie, dialectes de 
la 173, xxv. 

O 
Obituary 1897 ••• — ... 5 



PAOB 

Obituary 1898 (xxiii.) 

Observatory Sydney 88 

Mount Kosciusko 88 

Ocean currents ... 286 - 240, xxxi. 
Oils (essential) of the " Stringy. 

bark" trees 104, xiii. 

of the genus Eucalyptus 195 

Original Besearches 11 



PapBrs read in 1887 8 

Periodicals purchased in 1898 Ivii. 
Phormosoma hoploeaniha 86 

Physical properties of nickel 

steel 150, xix. 

Physikalisch G^esellschaft E&- 

nigsberg i. Pr. Prize xviii. 

Pinenes of the oils of the genus 

Eucalyptus 195, xxix. 

Proceedings of the Engineering 

Section bri. 

Medical Section Ixiv. 

Society iii. 

Purification of Sewerage ... 16 

Purple pentacrinin 265 

Purpura eapUlus 266 

Pyocyanin 267 



Bailway Commissioner's Dept. 12 

Narrow Oauge ... xxii. 

Bainfall in connection with 

Engineering construction xxxiii. 
Reception July 14th, 1897 ... 10 

"BedStringybark" 105 

Boad Bridges 15 

Bules alterations to ... vi., vii., x. 
Bussell, H. C, B. A., C.M.O., r.B.s., 

Current Papers, No. 8 280. xxxi. 
on Waterppouts on the 

coast of N. S. Wales 132, xviii. 
P. N., Scholarship ... 40 

S 
Seaweeds, olive-green 169, xv., xxv. 
Section, Engineering, meetings 

in 1897 10 

Medical, meetings in 1897 10 

Selfe, Norman, m. luat c. s.. etc.. 
Some notes on a wharf re- 
cently built in deep water 
at Dawes Point, Sydney, 
New South Wales ... Lxrv. 
Sewerage, purification of ... 16 
of Sydney, low level ... 18 



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(XXX.) 



Silver nuggeto, seotioiisol ... 

Smith, Henry G., r.o.s., on The 

Pinenee of the Qila of the 

genus Enoaljptns, Pftit 1 

196,1 

and Baker, R. T., i-.L-s., 

on The Stringybark trees of 
N. 8. Wales, especially in 
regard to tiieir Essential 

Soaring machines 
Stalactites 
Stalagmites 
StmUor C€gn»l0u$ ... 
Stormwater drainage 
"Stringybark" trees 

South Wales 
Stnart, Prof. Anderson, 

Model demonstrai 



of 



action of 

ossicles 
Sydney City Railway 
— Sewerage ... 



1<H» xiii. 

209, xxxy. 

...xxi. 

...xxi. 

... 266 

Lvn. 

New 

104, xiii. 

M.D., 

the 

r 

, xix. 

V. 
. VII. 



T 
Tablet on Inscription Point, 

Botany Bay xv. 

Technical College 89 

Training 48 

Telegraphs and Telephones ... 19 



PAOB 

Terebinthene ... 199 

Testing machine for eqnal altsr- 

nating stresses ... cvin. 
' Thetis 'TrawlinffCraise ... 88 
Threlfall, Prof., xMpartareof xxxvL 

Notes on matters connected 

with Engineering in Eng- 
land IxiiL 

Tomba (the) ceremony ... 247 
Tnradn 267 



Vocabulary, native ... 228, xxxv. 
Valuta mamiUa 86 

W 
Warren, Prof. W. H., wh. soi, m. 
Inst C.B.. on A testing wi^tii«f> 
for equal alternating atiosuos 

GVIIL. 

and Barradough, S. H., 

M.M.&. Aaoe. M. Inst. CI.. OU SomO 

physical properties of nickel 
steel 160, xix. 

Waste products, utilisation of xvni. 

Water Conservation in N.aW. SO 

Water-spouts on the coast of 
New South Wales ... 182, xviii. 

Wharf in deep water ... lxiv. 

" White Stringybark "... 105, 106 



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F. W. Whitb, PmnrTiB, 89 Maskit Stbiit. 
1890. 



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3 2044 106 281 173 



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